Blieskastel is a city in the Saarpfalz district, in Saarland, Germany, divided into villages, one of the largest being Wolfersheim. It is situated on the river Blies 10 kilometres southwest of Homburg, 8 km west of Zweibrücken, 20 km east of Saarbrücken. Blieskastel is the capital of the Bliesgau and is located in the center of the Bliesgau Biosphere Reserve; the city borders on the cities of Homburg, St. Ingbert, Zweibrücken and Hornbach, the municipalities of Gersheim and Mandelbachtal; the Blies flows by Blieskastel. The districts of Niederwürzbach and Alschbach are located in the Sankt Ingbert-Kirkeler forest area; the annual rainfall is in the upper third. 70% indicate low values. The driest month is April, it rains most in December. The city of Blieskastel consists of 14 districts. Alphabetically these are Altheim, Aßweiler, Bierbach an der Blies, Blickweiler, Böckweiler, Brenschelbach, Niederwürzbach, Pinningen and Wolfersheim. Blieskastel-Mitte is divided into the city center of Blieskastel and Lautzkirchen.
The district of Brenschelbach is divided into Brenschelbach, Brenschelbach-Bahnhof, Riesweiler. To the district of Wecklingen is part of Ballweiler, Seelbach of Niederwürzbach. Number of inhabitants as of 31 December 2017: The former castle of Blieskastel was the seat of the Counts of Blieskastel, whose line died out in 1237; the daughter of the last count, donated the monastery Gräfinthal in Gräfinthal in 1234. Castle and lordship came into possession of the Counts of Salm in 1284 of Bishop Burkhard of Metz, who relocated there from Finstingen. After 1337 Blieskastel belonged to the Electorate of Trier; the counts of Veldenz are counted among the officials of Trier. In 1440, the Elector of Trier, Jakob I, turned over half of the county and the "Hungericht" to the knight Friedrich von Loewenstein. In 1522 the castle was destroyed by Franz von Sickingen in his feud with the Elector of Trier. In 1553 the rule of Blieskastel was pledged to the counts of County of Nassau-Saarbrücken. In the Thirty Years' War Blieskastel was depopulated.
Around 1660, the imperial Freiherr von der Leyen, who had had possessions in Blieskastel since 1456, acquired the administration of Blieskastel from Trier and, in 1661–1676, built a new castle on the old site. In the 18th century under the Counts von der Leyen Blieskastel experienced a new flowering, as in 1773 they moved their residence from Koblenz to Blieskastel and built up Blieskastel as their seat. Under Countess Marianne von der Leyen, born Countess of Dalberg, a cultural center was established in Blieskastel. A period of brisk building activity followed; the palace was further expanded and on the Schlossberg there were a number of outstanding palaces and mansions for the court officials of the small court, including the so-called "Schlößchen", attributed to the Zweibrücken building director and architect Christian Ludwig Hautt. In addition, other master builders worked there, such as A. G. F. Guillemard, Matthias Weysser, Peter Reheis and the master carpenter Franz Schmitt. During this time the former Franciscan monastery church, the former orphanage and the government building were built.
With the French Revolution, the von der Leyen were expelled in 1793, their palace plundered and subsequently destroyed. The ruins were removed in 1802. In 1795 Blieskastel, like the entire left bank of the Rhine, came under French rule, in 1798 was the capital of the canton of Blieskastel in the Sarre Department. With the defeat of France in 1814, the area belonging to France west of the Rhine came first to the Generalgouvernement Mittelrhein; the canton of Blieskastel was placed under the joint Austro-Bavarian State Administration Commission after 1814. In 1816 Austria and Bavaria concluded an exchange agreement, after which the Rheinkreis, the Bavarian Palatinate, was assigned to kingdom of Bavaria; the canton of Blieskastel was subordinated to the district administration in Zweibrücken, and, in 1818, came to the Landkommissariat Zweibrücken, in 1902 to the newly formed district office Sankt Ingbert. From 1920 to 1935 Blieskastel belonged to the Territory of the Saar Basin, put under French administration by a mandate of the League of Nations for 15 years.
