The Nun (1966 film)
The Nun is a 1966 French drama film directed by Jacques Rivette and based on the novel of the same title by Denis Diderot. The Nun starts out with a young woman, named Suzanne, in a wedding gown preparing to take her vows of chastity and poverty to make herself a nun, but she refuses at the last moment and instead begs her parents not to force her to take them; this does not work, Suzanne learns much about her family and her heritage - or her lack thereof. She discovers that her mother's husband is not her father, that her mother is shutting her up in the convent because she doesn't want her husband to know that the girl was not his daughter, she does not want to see her sin in the flesh, for she says bearing the girl was her only sin. The father sends the priest to convince her, who reveals her heritage; the mother falls on her knees to beg the daughter to take the vows, explaining the story enough to make Suzanne resign herself to her fate, realizing that her mother would never give her a chance to marry because the mother did not feel she was worthy to marry and the family could not afford to marry her off.
According to the mother, she did not have the bloodline to marry. She writes her mother a letter that says she will take the vows, a letter that will be used against her in the court case she wages against the church to be released of her vows. Suzanne takes the vows, she enters the convent depressed and unresponsive, unable to cope with the requirements of being a nun. She bonds to the Mother Superior, who takes her under her wing, they have many long conversations; the Mother Superior, Mme de Moni, knows it's a mistake to accept the girl as a nun but does not stop it, instead telling the girl to accept her fate and make the best of it. Suzanne attempts to, made easier by Mme de Moni's encouragement, does not utter more words but her body language reveals all. During this time, Suzanne's mother dies, Mme de Moni does as well, she bears it until the life drives her mad, for the new Mother Superior, Sister Sainte-Christine, mistreats her because of her rebellion as a result of her dislike of the nun's life.
She isolates her and deprives her of food, forcing her to adopt a diet of bread and water. Suzanne sends her friend away with a letter to a lawyer, she wants to be free and absolved of her vows under the argument that everyone around her forced her to take the vows against her will: her mother, her father, the Mother Superior, etc. The lawyer, who becomes her biggest advocate against the religious orthodoxy enslaving her, informs her that while the case is pending, she will have to stay with Sister Sainte-Christine and endure the resulting persecution, but that either she will win or be transferred. Suzanne doesn't care, not understanding the depths of Sister Sainte-Christine' cruelty. While the case pends, Suzanne suffers many mistreatments under Sister Sainte-Christine, who steals her crucifix, forbids her to eat, forbids her to pray, forbids the other sisters to interact with or speak to her, isolates her, she allows them to walk on the starving Suzanne after Mass.. She is whipped, they become convinced she is possessed, Sister Sainte-Christine requests an exorcist.
Officials arrive, see her mistreatment and understand that her devotion to God is not the way a possessed person would act, investigate the mistreatment, which involves Sister Sainte-Christine's being reprimanded. After that, Sister Sainte-Christine lessens the punishment to only isolation but still treats her coldly; when Suzanne discovers that the church has decided not to absolve her vows, she once again falls into a severe depression. Her lawyer promises to keep in touch, although a church official forbids the contact; the same man tells her that the church transferred her to another convent under the supervision of Mme de Chelles. In addition to long conversations about her thoughts and experiences, the light-hearted, happy Mme de Chelles displays an attraction to and makes sexual advances towards Suzanne, which Suzanne never grasps, she meets a monk who attempts to comfort her by saying that he was forced into religion against his will as well. They develop a relationship and he tells her that they must escape together.
Suzanne goes with him, but flees from him when he forces kisses on her as soon as they are together which implies he desires more with her. Suzanne finds refuge nearby, doing chores for women. While there, she learns that the monk was caught and faces life in prison, same as she does, she cannot bear the thought of returning. She flees the small village. A smart looking woman takes her to her home, but Suzanne does not understand it is a brothel and joins the girls who are dressing to entertain clients at a masked dinner party; as everybody takes their places, Suzanne realises. Crossing to the window, she asks God's forgiveness and jumps to her death. Anna Karina - Suzanne Simonin Liselotte Pulver - Mme de Chelles Micheline Presle - Mme de Moni Francine Bergé - Sister Ste. Christine Francisco Rabal - Dom Morel Yori Bertin - Sister Ste. Thérèse Catherine Diamant - Sister Ste. Cecile Christiane Lenier - Mme Simonin Wolfgang Reichmann - Father Lemoine Jacques Rivette - Screenwriter, Director Georges de Beauregard - Producer Jean-Jacques Fabri - Art Director Francoise Geissler - Editor Harold Salemson - Editor Denis Diderot - Book Author Jean-Claude Éloy - Composer Jean Gruault - Screenwriter Gitt Magrini - Costume Designer Denise de Casabianca -
Louis Théodore Gouvy
Louis Théodore Gouvy was a French/German composer. Gouvy was born into a French-speaking family in the village of Goffontaine, in the Sarre, a region on the France-Prussia border; the family was of Belgian discant. Gouvy's great-grandfather came from Goffontaine, a Belgian village near Liège and named his fabric Goffontaine, now Saarbrucken. Gouvy is a village in Belgium, near the border with Luxemburg; because this region fell under Prussian control shortly before his birth, Théodore Gouvy could not attain French citizenship until the age of 32. He began piano lessons with a private tutor at the age of eight, was educated in France—Sarreguemines Metz—developing a keen interest in Classical Greek culture and in modern languages—not only German, which he spoke fluently, but English and Italian as well. In 1837 he went to Paris to study law, continuing his piano lessons with a pupil of the pianist and composer Henri Herz and became friendly with Adolphe Adam; this led to further music studies in Berlin.
