Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas, behind São Paulo and Mexico City. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by the Indians as Limaq, name that acquired over time, it became most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World; the National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Nowadays the city is considered as the political, cultural and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a "beta" city. Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002. In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games, it hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe 1982 contest. According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants; however before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq. This oracle was destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of "lime", the citrus fruit; the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name fell into disuse and Lima became the city's name of choice; the river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River". However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas; this name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. As the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed.
Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They assume that the valley is named after the river; the Flag of Lima has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City". It is embroidered in the center is its coat of arms. Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on 18 January 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President Alan García, other authorities; the anthem was created by Euding Maeshiro and record producer Ricardo Núñez. In the pre-Columbian era, what is now Lima was inhabited by indigenous groups under the Ychsma policy, incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532 a group of Spanish conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire; as the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes.
In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by Manco Inca Yupanqui besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies. Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. During the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings. In 1746, another p
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. Like zinc, it demonstrates oxidation state +2 in most of its compounds, like mercury, it has a lower melting point than the transition metals in groups 3 through 11. Cadmium and its congeners in group 12 are not considered transition metals, in that they do not have filled d or f electron shells in the elemental or common oxidation states; the average concentration of cadmium in Earth's crust is between 0.5 parts per million. It was discovered in 1817 by Stromeyer and Hermann, both in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate. Cadmium is a byproduct of zinc production. Cadmium was used for a long time as a corrosion-resistant plating on steel, cadmium compounds are used as red and yellow pigments, to color glass, to stabilize plastic. Cadmium use is decreasing because it is toxic and nickel-cadmium batteries have been replaced with nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries.
One of its few new uses is cadmium telluride solar panels. Although cadmium has no known biological function in higher organisms, a cadmium-dependent carbonic anhydrase has been found in marine diatoms. Cadmium is a soft, ductile, bluish-white divalent metal, it forms complex compounds. Unlike most other metals, cadmium is resistant to corrosion and is used as a protective plate on other metals; as a bulk metal, cadmium is not flammable. Although cadmium has an oxidation state of +2, it exists in the +1 state. Cadmium and its congeners are not always considered transition metals, in that they do not have filled d or f electron shells in the elemental or common oxidation states. Cadmium burns in air to form brown amorphous cadmium oxide. Hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid dissolve cadmium by forming cadmium chloride, cadmium sulfate, or cadmium nitrate; the oxidation state +1 can be produced by dissolving cadmium in a mixture of cadmium chloride and aluminium chloride, forming the Cd22+ cation, similar to the Hg22+ cation in mercury chloride.
Cd + CdCl2 + 2 AlCl3 → Cd22The structures of many cadmium complexes with nucleobases, amino acids, vitamins have been determined. Occurring cadmium is composed of 8 isotopes. Two of them are radioactive, three are expected to decay but have not done so under laboratory conditions; the two natural radioactive isotopes are 116Cd. The other three are 106Cd, 108Cd, 114Cd. At least three isotopes – 110Cd, 111Cd, 112Cd – are stable. Among the isotopes that do not occur the most long-lived are 109Cd with a half-life of 462.6 days, 115Cd with a half-life of 53.46 hours. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than 2.5 hours, the majority have half-lives of less than 5 minutes. Cadmium has 8 known meta states, with the most stable being 113mCd, 115mCd, 117mCd; the known isotopes of cadmium range in atomic mass from 94.950 u to 131.946 u. For isotopes lighter than 112 u, the primary decay mode is electron capture and the dominant decay product is element 47. Heavier isotopes decay through beta emission producing element 49.
One isotope of cadmium, 113Cd, absorbs neutrons with high selectivity: With high probability, neutrons with energy below the cadmium cut-off will be absorbed. The cadmium cut-off is about 0.5 eV, neutrons below that level are deemed slow neutrons, distinct from intermediate and fast neutrons. Cadmium is created via the s-process in low- to medium-mass stars with masses of 0.6 to 10 solar masses, over thousands of years. In that process, a silver atom captures a neutron and undergoes beta decay. Cadmium was discovered in 1817 by Friedrich Stromeyer and Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann, both in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate. Stromeyer found the new element as an impurity in zinc carbonate, for 100 years, Germany remained the only important producer of the metal; the metal was named after the Latin word for calamine. Stromeyer noted that some impure samples of calamine changed color when heated but pure calamine did not, he was persistent in studying these results and isolated cadmium metal by roasting and reducing the sulfide.