In the Nazi era Blieskastel was governed from Saarbrücken, until 1935 as part of Pfalz-Saar, until 1940 as part of the Saarpfalz and until the end of the war together with Lorraine as "Westmark". After the Second World War, the city of Blieskastel was in the French occupation zone and from 1947 to 1956 in the autonomous Saarland, after rejection of the second Saar statute on January 1, 1957, became a federal state of the Federal Republic of Germany; as part of a territorial and administrative reform of 1974, which until belonged to the district of Sankt Ingbert, became part of the newly created Saar-Pfalz-Kreis. At the same time, the city Blieskastel was extended to surrounding communities. Blieskastel has been an officially-recognized Kneipp spa resort since 1978; the historic city center with the Blieskastel Town Hall, the Hercules Fountain of 1691 and the Napoleon Fountain from 1804, is in the Baroque style, which includes the houses of the court officials on the Schlossberg. These the so-called "Schlößchen" of 1776/77, are the work of the Zweibrücken building director Christian Ludwig Hautt.
Altogether, the historic area of Old Blieskastel comprises 133 individual monuments and a further 65 buil
Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland. From 1982 to 2016, Alsace was the smallest administrative région in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted in the merger of the Alsace administrative region with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est. Alsatian is an Alemannic dialect related to Swabian and Swiss German, although since World War II most Alsatians speak French. Internal and international migration since 1945 has changed the ethnolinguistic composition of Alsace. For more than 300 years, from the Thirty Years' War to World War II, the political status of Alsace was contested between France and various German states in wars and diplomatic conferences; the economic and cultural capital of Alsace, as well as its largest city, is Strasbourg. The city is the seat of bodies; the name "Alsace" can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, meaning "foreign domain".
An alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning "seated on the Ill", a river in Alsace. In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters. By 1500 BC, Celts began to settle in Alsace and cultivating the land, it should be noted that Alsace is a plain surrounded by the Vosges mountains and the Black Forest mountains. It creates Foehn winds which, along with natural irrigation, contributes to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a rich region which explains why it suffered so many invasions and annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had established Alsace as a center of viticulture. To protect this valued industry, the Romans built fortifications and military camps that evolved into various communities which have been inhabited continuously to the present day. While part of the Roman Empire, Alsace was part of Germania Superior. With the decline of the Roman Empire, Alsace became the territory of the Germanic Alemanni; the Alemanni were agricultural people, their Germanic language formed the basis of modern-day dialects spoken along the Upper Rhine.
Clovis and the Franks defeated the Alemanni during the 5th century AD, culminating with the Battle of Tolbiac, Alsace became part of the Kingdom of Austrasia. Under Clovis' Merovingian successors the inhabitants were Christianized. Alsace remained under Frankish control until the Frankish realm, following the Oaths of Strasbourg of 842, was formally dissolved in 843 at the Treaty of Verdun. Alsace formed part of the Middle Francia, ruled by the eldest grandson Lothar I. Lothar died early in 855 and his realm was divided into three parts; the part known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was given to Lothar's son. The rest was shared between Louis the German; the Kingdom of Lotharingia was short-lived, becoming the stem duchy of Lorraine in Eastern Francia after the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. Alsace was united with the other Alemanni east of the Rhine into the stem duchy of Swabia. At about this time, the surrounding areas experienced recurring fragmentation and reincorporations among a number of feudal secular and ecclesiastical lordships, a common process in the Holy Roman Empire.
