Alboraya or Alboraia is a town and municipality of the province of Valencia, Spain. It is situated close to the city of Valencia. A farming community, Alboraya has grown in recent decades following the development of the metropolitan area of Valencia. Better transport connections, including two stations on the Valencia metro system: Alboraia-Palmaret and Alboraia-Peris Aragó), urban exodus from the Valencia, foreign immigration have increased the population from 11,267 in 1986, to an estimated 23,572 individuals in 2014. Of these, 58.84% declared themselves to be Valencian speakers. In 1994, 45.8% worked in the service sector, 33% in industry, 16.7% in agriculture, 3.60% in construction. In the May 2011 elections, the People's Party lost their absolute majority, as they fell from 11 to 8 council seats; the remaining seats were won by the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, Unión Popular de Alboraya, Coalició Compromís and Ciudadanos por Alboraya Subsequently a coalition of everyone but the PP was formed, with Miguel Chavarria becoming the first PSOE Mayor since 1999.
Traditional crops are based on intensive farming. Important are the tiger nuts, which are used to produce the world famous horchata, a popular refreshment; the town has many orxateries in which to relax and chill out while having an horchata in the hot Valencian summers. The town still contains large, irrigated fields which are farmed intensively but these areas are shrinking due to urban pressure; the designation of the city of Valencia as host city for the 2007 America's Cup sparked major land development. Seventy-five percent of the competing teams located their bases of operation in Alboraya; the municipality is divided into eight parts: Calvet, Mar, Masamardá, Miracle and Vera. Alboraya is connected to the rest of the Valencian metropolitan area by Line 3 of the Valencia Metro with two stations and Palmaret, Line 70 of the Municipal Transport Company of Valencia, EMT, Patacona provides buses on Line 31 of the EMT bus company; the future Line 10 of the Valencia Metro will connect the Port Saplaya area to port in Valencia.
The Council offers the people a local bus service, which runs through the villages of Alboraya, linking the village with Port Saplaya and Patacona seven days a week, with a frequency of one bus every hour. Alboraya is bordered by Almàssera to the northwest by Meliana to the north, by Tavernes Blanques to the west, Valencia city to the south and the Mediterranean Sea to the east. Alquería Muslim King James I of Aragon gave land to the bishop of Huesca, Canyelles Vidal. Teresa Gil de Vidaura, managed the property through a land swap with the bishop which strengthened the patrimony of James of Jericho, his son King James II of Aragon. In 1331, it passed into the hands of Gilberto Zanoguera. During the 15th century, it was held by the Crown. At the end, is the outback of Rafelterras. In its place is the deserted Rafelterras; the church was dedicated to Santa Maria. Along the Carraixet ravine a chapel was constructed dedicated to Our Lady of Desamparados, its first building dates from 1414 and was ordered built by the General Council of Valencia the year 1400.
It included a consecrated cemetery where the disadvantaged were buried. The current building is new; the main activity is agriculture, the most important crop is the plug, which has become popular in the Alboraya horchata. The year 1646 population census provides a calculation of 88 houses; the population has grown considerably: in 1986 there were 11,267 people, by 2002 the figure had risen to 18,656, of which, 58.84% reported in the 2001 census that they knew about Valencia. It has a population of 22,174 inhabitants according to. Economic activity in the population is distributed as follows: 45.80% work in the service sector, 33% in industry, 16.70% in agriculture, 3.60% in construction. Alboraya still retains the flavour typical of people in an important part of the town; the coastline is nearly four miles long, with two residential neighborhoods separated by the mouth of the Barranco del Carraixet: Port Saplaya and Patacona. The first has a marina, it is a residential complex and walk characterized by the warm ochres and pale pink, traditionally used in the painting of houses.
