Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail
The Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail is a 1,210-mile National Park Service unit in the United States National Historic Trail and National Millennium Trail programs. The trail route extends from Nogales on the U. S.-Mexico border in Arizona, through the California desert and coastal areas in Southern California and the Central Coast region to San Francisco. The Trail commemorates the 1775–1776 land route that Spanish commander Juan Bautista de Anza took from the Sonora y Sinaloa Province of New Spain in Colonial Mexico through to Las Californias Province; the goal of the 1775–1776 trip was to establish a mission and presidio on the San Francisco Bay. The trail was an attempt to ease the course of Spanish colonization of California by establishing a major land route north for many to follow, it was used for about five years before being closed by the Quechan Indians in 1781 and kept closed for the next 40 years. Juan Bautista de Anza leading an exploratory expedition on January 8, 1774, with 3 padres, 20 soldiers, 11 servants, 35 mules, 65 cattle, 140 horses set forth from Tubac Presidio, south of present-day Tucson, Arizona.
They went across the Sonoran desert to California from Mexico by swinging south of the Gila River to avoid Apache attacks until they hit the Colorado River at the Yuma Crossing—about the only way across the Colorado River. The friendly Quechan Indians they encountered there were growing most of their food using irrigation systems and had imported pottery, wheat and a few other crops from New Mexico. After crossing the Colorado to avoid the impassable Algodones Dunes, they followed the river about 50 miles to Arizona's southwest corner on the Colorado River. There Anza turned westward following along a seasonal dis-tributary river of the Colorado until it turned northwest near present-day Mexicali and turned north through present-day Imperial Valley. Anza turned northwest again crossing the remaining desert and mountains before reaching the coastal valleys of Southern California and the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel near the future city of Los Angeles, California; the Pueblo de Los Angeles would be established in 1781 by eleven families recruited from Sonora y Sinaloa Province.
It took Anza about 74 days to do this initial reconnaissance trip to establish a land route into California. On his return trip he retraced his path to the Yuma Crossing of the Colorado River and went down the Gila River corridor until hitting the Santa Cruz River corridor and continuing on to Tubac, Arizona; the return trip only took 23 days as he now had found a trail with sufficient water to make land access to California possible. On the Gila river he encountered several extensive villages of Pima Indians; these were a peaceful and populous agricultural tribe with extensive crops and irrigation systems located along the Gila River. In Anza's second trip he returned to California via the Gila River path he had discovered with 240 friars and colonists with their families, they took 695 horses and mules, 385 Texas Longhorn bulls and cows with them —starting the cattle and horse industry in California. In California the cattle and horses had few enemies and plentiful grass in all but drought years and grew and multiplied as feral animals – doubling every two years.
They started from Tubac Arizona on October 22, 1775 and arrived at San Francisco Bay on March 28, 1776. There they established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by Mission San Francisco de Asís – the future city of San Francisco, California In 1779 Father Francisco Garcés was assigned to establish a mission at Yuma crossing of the Colorado River. In 1780 the Spanish established two combination missions and pueblos at the Yuma Colorado River Crossing of the Anza trail: Mission San Pedro y San Pablo de Bicuñer and Mission Puerto de Purísima Concepción. Both these pueblos and missions were on the California side of the Colorado River near the mouth of the Gila River but were administered by the Arizona authorities; the settlement of Los Angeles, California involved two groups totaling 44 persons including 22 children. One group under Alfèrez Ramon Laso de la Vega crossed the Gulf of California on launches and travelled overland to San Diego and up to the San Gabriel MissionThe second group, under Fernando Rivera y Moncada, took an overland route over the Anza trail 1,200 miles through the desert from Sinaloa Mexico.
They passed through the new missions on the Colorado River, Mission Puerto de Purísima Concepción and Mission San Pedro y San Pablo de Bicuñer. The group arrived at the Colorado River in June 1781. Rivera y Moncada sent most of his party ahead, but he stayed behind to rest the livestock before continuing their drive across the desert, his party would never reach San Gabriel. In July Rivera was killed along with the local missionaries and travelers with the revolt of the Quechan Indians in 1781; the Quechan and Mojave Indians rose up against the party for encroaching on their farmlands and for other abuses inflicted by the soldiers. On 17–19 July 1781 the Yuma Indians, in a dispute with the New Spain government and church, destroyed both missions and pueblos – killing 103 soldiers and Friars and capturing about 80 more – women and children. Included in the casualties were Fernando Rivera y Moncada military commander and former governor of California and Father Francisco Garcés founder of the missions on the Colorado River.
