Shaw Direct is a direct broadcast satellite television distributor in Canada and a subsidiary of the telecommunications company Shaw Communications. As of 2010, Shaw Direct had over 900,000 subscribers, it broadcasts on Ku band from three communications satellites, Anik F1R and Anik G1 at 107.3°W, Anik F2 at 111.1°W. The company was known as Star Choice until April 15, 2009. A full list of channels carried by these three satellites is available from satellite-related sites such as Lyngsat. Anik F1 carries most mainstream English-language programming. A third planned satellite, Anik G1, was launched on April 15, 2013, later reached orbit on May 29, 2013; this new satellite provides Shaw Direct customers with access to over 210 HD channels. Shaw Direct is now based in Calgary, Alberta, its broadcast centre is in Mississauga and has call centres in Victoria, Vancouver and Montreal. August 1996: Awarded broadcasting licence. March 1997: Opened first customer care centre. March 1997: Activated their first customer, Archie Gray, who purchased a receiver for $999 with 100 digital channels when he purchased $400 worth of programming.
September 1997: Added PPV to their lineup. September 1999: Added 60 new channels to their lineup. January 2000: Launched HDTV programming with the broadcast of Super Bowl XXXIV, the first High Definition TV broadcast in Canada. August 2000: Privatized by Shaw Communications Inc. through its acquisition of Cancom. April 2001: Activated both Anik F1 and Anik E2 satellites, becoming the first Canadian provider to broadcast services from two satellites simultaneously. March 2002: Moved its head office from Lincoln, New Brunswick to Calgary, Alberta. May 2002: Sold its one millionth receiver. August 2003: Launched its first integrated High Definition receiver, the Motorola DSR500 HD. September 2003: WTSN was dropped from lineup because of the channel's demise. February 2004: Added 16 additional standard-definition channels to their lineup, including 2 high-definition ones. July 2004: Announced the expansion of new channels as a result of the launch of the Anik F2 satellite. May 2005: Launched the dual tuner High Definition Digital Video Recorder.
November 2005: TCM is introduced to the Canadian market for the first time. September 1, 2006: AMC was debuted in Canada on Star Choice and Shaw Cable. October 2006: A&E HD, Discovery HD and SRC HD launch on October 12, 2006. Super Écran HD launches October 30, 2006, bringing the total amount of free HD channels to 15. December 2006: Showcase HD and National Geographic Channel HD launch on December 19, 2006 bringing the total amount of free HD channels to 17. January 2007: Launched the DSR317 receiver, featuring a faster processor than previous Standard Definition receivers, picture-in-guide. Super station WGN was swapped for the local Chicago feed on January 17, 2007. February 2007: Launched the DSR207 receiver, featuring a faster processor than previous Standard Definition receivers, picture-in-guide. March 2007: Star Choice announces the addition of GOL-TV, WFN, WGN HD and HD Net. March 2007: Star Choice celebrates its 10 Year Anniversary. June 2007: Séries+ HD and Vie HD launch on May 31, 2007.
Much Music and TLN move to essentials and PunchMuch is removed. Casino and Gaming Television was added on June 2007 to the essentials package. July/August 2007: A new interactive program guide was deployed to all DSR505's and DVR530's; the new interactive program guide introduced new features such as instant on capability, support for Open TV and support for 8PSK modulation. September 2007: PPV HD, MMore HD, Movie Central 2 HD, Canal Z and ABC West HD were added to the line-up. October 2007: Added NHL Centre Ice package to the line-up. December 2007: Teletoon Retro English was added to the line-up. Viewer's Choice and Canal Indigo PPV were both dropped from the lineup in favour of Shaw PPV. February 2008: Speed Channel HD, NASCAR Hot Pass and Wild TV were added to the line-up. March 2008: Port Cinema, Port Food, Port Kids, Port Select and Port World are dropped from the lineup because of the demise of the channels. May 2008: Sun TV Toronto, City TV Winnipeg, Global Maritimes, CBC Saskatchewan are dropped from the lineup.