Unable to pursue music instruction at the Conservatoire de Paris, he took up private courses. Gouvy was a man of two cultures, divided between France and Germany, from which he drew his inspiration, his characteristics and his force. While to a certain extent he was known and recognized in his lifetime, he fell into obscurity following his death. Gouvy, drawn toward pure instrumental music as opposed to opera, set himself the unenviable task of becoming a French symphonist, it was unenviable because the French, the Parisians, throughout most of the 19th century were opera-mad and not interested in pure instrumental music. It was this disdain for instrumental music in general which led to Gouvy living the last third of his life entirely in Germany where he was much appreciated. During his lifetime, his compositions, his chamber music, were held in high regard and performed in those countries where chamber music mattered, but in France, he never achieved real acclaim. Gouvy was universally acknowledged for being a master of form and for his deft sense of instrumental timbre.
Mendelssohn and Schumann were his models and his music developed along the lines one might have expected of those men had they lived longer. All of his works show that he was a gifted melodist whose music is a joy to hear. Musicians of the first rank such as Johannes Brahms, Carl Reinecke, Joseph Joachim, who were familiar with Gouvy's music, held it in high regard. Hector Berlioz wrote in the Journal des Débats of April 13, 1851: "hat a musician of the importance of M. Gouvy is still not well known in Paris, that so many gnats bother the public with their tenacious buzzing, it is enough to confuse and inflame the naive spirits that still believe in the reason and the justice of our musical manners". Berlioz's favorable reviews had little effect, Gouvy's music continued to be neglected until the end of the 20th century. In 1994, his Requiem, with its vigorous Dies iræ, was revived by the Lorraine Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Jacques Houtmann. Stylistically the composition owes something to Mendelssohn, something to Gounod, something to Verdi, but remains original despite these influences.
Although his work comprises more than two hundred compositions, including 90 opuses published in his lifetime, it remains ignored. In particular, he wrote twenty-four compositions for a full orchestra, including nine symphonies, as well as overtures and variations. Chamber music comprises a large portion of Gouvy's work and accounts in particular for four sonatas in duet form, five trios, eleven quartets, seven quintets, an enormous piano repertoire — for two and four hands — and for two pianos, several scores for wind instrument ensembles, as well as many melodies and Lieder. We know of five great dramatic cantatas, two operas as well as some large religious works, including a Requiem, a Stabat Mater, a Messe brève, the cantata Golgotha. Gouvy was elected to the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1894 on the death of Anton Rubinstein, to the König-Preussische Akademie in Berlin in 1895, he died in Leipzig on 21 April 1898. A list of his works was compiled by Arthur Pougin. Important part of his compositions has not been published during his life.
It is now the major aim of the Institut Theodore Gouvy located in Hombourg-Haut. Symphony No. 1 in E♭ major, Op. 9 Serenade for strings, Op.11 Symphony No. 2 in F major, Op. 12 Le Giaour Overture, Op.14 Symphony No. 3 in C major, Op. 20 Symphony No. 4 in D minor, Op. 25 Symphony No. 5 in B♭ major, Op. 30 Symphonie brève.