The potential for cadmium yellow as pigment was recognized in the 1840s, but the lack of cadmium limited this application. Though cadmium and its compounds are toxic in certain forms and concentrations, the British Pharmaceutical Codex from 1907 states that cadmium iodide was used as a medication to treat "enlarged joints, scrofulous glands, chilblains". In 1907, the International Astronomical Union defined the international ångström in terms of a red cadmium spectral line. This
Ticlio is a mountain pass and the highest point of the central road of Peru, in the Andes mountains, reaching a height of 4,818 metres. It used to be a railway crossing loop on the Ferrocarril Central Andino in Peru whose main claim to fame was being the highest railway junction in the world; the railway now crosses the pass through a nearby tunnel at a lower elevation which enters a different valley than the highway on the eastern side of the pass. It lies at km 171 just on the Pacific side of the Andes watershed; the 1,435 mm standard gauge line through the Ticlio station was opened in 1893 and from 1921 it was the junction for the now-closed branch to Morococha. The railway is an active freight line but there are now no regular passenger services on the FCCA. On the railway approach to Ticlio from the direction of Lima eight tunnels were necessary in a stretch of less than two miles. Antikuna Qinghai–Tibet Railway Waqraqucha List of highest railway stations in the world http://mikes.railhistory.railfan.net/r022.html Marshall, John.
The Guinness Railway Book. Enfield: Guinness Books. ISBN 0-8511-2359-7. OCLC 24175552
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83. It is a pentavalent post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens with chemical properties resembling its lighter homologs arsenic and antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores; the free element is 86% as dense as lead. It is a brittle metal with a silvery white color when freshly produced, but surface oxidation can give it a pink tinge. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic element, has one of the lowest values of thermal conductivity among metals. Bismuth was long considered the element with the highest atomic mass, stable, but in 2003 it was discovered to be weakly radioactive: its only primordial isotope, bismuth-209, decays via alpha decay with a half-life more than a billion times the estimated age of the universe; because of its tremendously long half-life, bismuth may still be considered stable for all purposes. Bismuth metal has been known since ancient times, although it was confused with lead and tin, which share some physical properties.
The etymology is uncertain, but comes from Arabic bi ismid, meaning having the properties of antimony or the German words weiße Masse or Wismuth, translated in the mid-sixteenth century to New Latin bisemutum. Bismuth compounds account for about half the production of bismuth, they are used in cosmetics, a few pharmaceuticals, notably bismuth subsalicylate, used to treat diarrhea. Bismuth's unusual propensity to expand as it solidifies is responsible for some of its uses, such as in casting of printing type. Bismuth has unusually low toxicity for a heavy metal; as the toxicity of lead has become more apparent in recent years, there is an increasing use of bismuth alloys as a replacement for lead. The name bismuth dates from around the 1660s, is of uncertain etymology, it is one of the first 10 metals to have been discovered. Bismuth appears in the 1660s, from obsolete German Bismuth, Wissmuth; the New Latin bisemutum is from the German Wismuth from weiße Masse, "white mass". The element was confused in early times with tin and lead because of its resemblance to those elements.
Bismuth has been known since ancient times, so no one person is credited with its discovery. Agricola, in De Natura Fossilium states that bismuth is a distinct metal in a family of metals including tin and lead; this was based on observation of their physical properties. Miners in the age of alchemy gave bismuth the name tectum argenti, or "silver being made," in the sense of silver still in the process of being formed within the Earth. Beginning with Johann Heinrich Pott in 1738, Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman, the distinctness of lead and bismuth became clear, Claude François Geoffroy demonstrated in 1753 that this metal is distinct from lead and tin. Bismuth was known to the Incas and used in a special bronze alloy for knives. Bismuth is a brittle metal with a white, silver-pink hue with an iridescent oxide tarnish showing many colors from yellow to blue; the spiral, stair-stepped structure of bismuth crystals is the result of a higher growth rate around the outside edges than on the inside edges.
The variations in the thickness of the oxide layer that forms on the surface of the crystal cause different wavelengths of light to interfere upon reflection, thus displaying a rainbow of colors. When burned in oxygen, bismuth burns with a blue flame and its oxide forms yellow fumes, its toxicity is much lower than that of its neighbors in the periodic table, such as lead and polonium. No other metal is verified to be more diamagnetic than bismuth. Of any metal, it has one of the lowest values of thermal conductivity and the highest Hall coefficient, it has a high electrical resistivity. When deposited in sufficiently thin layers on a substrate, bismuth is a semiconductor, despite being a post-transition metal. Elemental bismuth is denser in the liquid phase than the solid, a characteristic it shares with germanium, silicon and water. Bismuth expands 3.32% on solidification. Though unseen in nature, high-purity bismuth can form distinctive, colorful hopper crystals, it is nontoxic and has a low melting point just above 271 °C, so crystals may be grown using a household stove, although the resulting crystals will tend to be lower quality than lab-grown crystals.