August 2008: TFO was dropped from the line-up. September 2008: TSN2 and TSN2 HD was added to the line-up. October 2008: HBO Canada 1, HBO Canada 1 HD, HBO Canada 2, HBO Canada 2 HD and The FRAME HD were added to the line-up. X-Treme Sports is dropped from the lineup because of the demise of the channel. December 2008: Star Choice launched the DSR209 receiver. Big Ten Network and Big Ten Network HD was added to the line-up. CMT and YTV move to their Essentials package. January 2009: Star Choice celebrates the sale of its 2 millionth receiver; the Accessible Channel launches. February 2009: Star Choice launched the DSR319 receiver. April 15, 2009: Star Choice becomes Shaw Direct. April 30, 2009: Shaw Direct drops the Buffalo, New York TV stations NBC Buffalo, WIVB-TV and WKBW-TV, the Detroit Fox station WJBK-TV. July 2009: TV Land Canada, Court TV Canada and BBC Kids are dropped from the lineup. However, rival Bell TV continues to use these channels. October 2009: The Score HD launched, DIY Network launched to replace Fine Living Canada.
November 2009: Nickelodeon Canada launched to replace Discovery Kids Canada. March 1, 2010: Sex TV and Drive-In Classics will be removed from the Shaw Direct lineup
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Pierre and Miquelon the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is the only part of New France that remains under French control, with an area of 242 square kilometres and a population of 6,080 at the January 2011 census; the islands are situated at the entrance of Fortune Bay, which extends into the southwestern coast of Newfoundland, near the Grand Banks. They are 3,819 kilometres from Brest, the nearest point in Metropolitan France, 25 kilometres from the Burin Peninsula of Newfoundland. Saint-Pierre is French for the patron saint of fishermen; the present name of Miquelon was first noted in the form of Micquelle in the Basque sailor Martin de Hoyarçabal's navigational pilot for Newfoundland. It has been claimed. Therefore, from Mikelon it may have been written in the French way with a q instead of a k. Though the Basque Country is divided between Spain and France, most Basques live on the south side of the border and speak Spanish, Miquelon may have been influenced by the Spanish name Miguelón, an augmentative form of Miguel meaning "big Michael".
The adjoined island's name of "Langlade" is said to be an adaptation of l'île à l'Anglais. Portuguese João Álvares Fagundes landed on the islands on 21 October 1520 and named the St. Pierre island group the'Eleven Thousand Virgins', as the day marked the feast day of St. Ursula and her virgin companions, they were made a French possession in 1536 by Jacques Cartier on behalf of the King of France. Though frequented by Mi'kmaq people and Basque and Breton fishermen, the islands were not permanently settled until the end of the 17th century: four permanent inhabitants were counted in 1670, 22 in 1691. In 1670, during Jean Talon's tenure as Intendant of New France, a French officer annexed the islands when he found a dozen French fishermen camped there; the British Royal Navy soon began pillaging their camps and ships. By the early 1700s, the islands were again uninhabited, were ceded to the British by the Treaty of Utrecht which ended the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713. Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, which put an end to the Seven Years' War, France ceded all its North American possessions, but Saint-Pierre and Miquelon were returned to France.
France maintained fishing rights on the coasts of Newfoundland. With France being allied with the Americans during the American Revolutionary War, Britain invaded and razed the colony in 1778, sending the entire population of 2,000 back to France. In 1793, the British landed in Saint-Pierre and, the following year, expelled the French population, tried to install British settlers; the British colony was in turn sacked by French troops in 1796. The Treaty of Amiens of 1802 returned the islands to France, but Britain reoccupied them when hostilities recommenced the next year; the Treaty of Paris gave them back to France, though Britain occupied them yet again during the Hundred Days War. France reclaimed the uninhabited islands in which all structures and buildings had been destroyed or fallen into disrepair; the islands were resettled in 1816. The settlers were Basques and Normans, who were joined by various other elements from the nearby island of Newfoundland. Only around the middle of the century did increased fishing bring a certain prosperity to the little colony.
During the early 1910s, the colony suffered as a result of unprofitable fisheries, large numbers of its people emigrated to Nova Scotia and Quebec. The draft imposed on all male inhabitants of conscript age after the beginning of World War I crippled the fisheries, which could not be processed by the older people and the women and children. About 400 men from the colony served in the French military during World War I, 25% of whom died; the increase in the adoption of steam trawlers in the fisheries contributed to the reduction in employment opportunities. Smuggling had always been an important economic activity in the islands, but it became prominent in the 1920s with the institution of prohibition in the United States. In 1931, the archipelago was reported to have imported 1,815,271 US gallons of whisky from Canada in 12 months, most of it to be smuggled into the United States; the end of prohibition in 1933 plunged the islands into economic depression. During World War II, despite opposition from Canada and the United States, Charles de Gaulle seized the archipelago from Vichy France, to which the local government had pledged its allegiance.