The second has housing in the space occupied by a former paper mill. Both areas have excellent beaches; some of its monuments include The Parish Church of Our Lady of the Assumption with the home abbey formed in a block. The people of Alboraya have other shrines such as the Chapel of the Holy Christ of Souls in Mas Vilanova, the shrine of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the house of the Rector, the Hermitage of Santa Barbara in the neighborhood of the same name, the Chapel of San Cristobal near the industrial estate, at the mouth of the Barranco del Carraixet the Chapel of the Peixets. All of them are part of an important historical and artistic heritage, rich in sculptures, paintings and pottery. Alboraya's foods include typical valencian dishes like a pot made with rice and turnips. Local desserts include the fartons and the so-called "Christian c
Aragon is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces: Huesca and Teruel, its capital is Zaragoza. The current Statute of Autonomy declares Aragon a historic nationality of Spain. Covering an area of 47720 km2, the region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe plains of the central lowlands. Aragon is home to many rivers—most notably, the river Ebro, Spain's largest river in volume, which runs west-east across the entire region through the province of Zaragoza, it is home to the highest mountains of the Pyrenees. As of January 2016, the population of Aragon was 1308563, with over half of it living in its capital city, Zaragoza. During the same year, the economy of Aragon generates a GDP of €34687 million, which represents 3.1% of Spain's national GDP, is 6th in per capita production behind Madrid, Basque Country, Catalonia and La Rioja.
In addition to its three provinces, Aragon is subdivided into counties. All comarcas of Aragon have a rich geopolitical and cultural history from its pre-Roman and Roman days, four centuries of Islamic period as Marca Superior of Al-Andalus or kingdom of Saraqusta, as lands that once belonged to the Frankish Marca Hispanica, counties that formed the Kingdom of Aragon and the Crown of Aragon; the current coat of arms of Aragon is composed of the four barracks and is attested for the first time in 1499, consolidating since the Early Modern Ages to take root decisively in the 19th century and be approved, according to precept, by the Real Academia de la Historia in 1921. The first quartering appears at the end of the 15th century and commemorates, according to traditional interpretation, the legendary kingdom of Sobrarbe; this emblem of gules and gold was used in seals, banners and standards indistinctly, not being but a familiar emblem that denoted the authority as King of Aragon until, with the birth of Modern State, began to be a territorial symbol.
The current flag was approved in 1984, with the provisions of Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon, the flag is the traditional of the four horizontal red bars on a yellow background with the coat of arms of Aragon shifted towards the flagpole. The bars of Aragon, common historic element of the current four autonomous communities that once were integrated into the Crown of Aragon, present in the third quartering of the coat of arms of Spain; the anthem of Aragon was regulated in 1989 with music by the Aragonese composer Antón García Abril that combines the old Aragonese musical tradition with popular musical elements within a modern conception. The lyrics were elaborated by the Aragonese poets Ildefonso Manuel Gil, Ángel Guinda, Rosendo Tello and Manuel Vilas and highlights within its poetic framework, values such as freedom, reason, open land... that represent the expression of Aragon as a people. The Day of Aragon is celebrated on April 23 and commemorates Saint George, patron of the Kingdom of Aragon since the 15th century.
It appears in Article 3 of the Statute of Autonomy of Aragon since 1984. Institutional acts such as the delivery of the Aragon Awards by the Government of Aragon or the composition of a flag of Aragon of flowers, with the collaboration of citizens, in the Plaza de Aragón square of Zaragoza; the area of Aragon is 47720 km2 of which 15636 km2 belong to the province of Huesca, 17275 km2 to the province of Zaragoza and 14810 km2 to the province of Teruel. The total represents a 9.43% of the surface of Spain, being thus the fourth autonomous community in size behind Castile and León, Castile-La Mancha. It is located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, at a latitude between 39º and 43º'N in the temperate zone of the Earth, its boundaries and borders are in the north with France, the regions of, in the west with the autonomous communities of Castile-La Mancha, Castile and León, La Rioja and Navarre and in the east with the autonomous communities of Catalonia and Valencian Community. The orography of the community has as central axis the Ebro valley which tr
Ademuz is a municipality in the comarca of Rincón de Ademuz in the Valencian Community, Spain. The name in Valencian is Ademús; the many archaeological remains still present from different time periods - Neolithic, Roman - reveal an early occupation of the area. Notwithstanding, the first written references are Arabic ones, focusing on its castle, whose advantageous emplacement dominated the Turia river and its natural passage from the lands of Aragon to the city of Valencia; the Muslim fortress of Al-Dāmūs was conquered by Peter II of Aragon in 1210, with the aid of the hospitalier and templar knights, who were rewarded with the right to collect some taxes from the area. It fell back into Muslim hands shortly thereafter, it was incorporated into the kingdom of Valencia by James I of Aragon, who put it under direct control of the crown, together with the other historical village of the comarca, Castielfabib. As a royal villa, Ademuz periodically sent an elected representative to the Corts Valencianes.