In four well supported punitive expeditions in 1782 and 1783 against the Quechans the Spanish managed to gather their dead and ransom nearly all the prisoners. The Yuma Crossing and the Anza
Presidio of Santa Barbara
El Presidio Real de Santa Bárbara known as the Royal Presidio of Santa Barbara, is a former military installation in Santa Barbara, California, USA. The presidio was built by Spain in 1782, with the mission of defending the Second Military District in California. In modern times, the Presidio serves as a significant tourist attraction, museum and an active archaeological site as part of El Presidio de Santa Barbara State Historic Park; the park contains an original adobe structure called El Cuartel, the second oldest surviving building in California, only the chapel at Mission San Juan Capistrano, known as "Father Junípero Serra's Church", is older. The Presidio of Santa Barbara has the distinction of being the last military outpost built by Spain in the New World; the Presidio became a California Historical Landmark in 1958 and was listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places in 1973; the current El Presidio de Santa Barbara State Historic Park site sits between Anacapa and Garden Street on East Canon Perdido Street in downtown Santa Barbara.
The main portion of the site is across the street from the Santa Barbara city Post Office, is about two blocks from city hall, De la Guerra Plaza and two other museums, the Santa Barbara Historical Museum and the Casa de la Guerra and includes a reconstructed quadrangle with soldiers' quarters and a chapel. Only two portions of the original presidio quadrangle survive to this day: a remnant of the Cañedo Adobe, named for José María Cañedo, the Soldado de Cuera to whom it was deeded in lieu of back pay when the Presidio fell to inactivity, the remnants of a two-room soldiers quarters, called El Cuartel; the Cañedo Adobe is serving as the visitor's center for the state park, El Cuartel is unmodified. The site administrator, the Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation, reconstructed the rest of the site, with the most recent construction—two rooms in the northwest corner of the site—finished in May 2006; the reconstruction is ongoing, with the more recent construction of two more rooms in the northwest corner.
The Presidio Chapel and courtyard were completed during the construction of the quadrangle. The chapel is used for civic events such as musical concerts and lectures. Although not a canonical Roman Catholic oratory, Roman Catholic weddings are performed in the chapel with the permission of the local Roman Catholic Santa Barbara Pastoral Regional bishop; the site of the Presidio was chosen by the fourth governor of Las Californias. Perceiving that the coast at Santa Barbara was vulnerable to attack, he located a spot near a harbor, sheltered from severe storms. In addition, there was an ample supply of both building materials and water nearby. Construction began on April 21, 1782, Padre Junípero Serra blessed the site. By the next year, a temporary facility had been completed, a wheat field planted by the local Chumash Indians of Chief Yanonalit; the early Presidio consisted of brush walls around a quadrangle 330 feet on a side. The post had 61 officers and men in 1783; the first comandante, José Francisco Ortega, planned the fortifications and irrigation works.
He obtained livestock for the presidio from Mission San Buenaventura, established orchards, began large-scale farming. In 1784, Felipe de Goicoechea took over as comandante, supervising construction of the fortifications and living quarters for the soldiers and their families. Two years construction of the nearby Mission Santa Barbara began in 1786; the pueblo or town of Santa Barbara developed around the Presidio, which offered protection for the residents. The chapel in the Presidio was the primary place of worship for the residents of early Santa Barbara, until its destruction by the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake; the mission, located a mile and a half inland, was intended for use by the native Chumash neophytes after their conversion to Catholicism. The Presidio was built to standard plans for a Spanish colonial military headquarters, using locally available materials, so the buildings forming the outer square were constructed with thick, solid adobe outer walls; the main gate opened into an open parade ground/plaza in the center of the square.