In a referendum the following day, the population endorsed the takeover by Free France. After the 1958 French constitutional referendum, Saint Pierre and Miquelon was given the option of becoming integrated with France, becoming a self-governing state within the French Community, or preserving the status of overseas territory. Since March 2003, Saint Pierre and Miquelon has been an overseas collectivity with a special status; the archipelago became an overseas territory in 1946 an overseas department in 1976, before acquiring the status of territorial collectivity in 1985. The archipelago has two communes: Miquelon-Langlade. A third commune, Isle-aux-Marins, existed until 1945, when it was absorbed by the municipality of Saint-Pierre; the in
Soir 3 is the late-night newscast of the French public television network France 3. The program, FR3's first national news bulletin, was launched in 1978 by its head of news Jean-Marie Cavada; the bulletin is now shown at 10:30 pm for 60 minutes from Monday to Thursday, has been presented by Louis Laforge and Patricia Loison since 25 March 2013. The weekend editions known as Soir 3 and is broadcast at various times on Fridays and at weekends, when the regular anchor is Francis Letellier. For most of the year the weekday editions of Soir 3 are broadcast at 10:30 pm from the set of the live cultural discussion show Ce soir, broadcast afterwards. During certain periods, such as over the summer break and on other holidays, the programme is however shown at various times and emanates from the France 3 news studio. In addition to a summary of the day's news, the programme format includes several regular features such as sans détours and lu, vu, entendu; the latter of these is the last item in the bulletin.
The show, Ce soir, has since transferred to France 2 in March 2013, meaning that Grand Soir 3 is now broadcast live from the France 3 news studio. Stéphane Lippert has been the interim weekday host of Soir 3 since September 2010, replacing Carole Gaessler who left the programme after two years to become the anchor of France 3's main evening news bulletin, 19/20. Lippert was the host of the network's lunchtime news programme 12/13. Gaessler had succeeded Marie Drucker in September 2008 after the latter joined the news team of sister station France 2. Drucker stood aside for a spell in the run-up to the 2007 French presidential election after details of her relationship with Minister of Overseas France François Baroin were made public. During the period Drucker switched positions with Laforge, now host of the documentary series Des racines et des ailes. Other past hosts of Soir 3 have included Henri Sannier. From 25 March 2013, it is now known as Grand Soir 3 and became an hour-long news and discussion programme, broadcasting from 10:30pm to 11:30pm.
Since 25 March 2013, the Grand Soir 3's anchors are Patricia Loison. Airing at around 11 pm, the weekday programme moved to 10:30 pm on 5 January 2009, as France 3 revamped its schedule to accommodate the government-mandated end of advertising on France Télévisions stations during prime time. A five-minute pre-recorded regional news opt-out was introduced as part of the revamp. However, the programme has since expanded to 60 minutes on weekdays, but the weekend editions remain unchanged; the weekend editions of Soir 3, presented by Francis Letellier since June 2006, have several notable differences from their weeknight counterparts. Since Ce soir does not air at weekends, the programmes are broadcast year-round from the main France 3 news studio, which houses the national lunchtime and evening news broadcasts, do not possess a fixed slot in the schedule; some segments, such as lu, vu, entendu, do not feature in the weekend edition. In September 2010 the Sunday edition of the programme was lengthened by 10 minutes to include an extended political interview.