As a frontier fortress, it suffered from the wars with Castille in the 14th century: both Ademuz and Castielfabib were invaded and occupied by Peter I of Castile. The heroic defense and the loyalty of its population were rewarded by Peter IV of Aragón and his immediate successors, who gave the villa new rights and privileges. From the beginnings of the 14th century onwards Ademuz and its countryside were an Encomienda of the Order of Montesa, which anyway never ruled over Ademuz, limiting itself to collect some taxes they had rights over. On June 7 1656, the villa suffered a massive earthquake which destroyed the primitive church of San Pedro Intramuros, the city council and forty other houses. Notwithstanding, Ademuz's castle will still prove its worth during the many civil wars of the 19th century, with it being occupied and rebuilt several times by carlist troops; the two original municipalities which existed in the Rincón's comarca and Ademuz, became fragmented over time, affecting specially that of Ademuz, from which several villages seceded as they reached some populational and economical importance: Vallanca, Puebla de San Miguel, Casas Altas y Casas Bajas.
Ademuz is situated in the middle of the Rincón de Ademuz, a Spanish comarca belonging to Valencian Community representing an exclave situated between the territories of the provinces of Cuenca and Teruel. The town counts three pedanías: Mas del Olmo and Val de la Sabina; as of the 2008 census of INE, the population of Ademuz was 1,269. Candel Tortajada, F.: Viaje al Rincón de Ademuz. Barcelona, 1977. ISBN 84-01-44182-X Eslava Blasco, R.: Ademuz y su patrimonio histórico-artístico. Ademuz, 2007. ISBN 978-84-606-4251-0 Media related to Ademuz at Wikimedia Commons Official website
A shield is a piece of personal armour held in the hand or mounted on the wrist or forearm. Shields are used to intercept specific attacks, whether from close-ranged weaponry or projectiles such as arrows, by means of active blocks, as well as to provide passive protection by closing one or more lines of engagement during combat. Shields vary in size and shape, ranging from large panels that protect the user's whole body to small models that were intended for hand-to-hand-combat use. Shields vary a great deal in thickness. Shields vary in shape, ranging in roundness to angularity, proportional length and width and edge pattern. In prehistory and during the era of the earliest civilisations, shields were made of wood, animal hide, woven reeds or wicker. In classical antiquity, the Barbarian Invasions and the Middle Ages, they were constructed of poplar tree, lime or another split-resistant timber, covered in some instances with a material such as leather or rawhide and reinforced with a metal boss, rim or banding.
They were carried by foot soldiers and cavalry. Depending on time and place, shields could be round, square, triangular, bilabial or scalloped. Sometimes they took on the form of kites or flatirons, or had rounded tops on a rectangular base with an eye-hole, to look through when used with combat; the shield was held by straps that went over or around the user's arm. Shields were decorated with a painted pattern or an animal representation to show their army or clan; these designs developed into systematized heraldic devices during the High Middle Ages for purposes of battlefield identification. After the introduction of gunpowder and firearms to the battlefield, shields continued to be used by certain groups. In the 18th century, for example, Scottish Highland fighters liked to wield small shields known as targes, as late as the 19th century, some non-industrialized peoples employed them when waging war. In the 20th and 21st century, shields have been used by military and police units that specialize in anti-terrorist actions, hostage rescue, riot control and siege-breaking.