Alsace experienced great prosperity during the 13th centuries under Hohenstaufen emperors. Frederick I set up Alsace as a province to be ruled by ministeriales, a non-noble class of civil servants; the idea was that such men would be more tractable and less to alienate the fief from the crown out of their own greed. The province had a central administration with its seat at Hagenau. Frederick II designated the Bishop of Strasbourg to administer Alsace, but the authority of the bishop was challenged by Count Rudolf of Habsburg, who received his rights from Frederick II's son Conrad IV. Strasbourg began to grow to become the commercially important town in the region. In 1262, after a long struggle with the ruling bishops, its citizens gained the status of free imperial city. A stop on the Paris-Vienna-Orient trade route, as well as a port on the Rhine route linking southern Germany and Switzerland to the Netherlands and Scandinavia, it became the political and economic center of the region. Cities such as Colmar and Hagenau began to grow in economic importance and gained a kind of autonomy within the "Décapole", a federation of ten free towns.
As in much of Europe, the prosperity of Alsace came to an end in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, the Black Death. These hardships were blamed on Jews, leading to the pogroms of 1336 and 1339. In 1349, Jews of Alsace were accused of poisoning the wells with plague, leading to the massacre of thousands of Jews during the Strasbourg pogrom. Jews were subsequently forbidden to settle in the town. An additional natural disaster was the Rhine rift earthquake of 1356, one of Europe's worst which made ruins of Basel. Prosperity returned to Alsace under Habsburg administration during the Renaissance. Holy Roman Empire central power had begun to decline following years of imperial adventures in Italian lands ceding hegemony in Western Europe to France, which had long since centralized power. France began an aggressive policy of expanding eastward, first to the riv
Grand Est Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, is an administrative region in eastern France. It superseded three former administrative regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—on 1 January 2016, as a result of territorial reform, passed by the French legislature in 2014. Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine was a provisional name, created by hyphenating the merged regions in alphabetical order. France's Conseil d'État approved Grand Est as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016; the administrative capital and largest city is Strasbourg. The provisional name of the region was Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, formed by combining the names of the three present regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—in alphabetical order with hyphens; the formula for the provisional name of the region was established by the territorial reform law and applied to all but one of the provisional names for new regions. The ACAL regional council, elected in December 2015, was given the task of choosing a name for the region and submitting it to the Conseil d'État—France's highest authority for administrative law—by 1 July 2016 for approval.
The provisional name of the region was retired on 30 September 2016, when the new name of the region, Grand Est, took effect. In Alsace and in Lorraine, the new region has been called ALCA, for Alsace-Lorraine-Champagne-Ardennes, on the internet. Like the name Région Hauts-de-France, the name Région Grand Est contains no reference whatsoever to the area's history or identity, but describes its geographical location within metropolitan France. In a poll conducted in November 2014 by France 3 in Champagne-Ardenne, Grand Est and Austrasie were the top two names among 25 candidates and 4,701 votes. Grand Est topped a poll the following month conducted by L'Est Républicain, receiving 42% of 3,324 votes; the names which received a moderate amount of discussion were: Grand Est français, a term used to refer to the northeast quarter of Metropolitan France, although this term refers to a geographic region larger than just ACAL. The term has been used and topped the polls mentioned above. Grand Est Europe, a variant of Grand Est that alludes to the region being a gateway to Europe both through trade and since Strasbourg is home to several European institutions.
However, the name was mocked for. Austrasie, which refers to an historical region spanning parts of present-day northeast France, the Benelux, northwest Germany. Quatre frontières. Grand Est is the sixth-largest of the regions of France. Grand Est borders four countries—Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland—along its northern and eastern sides, it is the only French region to border more than two countries. To the west and south, it borders the French regions Hauts-de-France, Île-de-France, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Grand Est contains ten departments: Ardennes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Marne, Haut-Rhin, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Moselle, Vosges; the main ranges in the region include the Vosges to the Ardennes to the north. The region is bordered on the east by the Rhine. Other major rivers which flow through the region include the Meuse, Marne, Saône. Lakes in the region include lac de Gérardmer, lac de Longemer, lac de Retournemer, lac des Corbeaux, Lac de Bouzey, lac de Madine, étang du Stock and lac de Pierre-Percée.