At ambient conditions bismuth shares the same layered structure as the metallic forms of arsenic and antimony, crystallizing in the rhombohedral lattice, classed into trigonal or hexagonal crystal systems. When compressed at room temperature, this Bi-I structure changes first to the monoclinic Bi-II at 2.55 GPa to the tetragonal Bi-III at 2.7 GPa, to the body-centered cubic Bi-IV at 7.7 GPa. The corresponding transitions can be monitored via changes in electrical conductivity. Bismuth is stable to both moist air at ordinary temperatures; when red-hot, it reacts with water to make bismuth oxide. 2 Bi + 3 H2O → Bi2O3 + 3 H2It reacts with fluorine to
Simón José Antonio de la cruz Santa maria Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco known as Simón Bolívar and colloquially as El Libertador, or the Liberator, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who led the secession of what are the states of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Panama from the Spanish Empire. Bolívar was born into a wealthy, aristocratic Criollo family and, as was common for the heirs of upper-class families in his day, was sent to be educated abroad at a young age, arriving in Spain when he was 16 and moving to France. While in Europe, he was introduced to the ideas of the Enlightenment, which motivated him to overthrow the reigning Spanish in colonial South America. Taking advantage of the disorder in Spain prompted by the Peninsular War, Bolívar began his campaign for independence in 1808; the campaign for the independence of New Granada was consolidated with the victory at the Battle of Boyacá on 7 August 1819. He established an organized national congress within three years.
Despite a number of hindrances, including the arrival of an unprecedentedly large Spanish expeditionary force, the revolutionaries prevailed, culminating in the patriot victory at the Battle of Carabobo in 1821, which made Venezuela an independent country. Following this triumph over the Spanish monarchy, Bolívar participated in the foundation of the first union of independent nations in Latin America, Gran Colombia, of which he was president from 1819 to 1830. Through further military campaigns, he ousted Spanish rulers from Ecuador and Bolivia, the last of, named after him, he was president of Gran Colombia and Bolivia, but soon after his second-in-command, Antonio José de Sucre, was appointed president of Bolivia. Bolívar aimed at a strong and united Spanish America able to cope not only with the threats emanating from Spain and the European Holy Alliance but with the emerging power of the United States. At the peak of his power, Bolívar ruled over a vast territory from the Argentine border to the Caribbean Sea.
Bolívar fought 472 battles of which 79 were important ones, during his campaigns rode on horseback 123,000 kilometers, 10 times more than Hannibal, three times more than Napoleon, twice as much as Alexander the Great. Bolívar is viewed as a national icon in much of modern South America, is considered one of the great heroes of the Hispanic independence movements of the early 19th century, along with José de San Martín, Francisco de Miranda and others. Towards the end of his life, Bolívar despaired of the situation in his native region, with the famous quote "all who served the revolution have plowed the sea". In an address to the Constituent Congress of the Republic of Colombia, Bolívar stated "Fellow citizens! I blush to say this: Independence is the only benefit we have acquired, to the detriment of all the rest." The surname Bolívar originated with aristocrats from La Puebla de Bolívar, a small village in the Basque Country of Spain. Bolívar's father came from the female line of the Ardanza family.
His maternal grandmother was descended from families from the Canary Islands. The Bolívars settled in Venezuela in the 16th century. Bolívar's first South American ancestor was Simón de Bolívar, who lived and worked in Santo Domingo from 1559 to 1560 and where his son Simón de Bolívar y Castro was born; when the governor was reassigned to Venezuela by the Spanish Crown in 1569, Simón de Bolívar went with him. As an early settler in Spain's Venezuela Province, he became prominent in the local society, he and his descendants were granted estates and positions in the local cabildo; when Caracas Cathedral was built in 1569, the Bolívar family had one of the first dedicated side chapels. The majority of the wealth of Simón de Bolívar's descendants came from the estates; the most important was a sugar plantation with an encomienda that provided the labor needed to run the estate. Another portion of the Bolívars' wealth came from silver and copper mines. Small gold deposits were first mined in Venezuela in 1669, leading to the discovery of much more extensive copper deposits.
From his mother's side, Bolívar inherited the Aroa copper mines at Cocorote. Native American and African slaves provided the majority of the labor in these mines. Toward the end of the 17th century, copper mining became so prominent in Venezuela that the metal became known as cobre Caracas. Many of the mines became the property of the Bolívar family. Bolívar's grandfather, Juan de Bolívar y Martínez de Villegas, paid 22,000 ducats to the monastery at Santa Maria de Montserrat in 1728 for a title of nobility, granted by King Philip V of Spain for its maintenance; the crown never issued the patent of nobility, so the purchase became the subject of lawsuits that were still in progress during Bolívar's lifetime, when independence from Spain made the point moot. Bolívar devoted his personal fortune to the revolution. Having been one of the wealthiest persons within the Spanish American world at the beginning of the revolution, he died in poverty. Simón Bolívar was born in a house in Caracas, Captaincy General of Venezuela, on 24 July 1783.