The 2008 annual report of France Télévisions claimed an average audience of 1.4 million viewers for Soir 3. Figures from audience measurement firm Médiamétrie put the programme's share of viewing at 16.3% on 29 July 2008, a night on which it recorded 2 million viewers, its best ratings of the year. France 3's average audience share for the month of July 2008 was 13.2%. Official site at france3.fr
Internet Protocol television is the delivery of television content over Internet Protocol networks. This is in contrast to delivery through traditional terrestrial and cable television formats. Unlike downloaded media, IPTV offers the ability to stream the source media continuously; as a result, a client media player can begin playing the content immediately. This is known as streaming media. Although IPTV uses the Internet protocol it is not limited to television streamed from the Internet. IPTV is deployed in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment. IPTV is used for media delivery around corporate and private networks. IPTV in the telecommunications arena is notable for its ongoing standardisation process. IPTV services may be classified into three main groups: Live television and live media, with or without related interactivity. Many different definitions of IPTV have appeared, including elementary streams over IP networks, MPEG transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems.
One official definition approved by the International Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV is: IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security and reliability. Another definition of IPTV, relating to the telecommunications industry, is the one given by Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions IPTV Exploratory Group in 2005: IPTV is defined as the secure and reliable delivery to subscribers of entertainment video and related services; these services may include, for example, Live TV, Video On Demand and Interactive TV. These services are delivered across an access agnostic, packet switched network that employs the IP protocol to transport the audio and control signals. In contrast to video over the public Internet, with IPTV deployments, network security and performance are managed to ensure a superior entertainment experience, resulting in a compelling business environment for content providers and customers alike.
The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept developed an Internet video product named IP/TV. IP/TV was an Mbone compatible Windows and Unix-based application that transmitted single and multi-source audio and video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality, using both unicast and IP multicast Real-time Transport Protocol and Real time control protocol; the software was written by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the IP/TV trademark. Internet radio company AudioNet started the first continuous live webcasts with content from WFAA-TV in January 1998 and KCTU-LP on 10 January 1998. Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in the UK, launched Kingston Interactive Television, an IPTV over digital subscriber line service in September 1999; the operator added additional VoD service in October 2001 with a VoD content provider. Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VoD over ADSL as a commercial service.
The service became the reference for various changes to UK Government regulations and policy on IPTV. In 2006, the KIT service was discontinued, subscribers having declined from a peak of 10,000 to 4,000. In 1999, NBTel was the first to commercially deploy Internet protocol television over DSL in Canada using the Alcatel 7350 DSLAM and middleware created by iMagic TV; the service was marketed under the brand VibeVision in New Brunswick, expanded into Nova Scotia in early 2000 after the formation of Aliant. IMagic TV was sold to Alcatel. In 2002, Sasktel was the second in Canada to commercially deploy IPTV over DSL, using the Lucent Stinger DSL platform. In 2005, SureWest Communications was the first North American company to offer high-definition television channels over an IPTV service. In 2005, Bredbandsbolaget launched its IPTV service as the first service provider in Sweden; as of January 2009, they are not the biggest supplier any longer. In 2007, TPG became the first internet service provider in Australia to launch IPTV.
By 2010, iiNet and Telstra launched IPTV services in conjunction to internet plans. In 2008, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited launched IPTV under the brand name of PTCL Smart TV in Pakistan; this service is available in 150 major cities of the country offering 140 live channels. In 2010, CenturyLink – after acquiring Embarq and Qwest – entered five U. S. markets with an IPTV service called Prism. This was after successful test marketing in Florida. In 2016, Korean Central Television introduced the set-top box called Manbang providing video-on-demand services in North Korea via quasi-internet protocol television. Manbang allows viewers to watch five different TV channels in real-time, read find political information regarding the Supreme Leader and Juche ideology, read articles from state-run news organizations; the technology was hindered by low broadb
France 24 is a state-owned international news and current affairs television network based in Paris. Its channels broadcast in French, English and Spanish, its English broadcast service is aimed at the overseas market, similar to DD India, WION, BBC World News, DW and RT. Based in the Paris suburb of Issy-les-Moulineaux, the service started on 6 December 2006, it is aimed at a worldwide market and is broadcast via satellite and cable operators around the world, but additionally, in 2010, France 24 began broadcasting through its own iPhone and Android apps. The stated mission of the channels is to "provide a global public service and a common editorial stance". Since 2008 the channel has been wholly owned by the French government, via its holding company France Médias Monde, having bought out the minority share of the former partners: Groupe TF1 and France Télévisions; the budget is €100 million per year. France 24 is broadcast on four channels: in English, in Arabic and in Spanish. France 24's programming is divided more or less between news coverage and news magazines or special reports.