The modern term refers to a device, held in the hand or attached to the arm, as opposed to an armored suit or a bullet-proof vest. Shields are sometimes mounted on vehicle-mounted weapons to protect the operator; the oldest form of shield was a protection device designed to block attacks by hand weapons, such as swords and maces, or ranged weapons like sling-stones and arrows. Shields have varied in construction over time and place. Sometimes shields were made of metal. Many surviving examples of metal shields are felt to be ceremonial rather than practical, for example the Yetholm-type shields of the Bronze Age, or the Iron Age Battersea shield. Size and weight varied greatly. Armored warriors relying on speed and surprise would carry light shields that were either small or thin. Heavy troops might be equipped with robust shields. Many had a strap called a guige that allowed them to be slung over the user's back when not in use or on horseback. During the 14th–13th century BC, the Sards or Shardana, working as mercenaries for the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II, utilized either large or small round shields against the Hittites.
The Mycenaean Greeks used two types of shields: the "figure-of-eight" shield and a rectangular "tower" shield. These shields were made from a wicker frame and reinforced with leather. Covering the body from head to foot, the figure-of-eight and tower shield offered most of the warrior's body a good deal of protection in head-to-head combat; the Ancient Greek hoplites used a round, bowl-shaped wooden shield, reinforced with bronze and called an aspis. Another name for this type of shield is a hoplon; the hoplon shield inspired the name for hoplite soldiers. The hoplon was the longest-lasting and most famous and influential of all of the ancient Greek shields; the Spartans used the aspis to create the Greek phalanx formation. Their shields offered protection not only for their comrades to their left. Examples of Germanic wooden shields circa 350 BC – 500 AD survive from weapons sacrifices in Danish bogs; the armored Roman legionaries carried large shields that could provide far more protection, but made swift movement a little more difficult.
The scutum had an oval shape, but the curved tops and sides were cut to produce the familiar rectangular shape most seen in the early Imperial legions. Famously, the Romans used their shields to create a tortoise-like formation called a testudo in which entire groups of soldiers would be enclosed in an armoured box to provide protection against missiles. Many ancient shield designs featured incuts of another; this was done to accommodate the shaft of a spear, thus facilitating tactics requiring the soldiers to stand close together forming a wall of shields. Typical in the early European Middle Ages were round shields with light, non-splitting wood like linden, alder or poplar reinforced with leather cover on one or both sides and metal rims, encircling a metal s
Bétera is a municipality in the comarca of Camp de Túria in the Valencian Community, Spain. With 19,491 inhabitants, it is the second most populous town in the Camp de Túria shire, in the second zone of the Valencia metropolitan area. Bétera is situated on the southern slopes of the Serra Calderona, 15 km from Valencia and 23 km from the Mediterranean Sea on the border with the Valencian "market garden", L'Horta, it has a undulating surface, reaching 156 meters at its highest point. Its geographical location between the sea and mountains provides a microclimate, the mildest of the region, where the prevailing winds are Levant and Ponente; the rains occur in autumn and spring. As it is in the metropolitan area of Valencia, there are several road links, such as the Burjassot-Torres Torres road, the Bétera-Olocau road, the San Antonio de Benagéber road which links to the motorway Valencia Turia-Ademuz and the Mediterranean motorway, as well as others leading to the parishes and neighbourhoods of the city and surrounding towns.