He was baptized as Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Palacios. His mother was María de la Concepción Palacios y Blanco, and
Peruvian War of Independence
The Peruvian War of Independence was composed of a series of military conflicts in Peru beginning with viceroy Abascal military reconquest in 1811 in the battle of Guaqui, continuing with the definitive defeat of the Spanish Army in 1824 in the battle of Ayacucho, culminating in 1826 with the Siege of Callao. The wars of independence took place with the background of the 1780–1781 uprising by indigenous leader Túpac Amaru II and the earlier removal of Upper Peru and the Río de la Plata regions from the Viceroyalty of Peru; because of this the viceroy had the support of the "Lima oligarchy," who saw their elite interests threatened by popular rebellion and were opposed to the new commercial class in Buenos Aires. During the first decade 1800s Peru had been a stronghold for royalists, who fought those in favor of independence in Peru, Bolivia and Chile. Among the most important events during the war was the proclamation of independence of Peru by José de San Martín on 28 July 1821; the Peninsular War central authority in the Spanish Empire was lost and many regions established autonomous juntas.
The viceroy of Peru, José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa was instrumental in organizing armies to suppress uprisings in Upper Peru and defending the region from armies sent by the juntas of the Río de la Plata. After success of the royalist armies, Abascal annexed Upper Peru to the viceroyalty, which benefited the Lima merchants as trade from the silver-rich region was now directed to the Pacific; because of this, Peru remained royalist and participated in the political reforms implemented by the Cádiz Cortes, despite Abascal's resistance. Peru was represented at the first session of the Cortes by seven deputies and local cabildos became elected. Therefore, Peru became the second to last redoubt of the Spanish Monarchy in South America, after Upper Peru. Peru succumbed to patriot armies after the decisive continental campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar; some of the early Spanish conquistadors that explored Peru made the first attempts for independence from the Spanish crown. They tried to liberate themselves from the Viceroyalty.
Throughout the eighteenth century, there were several indigenous uprisings against colonial rule and their treatment by the colonial authorities. Some of these uprisings became true rebellions; the Bourbon Reforms increased the unease, the dissent had its outbreak in the Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II, repressed, but the root cause of the discontent of the indigenous people remained dormant. It is debated whether these movements should be considered as precedents of the emancipation, led by chiefs, Peruvian towns, other countries in the American continent; the independence of Peru was an important chapter in the Hispano-American wars of independence. The campaign of Sucre in Upper Peru concluded in April 1825, in November of the same year Mexico obtained the surrender of the Spanish bastion of San Juan de Ulúa in North America; the Spanish strongholds in Callao and Chiloé in South America fell in January 1826. Spain renounced all their continental American territories ten years in 1836 leaving little of its vast empire intact.
Despite the royalist tendencies of Peru, junta movements did emerge fomented by the approach of patriot armies from Buenos Aires. There were two short-lived uprisings in the southern city of Tacna in 1811 and 1813. One significant movement, led by Natives in Huánuco, began on 22 February 1812, it involved various leaders, including curacas and township magistrates, but was suppressed within a few weeks. More enduring was the rebellion of Cuzco from 1814 to 1815; the rebellion began in a confrontation between the Constitutional Cabildo and the Audiencia of Cuzco over the administration of the city. Cabildo officials and their allies were arrested by the Audiencia. Criollo leaders appealed to retired brigadier Mateo Pumacahua, curaca of Chinchero, decades earlier had been instrumental in suppressing the rebellion of Túpac Amaru II. Pumacahua joined the Criollo leaders in forming a junta on 3 August in Cuzco, which demanded the complete implementation of the liberal reforms of the Spanish Constitution of 1812.
After some victories in southern Peru and Upper Peru, the rebellion was squashed by mid-1815 when a combined strength of royal forces and loyal curacas, among which were the Catacora and Apo Cari took Cuzco and executed Pumacahua. After the squashing of the aforementioned rebellion, the Viceroy of Peru organised two expeditions. In 1814, the first expedition was successful in reconquering Chile after winning the Battle of Rancagua. In 1817 following the royalist defeat in the Battle of Chacabuco, the second expedition against the Chilean Patriots in 1818 was an attempt to restore the monarchy, it was successful in the Second Battle of Cancha Rayada, the expedition was defeated by José de San Martín in the Battle of Maipú. To begin the liberation of Peru and Chile signed a treaty on 5 February 1819 to prepare for the invasion. General José de San Martín believed that the liberation of Argentina wouldn't be secure until the royalist stronghold in Peru was defeated. Following the Battle of Maipú and the subsequent liberation of Chile, the patriots began the preparations for an amphibious assault force to liberate Peru.
The costs were to be assumed by both Chile and Argentina, however the Chilean government under Bernardo O'Higgins ended up assuming most of costs of the campaign. Nonetheless, it was determined that the land army was to