Along with 260 journalists of its own, France 24 can call on the resources of the two main French broadcasters as well as partners such as AFP and RFI. The CEO of France 24 is Alain de Pouzilhac. From 19 May 2010 and the Director of France 24 since 2012 is Marc Saikali, France 24 unveiled a new schedule that prioritizes the morning and evening slots, anchored live by the network's editorial staff. More programming space than before goes to business, sport and studio discussion; as from 2016, France 24 shares its French-language night programming with the France-based France Info. According to Marie-Christine Saragosse, president and CEO of France Médias Monde, "part of the value added of this public channel" would be the fact that " will be wide awake while others would be sleeping"; the media's perception was that the channel was a brainchild of former president Jacques Chirac, famous for defending the position of the French language in the world versus the English domination in this media category.
In 1987 French Prime Minister Jacques Chirac expressed his desire for an international television news channel in French and had requested a report into the activities of current international broadcasts from France and noted the collective offering was "fragmented and ineffective." With the arrival of François Mitterrand as President in 1981 and the naming of Michel Rocard as Prime Minister in 1988, the government launched a new project, Canal France International, a package of programmes aimed at making programmes in French for foreign audiences in Africa, to be developed in parallel as a television channel. The First Gulf War of 1990, relayed across the world by CNN International in particular, revealed the power of international news channels and their role in the formation of opinion. A parliamentary minister, Philippe Séguin, wished to create a French-language equivalent. In 1996, after nineteen governmental reports in ten years, Prime Minister Alain Juppé asked Radio France Internationale president Jean-Paul Cluzel to create a French international news channel.
Cluzel proposed in 1997 to group TV5, RFI, CFI within a corporation entitled Téléfi. The UMP-led government decided to follow that recommendation but, with the return of the Socialist Party to government and the nomination of Hubert Védrine, the new Minister of Foreign Affairs, favoured the augmentation of existing outlets such as TV5, which started to produce its own programming, notably its news bulletins, which in turn created its own news team. Additionally with the creation of EuroNews in 1993, the media presence of France overseas became more complex, more fragmented, costlier, without being able to rely on a true round-the-clock international news channel. In 2002, President Jacques Chirac relaunched the project to create a French international news channel. Admittedly, we have with Agence France-Presse a remarkable information tool that we must continue to reinforce, notably in its international mission. Indeed, everyone here recognises the recent progress made by RFI, by TV5, by CFI, thanks to the efforts of their teams and to the determination of the public bodies.
But everybody notices that we are still far from having a large international news channel in French, capable of competing with the BBC or CNN."The recent crises have shown the handicap that a country suffers, a cultural area, which doesn't possess a sufficient weight in the battle of the images and the airwaves. Let us question, in the time of terrestrial television networks, of satellite, of the internet, on our organisation in this domain, notably in the dissipation of public funds which are reserved to them." On 7 March, speaking in the French Senate in front of foreign delegates to France, as part of his presidential campaign, Chirac said: "We must have the ambition of a big, round-the-clock news channel in French, equal to the BBC or CNN for the English-speaking world. It is essential for the influence of our country. For our expatriates, it would be a live and an immediate link to the mainland"After his reelection, the first reflections were engaged at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, headed by Do
Orange S. A. France Télécom S. A. is a French multinational telecommunications corporation. It has 256 million customers worldwide and employs 95,000 people in France, 59,000 elsewhere, it is the twelfth largest mobile network operator in the world and the fourth largest in Europe after Vodafone, Telefónica and VEON. In 2015, the group had revenue of €40 billion; the company's head office is located in the 15th arrondissement of Paris. The current CEO is Stéphane Richard; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Orange has been the company's main brand for mobile, internet and IPTV services since 2006, it originated in 1994 when Hutchison Whampoa acquired a controlling stake in Microtel Communications during the early 1990s and rebranded it as "Orange". It became a subsidiary of Mannesmann in 1999 and was acquired by France Télécom in 2000; the company was rebranded as Orange in July 2013. In 1792, under the French Revolution, the first communication network was developed to enable the rapid transmission of information in a warring and unsafe country.