The chapel stood at the center of the back of the square. While it was never attacked by a strong military force during its sixty years of operation, the Presidio was subject to the assaults of nature. Several devastating earthquakes in the early 19th century destroyed much of the structure. In 1855 the Presidio Chapel grew into the Apostolic College of Our Lady of Sorrows, which soon became Our Lady of Sorrows Church at the corner of Figueroa and State Streets, at the corner of Anacapa and Sola streets in 1929. However, both still stand separately as vibrant churches of a richly Catholic history. At the time of the Mexican–American War in Alta California little of the fortress remained in usable condition, on December 27, 1846, John C. Frémont ascended San Marcos Pass during rainy weather and came up on the Presidio and the town from behind; the Presidio surrendered without a fight, as the garrison was far south in the Pueblo de Los Angeles. Frémont had heard that the Mexican army was lying in ambush for him at Gaviota Pass, the only other sensible route over the mountains at that time, had crossed the difficult muddy track on San Marcos Pass to outflank them, but this move turned out not to have been necessary.
Mexican General Andrés Pico surrendered his force to Frémont, recognizing that the war was lost. In 1963, the Santa Barbara Trust for Historic Preservation was founded, with the primary mission of restoring the Presidio. In 1966, the land on which the Presidio is located became a State Histor
In Christian theology, the Immaculate Conception is the conception of the Virgin Mary free from original sin by virtue of the merits of her son Jesus. The Catholic Church teaches that God acted upon Mary in the first moment of her conception, keeping her "immaculate"; the Immaculate Conception is confused with the virgin birth of Jesus, the latter being, the doctrine of the Incarnation. While all Christians believe in the virgin birth of Jesus, it is principally Roman Catholics, along with various other Christian denominations, who believe in the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. Although the belief that Mary was sinless, or conceived without original sin, has been held since Late Antiquity, the doctrine was not dogmatically defined in the Catholic Church until 1854 when Pope Pius IX, declared ex cathedra, i.e. using papal infallibility, in his papal bull Ineffabilis Deus, the Immaculate Conception to be doctrine. The Catholic Church celebrates the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception on December 8.
The defined dogma of the Immaculate Conception states: We declare and define that the doctrine which holds that the most Blessed Virgin Mary, in the first instance of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege granted by Almighty God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race, was preserved free from all stain of original sin, is a doctrine revealed by God and therefore to be believed and by all the faithful. Declaramus, pronuntiamus et definimus doctrinam, quae tenet, beatissimam Virginem Mariam in primo instanti suae Conceptionis fuisse singulari omnipotentis Dei gratia et privilegio, intuitu meritorum Christi lesu Salvatoris humani generis, ab omni originalis culpae labe praeservatam immunem, esse a Deo revelatam, atque idcirco ab omnibus fidelibus firmiter constanterque credendam. Quapropter si qui secus ac a Nobis; the definition concerns original sin only, it makes no declaration about the Church's belief that the Blessed Virgin was sinless in the sense of freedom from actual or personal sin.
The doctrine teaches that from her conception Mary, being always free from original sin, received the sanctifying grace that would come with baptism after birth. The Encyclical Mystici Corporis from Pope Pius XII in addition holds that Mary was sinless "free from all sin, original or personal". In this, Pius XII repeats a position expressed by the Council of Trent, which decreed "If anyone shall say that a man once justified can sin no more, nor lose grace, that therefore he who falls and sins was never justified; when defining the dogma in Ineffabilis Deus, Pope Pius IX explicitly affirmed that Mary was redeemed in a manner more sublime. He stated that Mary, rather than being cleansed after sin, was prevented from contracting original sin in view of the foreseen merits of Jesus Christ, the Savior of the human race. In Luke 1:47, Mary proclaims: "My spirit has rejoiced in God my Saviour." This is referred to as Mary's pre-redemption by Christ. Since the Second Council of Orange against semi-pelagianism, the Catholic Church has taught that had man never sinned in the Garden of Eden and was sinless, he would still require God's grace to remain sinless.