Public transport is accessible via one of the northern terminal stations of Metro Line 1 of Valencia. This railway line is heir to the former Valencia Trenet, ranging from Bétera to the Pont de Fusta station in Valencia; the Sanatori Psiquiàtric stop serves the town. Surrounding Bétera are the following districts: El Baró:. Urbanisation Vall de Flors. La Malla:. Urbanisation La Masia and the military base "Jaime I", under NATO high command. Mallaetes:. La Cornada and Montesano. Masia Arnal:. Les Almudes. Mas Camarena:. La Esmeralda, Las Fuentes, Sector A, Soto de Camarena and Jardines de Camarena. Providencia:. Camí de Paterna, Urbanisations Cumbre de San Antonio, Torre En Conill and la Virgen de la Estrella; the southern part of town has grown in recent years, there are several developments planned and under construction, contiguous to the urban area. Godella Montcada Nàquera Paterna Pobla de Vallbona Serra Valencia San Antonio de Benagéber Bétera is twinned with: Italy Pont-Saint-Martin
Llíria is a medium-sized town off the CV35 motorway to the north of Valencia, Spain. Known as Edeta in ancient Iberian times, it is the musical capital of the region. Llíria is the capital of the area known as Camp de Túria in the province of Valencia, it is 25 km north-west of the city of Valencia. It sits at an altitude of 164m; the population in 2006 totalled 21,500. The traditional economy is based on agriculture, but industries such as textiles, construction materials and furniture are becoming important; the city is at the end of the Metrovalencia train system. Construction of a new general hospital in Llíria began in 2007 and finished in 2015. Due to the severe financial crisis, the building of the hospital took much longer than expected; the local Fiestas are Romería of San Vicente Ferrer, Saint Michael. Under Llíria lie the ruins of what was one of the most important Iberian cities in Spain; the city was known as Edeta and it was the administrative centre of Edetania, an extensive territory between the rivers Júcar / Xúquer and Palancia River / Riu Palància.
Edeta was built on a hilltop known as Sant Miquel. The city was moved downhill to its current location by Quintus Sertorius after Roman troops destroyed the town in 76 BC. Under the Romans, Llíria was as important as Sagunt; the town is rich in Roman finds, including a large Roman leisure centre with a temple, shops and hot baths. Recent archaeological excavations have uncovered one of Spain’s largest-ever caches of buried coins. Popularly known as the Treasure of Carrer Duc de Llíria, it totals some 6,000 silver denarii minted in the first and third centuries. Another archaeological find was a mosaic of The Twelve Labours of Hercules, excavated from a Domus Romana at Can Porcar or Casa de Porcar in Llíria, it is displayed at the National Archaeological Museum of Spain. Additionally, Llíria's own archaeological museum contains imagery from its original location including details of each of the labors along with other Roman artifacts from the town; the first church in Llíria was built in 1238 by King James I of Aragon, after his victory over the Moors and the conquest of the Valencian region.
The Church of the Blood was built on the site of a mosque and is a typical example of Valencian Gothic architecture with Roman and Valencian influences. Some remains of the original mosque can still be seen. In 1919 the church was gazetted as a National Monument and was the first religious monument in the Valencian Community to receive this distinction; the church was restored and opened to the public. The climate is Mediterranean, but with slight continental influence and some frosts in winter and spring; the average temperature is between 10 ° / 11 ° C in January and 26 ° / 29 °C in August. Rainfall is irregular but with heavy showers common in September and October; the city has about 21,500 residents of which some 16,500 live in the city centre and 5,000 live in surrounding residential estates. Llíria and the surrounding area has one of fastest rates of population growth in the entire nation. Outside of the city centre there are few sewage systems and no residential streets are paved or illuminated.
Utility services are struggling to keep up with unplanned growth. Sedesa SA has been given approval to construct a golf course with a hotel and luxury housing on a site some three kilometres to the north-east of the city. Work on the development was expected to begin in 2007, but now seem to have been suspended following the economic downturn; the largest immigrant communities are from Morocco and the United Kingdom. Holy Week in Llíria: is one of the most important traditional events in the city and one of the most ancient traditional Holy Week celebrations in the Region of Valencia, it is celebrated between Friday of Sorrows and Resurrection Sunday, including Palm Sunday, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, Holy Saturday. Llíria has elaborate processions during a tradition that dates from medieval times. Like in other regions of Spain, its Holy Week is notable for featuring the procession of "imágenes", lifelike wood or plaster sculptures of individual scenes of the events that happened between Jesus' arrest and his burial, or images of the Virgin Mary showing grief for the torture and killing of her son.