That was the optical telegraphy network of Claude Chappe. In 1878, after the invention of the electrical telegraph and the invention of the telephone, the French State created a Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs. Telephone Services were added to the ministry when they were nationalised in 1889. However, it was not until 1923 that the second'T' appeared and the department of P&T became PTT. In 1941, a General Direction of Telecommunications was created within this ministry. In 1944, the National Centre of Telecommunications Studies was created to develop the telecommunications industry in France. In the 1970s, France tried extra hard to make up its delay on other countries with the programme "delta LP", it was at the time. Moreover, with the help of French manufacturers, digital switching, the Minitel and the GSM standard were invented by engineers and CNET researchers. In 1982, Telecom introduced Minitel online ordering for its customers; until 1988, France Télécom was known as the direction générale des Télécommunications, a division of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications.
It became autonomous in 1990. This was in response to a European directive, aimed at making competition mandatory in public services from 1 January 1998; the 2 July 1990 Bill changed France Télécom into an operator of public law, with Marcel Roulet the first Chairman. Since the company has had a separate body corporate from the State and acquired financial autonomy, it was privatised by Lionel Jospin's Plural Left government starting on 1 January 1998. The French government, both directly and through its holding company ERAP, continues to hold a stake of 27% in the company. In addition, the government Conseil of Ministers names the CEO. In September 1995, Michel Bon was appointed to run France Télécom Group. In 1997, the capital of the new public company was floated whereas the dot-com bubble phenomenon made the stock exchanges bullish. A second share offering occurred in 1998. France Télécom got behind in the internationalization launched by its international competitors such as Vodafone, thus, it started looking for targets at the highest speculation rate of the dot-com bubble.
Moreover, its alliance with Deutsche Telekom based on a reciprocal capital contribution of 2% broke off when Deutsche Telekom announced that they were planning to do business with Telecom Italia without letting the French know – if this project ended up failing. In July 1991, Hutchison Telecom, a UK subsidiary of the Hong Kong-based conglomerate Hutchison Whampoa, acquired a controlling stake in Microtel Communications Ltd, who by had acquired a licence to develop a mobile network in the United Kingdom. Hutchison renamed Microtel to Orange Personal Communications Services Ltd, on 28 April 1994 the Orange brand was launched in the UK mobile phone market. A holding company structure was adopted in 1995 with the establishment of Orange plc. In April 1996, Orange went public and floated on the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ, majority owned by Hutchison, followed by BAe. In June 1996, it became the youngest company to enter the FTSE 100, valued at £2.4 billion. In October 1999 the German conglomerate Mannesmann AG acquired Orange for a price equivalent to €7,900 per customer, i.e. US$33 billion.
Mannesmann's acquisition of Orange triggered Vodafone to make a hostile takeover bid for Mannesmann. Shortly thereafter, in February 2000, Vodafone acquired Mannesmann for US$183 billion, decided to divest Orange because the EU regulations wouldn't allow it to hold two mobile licences. In August 2000, France Télécom bought Orange plc from Vodafone for a total estimated cost of €39.7 billion. At the time, France Télécom bought stakes in several other international firms, of which some have since been sold back. Through this process, France Télécom became the fourth biggest global operator; the mobile telephone operations of Orange plc were merged with the majority of the mobile operations of France Télécom, forming the new group Orange SA. On 13 February 2001, Orange SA was listed on the Euronext Paris stock exchange with an initial public offering of 95 Euros per share, with a secondary listing in London. In May 2001, Orange SA was listed on the CAC 40, the benchmark stock market index of the top 40 French companies in terms of market capitalisation.
In June 2001 the France Telecom Mobile brands Itinéris, OLA, Mobicarte were replaced by the Orange brand. On 21 November 2003, France Telecom withdrew the 13.7% of Orange's shares traded on the Pari
Euronews is a European pay television news network, headquartered in Lyon, France. The network began broadcasting on 1 January 1993, aimed to cover world news from a pan-European perspective, it is jointly owned by several European and North African state broadcasting organisations, since 2015 majority owned by Media Globe Networks led by Egyptian billionaire Naguib Sawiris, chairman of the supervisory board. In 1992, following the Persian Gulf War, during which CNN's position as the preeminent source of 24-hour news programming was cemented, the European Broadcasting Union decided to establish Euronews to present information from a European perspective; the channel's first broadcast was on 1 January 1993 from Lyon. An additional broadcast studio was set up in London in 1996, it was founded by a group of ten European public broadcasters: CyBC, Cyprus France Télévisions, France RAI, Italy RTBF, Belgium RTP, Portugal RTVE, Spain TMC, Monaco YLE, Finland ERTU, EgyptIn 1997, the British news broadcaster ITN purchased a 49 percent share of Euronews for £5.1 million from Alcatel-Alsthom.