Grand Est climate depends of the proximity of the sea. In Champagne and Western Lorraine, the climate is oceanic, with mild summers, but Moselle and Alsace climates are humid continental, characterized by cold winters with frequent days below the freezing point, hot summers, with many days with temperatures up to 32°C. Grand Est is the result of territorial reform legislation passed in 2014 by the French Parliament to reduce the number of regions in Metropolitan France—the part of France in continental Europe—from 22 to 13. ACAL is the merger of three regions: Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine; the merger has been, still is opposed by some groups in Alsace, a large majority of Alsatians. The territorial reform law allows new regions to choose the seat of the regional councils, but made Strasbourg the seat of the Grand Est regional council—a move to appease the region's politicians; the region has an official population of 5,555,186. The regional council has limited administrative authority concerning the promotion of the region's economy and financing educational and cultural activities.
The regional council has no legislative authority. The seat of the regional council will be Strasbourg; the regional council, elected in December 2015, is controlled by The Republicans. The elected inaugural president of the Grand Est Regional Council is Philippe Richert, the President of the Alsace Regional Council; the current president is Jean Rottner. The region has five tram networks: Strasbourg tramway Reims tramway Nancy Guided Light Transit Mulhouse tramway Saarbahn The region has four airports: EuroAirport Basel M
House of Wittelsbach
The House of Wittelsbach is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. Members of the family reigned as Dukes of Merania, Dukes and Kings of Bavaria, Counts Palatine of the Rhine, Margraves of Brandenburg, Counts of Holland and Zeeland, Elector-Archbishops of Cologne, Dukes of Jülich and Berg, Kings of Sweden and Dukes of Bremen-Verden; the family provided two Holy Roman Emperors, one King of the Romans, two Anti-Kings of Bohemia, one King of Hungary, one King of Denmark and Norway and one King of Greece. The family's head, since 1996, is Duke of Bavaria. Berthold, Margrave in Bavaria, was the ancestor of Otto I, Count of Scheyern, whose third son Otto II, Count of Scheyern acquired the castle of Wittelsbach; the Counts of Scheyern left Scheyern Castle in 1119 for Wittelsbach Castle and the former was given to monks to establish Scheyern Abbey. The Wittelsbach Conrad of Scheyern-Dachau, a great-grandson of Otto I, Count of Scheyern became Duke of Merania in 1153 and was succeeded by his son Conrad II.
It was the first Duchy held by the Wittelsbach family. Otto I's eldest son Eckhard I, Count of Scheyern was father of the Count palatine of Bavaria Otto IV, the first Count of Wittelsbach and whose son Otto was invested with the Duchy of Bavaria in 1180 after the fall of Henry the Lion and hence the first Bavarian ruler from the House of Wittelsbach. Duke Otto's son Louis I, Duke of Bavaria acquired the Electorate of the Palatinate in 1214; the Wittelsbach dynasty ruled the German territories of Bavaria from 1180 to 1918 and the Electorate of the Palatinate from 1214 until 1805. On Duke Otto II's death in 1253, his sons divided the Wittelsbach possessions between them: Henry became Duke of Lower Bavaria, Louis II Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine; when Henry's branch died out in 1340 the Emperor Louis IV, a son of Duke Louis II, reunited the duchy. The family provided two Holy Roman Emperors: Louis IV and Charles VII, both members of the Bavarian branch of the family, one German King with Rupert of the Palatinate, a member of the Palatinate branch.