The doctrine of the immaculate conception is not to be confused with the virginal conception of her son Jesus. Catholics believe that Mary was conceived of both parents, traditionally known by the names of Saint Joachim and Saint Anne. In 1677, the Holy See condemned the error of Imperiali who taught that St. Anne in the conception and birth of Mary remained virgin, a belief surfacing since the 4th century; the Church celebrates the Feast of the Immaculate Conception on December 8 nine months before celebrating the Nativity of Mary. The feast of the Annunciation is celebrated on nine months before Christmas Day. A feast of the Conception of the Most Holy and All Pure Mother of God was celebrated in Syria on December 8 as early as the 5th century; the title of achrantos refers to the holiness of Mary, not to the holiness of her conception. Mary's complete sinlessness and concomitant exemption from any taint from the first moment of her existence was a doctrine familiar to Greek theologians of Byzantium.
Beginning with St. Gregory Nazianzen, his explanation of the "purification" of Jesus and Mary at the circumcision prompted him to consider the primary meaning of "purification" in Christology to refer to a sinless nature that manifested itself in glory in a moment of grace. St. Gregory Nazianzen designated Mary as prokathartheisa. Gregory attempted to solve the riddle of the Purification of Jesus and Mary in the Temple through considering the human natures of Jesus and Mary as holy and therefore both purified in this manner of grace and glory. Gregory's doctrines surrounding Mary's purification were related to the burgeoning commemoration of the Mother of God in and around Constantinople close to the date of Christmas. Nazianzen's title of Mary at the Annunciation as "prepurified" was subsequently adopted by all theologians interested in his Mariology to justify the Byzantine e
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Fermín de Francisco Lasuén de Arasqueta was a Basque Franciscan missionary to Alta California president of the Franciscan missions there, founder of nine of the twenty-one Spanish missions in California. Although he is sometimes called the "forgotten friar," Fermín Lasuén governed the California Mission system three years longer than his more famous predecessor, Junípero Serra. Lasuén was born at Vitoria in Álava, Spain on July 7, 1736 and joined the Franciscan order as a teenager, entering the Friary of San Francisco shortly before his fifteenth birthday on March 19, 1751. On March 19, 1751, Lasuén was ceremoniously invested with his Franciscan habit. In 1759, Lasuén left the Franciscan Sanctuary of Arantzazu, he set sail from Cádiz with seventeen other friars while still a deacon to volunteer for ministry in the Americas. He arrived in New Spain in 1761 and was sent west to Las Californias in 1768. Following the establishment of Mission San Diego de Alcalá in 1769, he moved north to Alta California in 1773.
He based himself in San Diego and remained there until 1775. Kumeyaay Indian unrest caused his return to San Diego. In late 1776 he went to San Luis Obispo before again returning to San Diego in 1777 when he was made minister there, he was appointed the second Presidente of the missions in California in 1785, following the death of Junípero Serra, transferred to the Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo. Lasuén continued the work begun by Serra, establishing 9 more missions, bringing the total to 18, he died at Mission San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo on July 26, 1803. On his death he was succeeded by Esteban Tápis. Although of a more introspective and brooding temperament than his predecessor Junipero Serra, Lasuén was single-minded and a capable administrator, founding the remaining California missions. Captain Alessandro Malaspina described Lasuén as such: "...a man who in Christian lore and conduct was apostolic, his manner and learning unusual." It is clear from his diaries that Lasuén struggled with loneliness and some depression brought about by the extreme conditions he encountered in San Diego when he was asked to return to restore order after the murder of Fray Jayme.
Lasuén described the ardors of missionary life as such: "A missionary priest has to engage in many duties, many of which only concern him as a means to something else. He is responsible for the temporal welfare of people who are many and varied, he has individuals who are more dependent on him than small children, for there are many needs that arise...and many different things to be done for the different groups that make up the community. He is surrounded by pagans, placed in charge of neophytes who can be trusted but a little..." At age 47, writing to his friend Fray Joseph de Jesus Maria Velez in 1783, Lasuén stated: "I am old and gray and although this is caused by my age, yet the difficult exercise of my position here has brought this about during the five years I am about to celebrate as minister of San Diego. This land is for apostles only and its people call for apostolic men greater than I happen to be, his Christian zeal and sense of "civilizing" purpose led him to great lengths in order to acculturate Native Americans using their language in his pursuit, despite the Spanish king's prohibition in that respect.