ITN supplies the content of the channel along with the remaining shareholders, which are represented by the SOCEMIE consortium. Euronews SA is the operating company that holds the broadcasting licence, it is co-owned by the ten founders and: VGTRK, Russia TRT, Turkey ČT, Czech Republic PBS, Malta SNRT, Morocco RTVSLO, Slovenia RTÉ, Ireland UA:PBC, Ukraine SRG-SSR, Switzerland TVR, Romania SVT/MTG, Sweden ERTT, Tunisia ENTV, AlgeriaThe broadcast switched from analogue to digital transmission in 1999. In the same year, the Portuguese audio track was added; the Russian audio track appeared in 2001. In 2003, ITN sold its stake in Euronews as part of its drive to streamline operations and focus on news-gathering rather than channel management. On 6 February 2006, Ukrainian public broadcaster Natsionalna Telekompanya Ukraïny purchased a one percent interest in SOCEMIE. On 27 May 2008, Spanish public broadcaster RTVE decided to leave Euronews to promote its international channel TVE Internacional, it cited legal requirements to maintain low debt levels through careful spending as a factor influencing its decision to leave.
In February 2009, the Turkish public broadcaster TRT became a shareholder in the channel, joined its supervisory board. TRT purchased 15.70% of the channel's shares and became the fourth main partner after France Télévisions, RAI, VGTRK. In February 2015, the channel's executive board approved a bid by Media Globe Networks, owned by Egyptian telecom magnate Naguib Sawiris, to acquire a 53% controlling stake in the media outlet; the deal raised questions over Euronews's future editorial independence. In 2 October 2012, Euronews launched Euronews Radio; the service was designed for viewers for whom "watching news is not an option" by providing a direct simulcast to the TV channel, with "No Comment" segment being replaced by music. The music of the bulletin openings are transmitted on Euronews Radio. Weather reports are read by a female announcer. On 20 April 2016, the French subsidiary of Euronews launched an African version of their news service called Africanews in French and English. In November 2016, the channel's executive board was in talks with NBCUniversal, parent company of NBC News, for a "strategic partnership".
NBCU would acquire 15 to 30% ownership of the Euronews network, would contribute to Euronews content, facilitate NBC News' expanded operations in Europe. After successful negotiations with the European Commission, who feared that the partnership would result on an Americanization of Euronews, the NBCUniversal News Group purchased a 25% stake in Euronews in February 2017 for $30 million. NBC News president Deborah Turness was appointed to head up international operations, incumbent Euronews CEO Michael Peters, which has led it since 2004, became CEO of the new partnership. Both report directly to NBC News chairman Andy Lack; the resulting partnership became known as Euronews NBC. Although Sawiris and NBC News have the largest stakes in Euronews, editorial control by SOCEMIE members has been assured, with the broadcasters having seven slots in the editorial board, as opposed to Sawiris' company and NBC News, which only has one, thereby reducing rumours of an Americanization of Euronews' values.
Editorial control is handled by Euronews' teams, with NBC only focusing on planning and coordinating tasks. After the formation of the partnership, video reports from NBC News' properties began to appear on the TV channel and reports from NBCNews.com began to be distributed on its digital platforms. On 9 May 2017, Euronews split its service into 12 language-specific editions, of which nine have a linear TV channel with its own language voiceover, but now including contents, on-air graphics and its lower-third news ticker in the language; the glocal strategy allows the language editorial teams to personalise the content and presentation of their channel, not only by sharing own-produced content with other languages, but by producing content, relevant to local audiences, allowing local reporters and presenters to appear on camera in all its language editions. The splitting process finished on 24 May 2017. Alongside the major language split, satellite distribution for the German, Spanish and Turkish channels was discontinued, now being only available via fibre-optic IP uplink.
However, the discontinuation of the German-language channel from satellite distribution generated outcry from many German satellite TV owners, resulting on the restoration