The House of Wittelsbach split into these two branches in 1329: Under the Treaty of Pavia, Emperor Louis IV granted the Palatinate including the Bavarian Upper Palatinate to his brother Duke Rudolf's descendants, Rudolf II, Rupert I and Rupert II. Rudolf I in this way became the ancestor of the older line of the Wittelsbach dynasty, which returned to power in Bavaria in 1777 after the extinction of the younger line, the descendants of Louis IV; the Bavarian branch kept the duchy of Bavaria until its extinction in 1777. The Wittelsbach Emperor Louis IV acquired Brandenburg, Holland and Hainaut for his House but he had released the Upper Palatinate for the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach in 1329, his six sons succeeded him as Duke of Bavaria and Count of Holland and Hainaut in 1347. The Wittelsbachs lost the Tyrol with the death of duke Meinhard and the following Peace of Schärding – the Tyrol was renounced to the Habsburgs in 1369. In 1373 Otto, the last Wittelsbach regent of Brandenburg, released the country to the House of Luxembourg.
On Duke Albert's death in 1404, he was succeeded in the Netherlands by William. A younger son, John III, became Bishop of Liège. However, on William's death in 1417, a war of succession broke out between John and William's daughter Jacqueline of Hainaut; this last episode of the Hook and Cod wars left the counties in Burgundian hands in 1432. Emperor Louis IV had reunited Bavaria in 1340 but from 1349 onwards Bavaria was split among the descendants of Louis IV, who created the branches Bavaria-Landshut, Bavaria-Straubing, Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Bavaria-Munich. With the Landshut War of Succession Bavaria was reunited in 1505 against the claim of the Palatinate branch under the Bavarian branch Bavaria-Munich. From 1549 to 1567 the Wittelsbach owned the County of Kladsko in Bohemia. Catholic by upbringing, the Bavarian dukes became leaders of the German Counter-Reformation. From 1583 to 1761, the Bavarian branch of the dynasty provided the Prince-electors and Archbishops of Cologne and many other Bishops of the Holy Roman Empire, namely Liège.
Wittelsbach princes served for example as Bishops of Regensburg, Freising, Liège, Münster, Hildesheim and Osnabrück, as Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order. In 1623 under Maximilian I the Bavarian dukes were invested with the electoral dignity and the duchy became the Electorate of Bavaria, his grandson Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria served as Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands and as Duke of Luxembourg. His son Emperor Charles VII was king of Bohemia. With the death of Charles' son Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria the Bavarian branch died out in 1777; the Palatinate branch kept the Palatinate until 1918, having succeeded to Bavaria in 1777. With the Golden Bull of 1356 the Counts Palatine were invested with the electoral dignity, their county became the Electorate of the Palatinate. Princes of the Palatinate branch served as Bishops of the Empire and as Elector-Archbishops of Mainz and Elector-Archbishops of Trier. After the death of the Wittelsbach king
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
The County Palatine of the Rhine the Electorate of the Palatinate or Electoral Palatinate, was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine. Its rulers served as prince-electors from time immemorial, were noted as such in a papal letter of 1261, were confirmed as electors by the Golden Bull of 1356; the fragmented territory stretched from the left bank of the Upper Rhine, from the Hunsrück mountain range in what is today the Palatinate region in the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate and the adjacent parts of the French regions of Alsace and Lorraine to the opposite territory on the east bank of the Rhine in present-day Hesse and Baden-Württemberg up to the Odenwald range and the southern Kraichgau region, containing the capital cities of Heidelberg and Mannheim. The Counts Palatine of the Rhine held the office of imperial vicars in the territories under Frankish law and ranked among the most significant secular Princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1541 elector Otto Henry converted to Lutheranism. Their climax and decline is marked by the rule of Elector Palatine Frederick V, whose coronation as King of Bohemia in 1619 sparked the Thirty Years' War. After the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, the ravaged lands were further afflicted by the "Reunion" campaigns launched by King Louis XIV of France, culminating in the Nine Years' War. Ruled in personal union with the Electorate of Bavaria from 1777, the Electoral Palatinate was disestablished with the German mediatization in 1803; the comital office of Count Palatine at the Frankish court of King Childebert I was mentioned about 535. The Counts Palatine were the permanent representatives of the King, in particular geographic areas, in contrast to the semi-independent authority of the dukes. Under the Merovingian dynasty, the position had been a purely appointed one, but by the Middle Ages had evolved into an hereditary one. Up to the 10th century, the Frankish empire was centered at the royal palace in Aachen, in what had become the Carolingian kingdom of Lotharingia.