News of the mistreatment of Native Americans in the Mission of San Francisco reached governor of California Diego de Borica a Basque, who warned of a lawsuit against Lasuén should he not give up on his practices. Mission Santa Barbara Mission La Purísima Concepción Mission Santa Cruz Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad Mission San José Mission San Juan Bautista Mission San Miguel Arcángel Mission San Fernando Rey de España Mission San Luis Rey de Francia He oversaw the expansion of many of the California mission sites and helped many other missions like Mission San Gabriel Arcángel
Reductions or in Spanish reducciones called'congregaciones', were settlements created by Spanish rulers in Spanish America and the Spanish East Indies. The Spanish relocated, forcibly if necessary, native inhabitants of their colonies into settlements which were modeled on towns and villages in Spain. In Portuguese-speaking Latin America, reductions were called aldeias; the policy of reductions began on Caribbean islands in 1503. In the words of the Spanish rulers, "It is necessary that the Indians be assigned to towns in which they will live together and that they not remain or wander separated from each other in the backcountry." The Spanish ordered that Indian villages be destroyed and selected sites for new villages to be built. The concentration or reducción of the Indian population facilitated the Spaniards' access to Indian labor, the promulgation of Christianity, the collection of taxes and tribute. Moreover, the reduction of the Indians was intended to break down ethnic and kinship ties and detribalize the residents to create a generic Indian population.
Reductions began in Mexico shortly after Cortés' conquest in the 1520s and were begun in Baja California in the 17th century and California in the late 18th century. Reductions in Mexico were more known as congregaciones. Indian reductions in the Andes in present-day Peru and Bolivia, began on a large scale in 1570 during the rule of Viceroy Francisco de Toledo. Toledo aimed, with some success, to remake the society of the former Inca empire and in a few years resettled about 1.4 million Indians into 840 communities, many of which are the nucleus of present-day cities and villages. The most famous of the reductions were in Paraguay and neighboring Argentina and Bolivia in the 17th and 18th centuries which were created and ruled by the Jesuit order of the Catholic Church. Indian reductions in the Andes Jesuit reductions
La Purísima Mission State Historic Park
La Purísima Mission State Historic Park is a state park unit of California, United States, containing La Purisima Mission, considered to be the most restored Spanish mission in California. Ten of the original buildings are restored and furnished, including the church, shops and blacksmith shop; the mission gardens and livestock represent what would have been found at the mission during the 1820s. Special living history events are scheduled throughout the year. A visitor center features information and artifacts, a self-guided tour gives visitors the opportunity to step back in time for a glimpse of a brief, turbulent period in California’s history. Located outside Lompoc, the 1,934-acre park was established in 1935. Misión la Purísima Concepción de María Santísima — "Mission of the Immaculate Conception of Most Holy Mary" — was founded by Father Presidente Fermin de Lasuén on December 8, 1787, it was the eleventh of 21 Franciscan Missions established in Alta California. A major earthquake on December 21, 1812, destroyed many of the mission buildings.
Father Mariano Payeras received permission to relocate the mission community 4 miles to the northeast in La Cañada de los Berros, next to El Camino Real. La Purísima Mission was established in its new location on April 23, 1813. Materials salvaged from the buildings destroyed by the earthquake were used to construct the new buildings, which were completed within ten years; the end of the California missions came in 1834, when the Mexican government, which had gained independence from Spain, transferred control of the missions from the Catholic Church to civil authorities. The property passed into private ownership and the mission buildings fell into ruin. In 1933 the Union Oil Company deeded several parcels to the State of California. Under direction of the National Park Service, the Civilian Conservation Corps restored or reconstructed many of the mission’s adobe buildings. La Purísima Mission State Historic Park was one of many state parks threatened with closure in 2008; those closures were avoided by cutting hours and maintenance system-wide.
List of California state parks This article contains material from the California Department of Parks and Recreation which, unless otherwise indicated, is in the public domain. La Purísima Mission State Historic Park – California State Parks La Purisima Mission State Historic Park – Prelado de los Tesoros de la Purisima