Saint Michael's Festival or Feast Day: on September, the 29th Saint Vincent's Festival or Feast Day: Next Monday after Easter Festival of the Immaculate Conception: end of August Festival of Our Lady of the Remedy: mid-September Taurine Week: First week of October Several thousand of Llíria’s residents play musical instruments and the city is well known for its two intensely rival bands. The first band, the "Banda Primitiva", was formed by a Franciscan friar Antoni Albarracín Enguídanos in 1838 and the subsequent band divided in 1903 to form the rival Unió Musical; the Conservatory of Lliria is a public center created by the city council on the 90's. Both Spanish and Valencian are spoken in the town. Spanish-language grant-aided schools: El Prat Valencian-language grant-aided schools: La Unió Spanish language church schools: Francisco Llopis and Santa Ana Spanish & Valencian language schools: Sant Vicent (96
Province of Valencia
Valencia or València is a province of Spain, in the central part of the Valencian Community. Of the province's 2,547,986 people, one-third live in the capital, the capital of the autonomous community and the 3rd biggest city in Spain, with a metropolitan area of 2,522,383 it's one of the most populated cities of Southern Europe. There are 265 municipalities in the province. Although the Spanish Constitution of 1812 loosely created the province of València, a stable administrative entity does not arise until the territorial division of Spain in 1833, remaining today without major changes; the Provincial Council of Valencia dates from that period. After the Valencian Statute of Autonomy of 1982, the province became part of the Valencian Community. Together with Spanish, Valencian is the co-official language, it is bordered by the provinces of Alicante, Cuenca, Castellón, the Mediterranean Sea. The northwestern side of the province is in the mountainous Sistema Ibérico area. Part of its territory, the Rincón de Ademuz, is an exclave sandwiched between the provinces of Cuenca and Teruel.
The province is subdivided into the comarques of Camp de Túria, Camp de Morvedre, Canal de Navarrés, Hoya de Buñol, Horta de València, Horta Nord, Horta Oest, Horta Sud, Requena-Utiel, Rincón de Ademuz, Ribera Alta, Ribera Baixa, Los Serranos, Vall d'Albaida and Valle de Cofrentes. The province of Valencia, like the rest of the region, is mountainous in the interior in the north and west, with the Sistema Central running from north to south and the foothills of Andalusia from west to east; this mountainous interior features deep and steep valleys formed by the major rivers running through it. The plain of Valencia, is the second largest coastal plain of the country, located in the low region between the Júcar and Turia river valleys, it is twenty wide. In 1843 it was cited as "one of the most fertile and best cultivated spots in Europe"; the other main rivers include the Serpis. The Altiplano de Requena-Utiel range, in the interior of the Valencia region, has an average height of about 750 m.
The principal mountains in the province are Cerro Calderón, Sierra del Caroche, Sierra del Benicadell, Serra Calderona, Sierra Martés, Sierra de Utiel, Sierra de Enguera, the Sierra de Mondúver. The València plains are known for their olive, ilex, algaroba and palm trees, with the appearance of an "immense garden"; such is the fertility of the soil, that two and three crops in the year are obtained, the greater part of the land returns eight per cent. The rice crops are the most valuable, are chiefly produced in the tract, irrigated by the Albufera, a large lake in the neighbourhood of València. Rice being the principal food of the lower classes, the crop is consumed in the province, with the exception of a small quantity which finds its way into Castile and Andalusia; the other chief product is the white mulberry, once the source of great wealth: it was worked in the silk-factories of València. In 1828, the produce of silk from the vega of València amounted to one million of pounds yearly, the greater part of, exported in its raw state, but the produce has increased since, owing to demands from the manufacturers of Lyon and other towns in the south of France.
The province of València is a notable producer of satins, silk ribbons, velvets. The export of fruit from Valencia is considerable of raisins; the raisins are of two kinds, the muscatel, an inferior and smaller raisin, called pasa de legia. The export of figs and wine from the province and ports of València is considerable, with a wine known as Beni Carlo, which as of 1843 was shipped to Cette. Mercury, sulphur, argentiferous lead, coal, etc. are among the mineral products, but they are procured only in small quantities. Today, tourism is a major source of income, with the city of Valencia and the resort towns along the coast being the primary earners during the summer months; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, by C. Knight