The Count Palatine of Lotharingia became the most important of the Counts Palatine. Marital alliances meant that, by the Middle Ages, most Count Palatine positions had been inherited by the duke of the associated province, but the importance of the Count Palatine of Lotharingia enabled it to remain an independent position. In 985, Herman I, a scion of the Ezzonids, is mentioned as count palatine of Lotharingia. While his Palatine authority operated over the whole of Upper Lorraine, the feudal territories of his family were instead scattered around south western Franconia, including parts of the Rhineland around Cologne and Bonn, areas around the Moselle, the Nahe Rivers. In continual conflicts with the rivalling Archbishops of Cologne, he changed the emphasis of his rule to the southern Eifel region and further to the Upper Rhine, where the Ezzonian dynasty governed several counties on both banks of the river; the southernmost point was near Alzey. From about 1085/86, after the death of the last Ezzonian count palatine Herman II, Palatinate authority ceased to have any military significance in Lotharingia.
In practice, the Count Palatinate's Palatine authority had collapsed, reducing his successor to a mere feudal magnate over his own territories - along the Upper Rhine in south-western Franconia. From this time on, his territory became known as the County Palatine of the Rhine. Various noble dynasties competed to be enfeoffed with the Palatinate by the Holy Roman Emperor - among them the House of Ascania, the House of Salm and the House of Babenberg; the first hereditary Count Palatine of the Rhine was Conrad, a member of the House of Hohenstaufen and younger half-brother of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. The territories attached to this hereditary office in 1156 started from those held by the Hohenstaufens in the Donnersberg, Haardt, Bergstraße and Kraichgau regions. Much of this was from their imperial ancestors, the Salian emperors, apart from Conrad's maternal ancestry, the Counts of Saarbrücken; these backgrounds explain the composition of Upper and Rhenish Palatinate in the inheritance centuries onwards.
About 1182, Conrad moved his residence from Stahleck Castle near Bacharach up the Rhine River to Heidelberg. Upon Conrad's death in 1195, the Palatinate passed to the House of Welf through the—secret—marriage of his daughter Agnes with Henry of Brunswick; when Henry's son Henry the Younger died without heirs in 1214, the Hohenstaufen king Frederick II enfeoffed the Wittelsbach duke Louis I of Bavaria. The Bavarian House of Wittelsbach held the Palatinate territories until 1918. During a division of territory among the heirs of Duke Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria, in 1294, the elder branch of the Wittelsbachs came into possession of both the Rhenish Palatinate and the territories in the Bavarian Nordgau with the centre around the town of Amberg; as this region was politically connected to the Rhenish Palatinate, the name Upper Palatinate became common from the early 16th century in contrast to the Lower Palatinate along the Rhine. With the Treaty of
Rhine Franconian dialects
Rhine Franconian, or Rhenish Franconian, is a dialect family of West Central German. It comprises the German dialects spoken across the western regions of the states of Saarland, Rhineland-Palatinate, northwest Baden-Wurttemberg, Hesse in Germany, it is spoken in northeast France, in the eastern part of the département of Moselle in the Lorraine region, in the north-west part of Bas-Rhin in Alsace. To the north, it is bounded by the Sankt Goar line. Hessian Palatinate German Lorraine Franconian Saarland, Moselle Franconian, Palatine German Hughes, Stephanie. 2005. Bilingualism in North-East France with specific reference to Rhenish Franconian spoken by Moselle Cross-border workers. In Preisler, Bent, et al. eds. The Consequences of Mobility: Linguistic and Sociocultural Contact Zones. Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde Universitetscenter: Institut for Sprog og Kultur. ISBN 87-7349-651-0