The Nun (2013 film)
The Nun is a 2013 French drama film directed by Guillaume Nicloux. It is based on the 18th-century novel La Religieuse by French writer Denis Diderot; the film premiered in competition at the 63rd Berlin International Film Festival. It received two nominations at the 4th Magritte Awards, winning Best Actress for Pauline Étienne, a nomination at the 39th César Awards; the young Suzanne Simonin is forced by her parents to become a nun. She learns, her abbess treats her nicely but when she dies and another takes her place, Suzanne considers breaking her vows. Due to the maltreatment she undergoes, she is thrown into a world of punishment, it is not until a friend gives Suzanne some hope that she may not have to remain a nun forever that Suzanne's punishment does ease up. Pauline Étienne as Suzanne Isabelle Huppert as Abbess Saint Eutrope Louise Bourgoin as Abbess Christine Martina Gedeck as Suzanne's mother Françoise Lebrun as Madame de Moni Agathe Bonitzer as Sister Thérèse Alice de Lencquesaing as Sister Ursule Gilles Cohen as Suzanne's father Marc Barbé as Father Castella François Négret as Maître Manouri Nicolas Jouhet as clergyman Sainte Marie Pascal Bongard as Archdeacon Pierre Nisse as Marquis de Crois Marie Alexia Depicker as Sister Camille Éloïse Dogustan as Sister Pauline Jean-Yves Dupuis as Célestin The Hollywood Reporter's Jordan Mintzer highlighted that director Nicloux and his co-writer Beaujour breathed new life into the classic story by making the protagonist "much more of a fighting spirit" and by adding a "revised ending".
He said this film was "held together by a terrific lead performance". Variety's Boyd van Hoeij certified the film was "slickly assembled" and provided a "painting-like" cinematography. Cine Vue's Patrick Gamble judged The Nun suffered from an "inability to deviate from absurdity". Isabelle Huppert on screen and stage Official Press Kit The Nun at UniFrance films The Nun on IMDb
Religieuse is a French pastry made of two choux pastry cases, one larger than the other, filled with crème pâtissière commonly chocolate or mocha. Each case is covered in a ganache of the same flavor as the filling, joined decorated with piped buttercream frosting; the pastry, whose name means "nun", is supposed to represent the papal mitre. Religieuse itself was conceived in the mid-nineteenth century, but the first version of the batter was invented in 1540 by Panterelli, the Florentine chef of the Florentine queen of France, Catherine de' Medici. After subsequent iterations, the batter took its current form in the early 18th century in the kitchens of Marie-Antoine Carême, "The King of Chefs and the Chef of Kings". Religieuse is a type of éclair. France portal Food portal List of choux pastry dishes List of French desserts
Fondue is a Swiss melted cheese served in a communal pot over a portable stove heated with a candle or spirit lamp, eaten by dipping bread into the cheese using long-stemmed forks. It was promoted as a Swiss national dish by the Swiss Cheese Union in the 1930s, was popularized in North America in the 1960s. Since the 1950s, the term "fondue" has been generalized to other dishes in which a food is dipped into a communal pot of liquid kept hot in a fondue pot: chocolate fondue, in which pieces of fruit or pastry are dipped into a melted chocolate mixture, fondue bourguignonne, in which pieces of meat are cooked in hot oil or broth; the word fondue is the feminine passive past participle of the French verb fondre used as a noun. It is first attested in French in 1735, in Vincent la Chapelle's Cuisinier moderne, in English in 1878; the earliest known recipe for cheese fondue as we know it today comes from a 1699 book published in Zurich, under the name "Käss mit Wein zu kochen", "to cook cheese with wine".
It calls for grated or cut-up cheese to be melted with wine, for bread to be dipped in it. However, the name "cheese fondue", until the late nineteenth century, referred to a preparation including eggs and cheese, as in la Chapelle's 1735 Fonduë de Fromage, aux Truffes Fraiches it was something between scrambled eggs with cheese and a cheese soufflé. Brillat-Savarin wrote in 1834 that it is "nothing other than scrambled eggs with cheese". Variations included cream and truffles in addition to eggs, as well as what is now called "raclette"; the first known recipe for the modern cheese fondue under that name, with cheese and wine but no eggs, was published in 1875, was presented as a Swiss national dish. Despite its modern associations with rustic mountain life, it was a town-dweller's dish from the lowlands of western, French-speaking, Switzerland: rich cheese like Gruyère was a valuable export item which peasants could not afford to eat; the introduction of cornstarch to Switzerland in 1905 made it easier to make a smooth and stable emulsion of the wine and cheese, contributed to the success of fondue.
Fondue was popularized as a Swiss national dish by the Swiss Cheese Union in the 1930s as a way of increasing cheese consumption. The Swiss Cheese Union created pseudo-regional recipes as part of the "spiritual defence of Switzerland". After World War II rationing ended, the Swiss Cheese Union continued its marketing campaign, sending fondue sets to military regiments and event organizers across Switzerland. Fondue is now a symbol of Swiss unity. In the meantime, fondue continued to be promoted aggressively in Switzerland, with slogans like "La fondue crée la bonne humeur"'fondue creates a good mood' and "Fondue isch guet und git e gueti Luune"'fondue is good and creates a good mood' – abbreviated as "figugegl". Fondue was promoted to Americans at the Swiss Pavilion's Alpine restaurant at the 1964 New York World's Fair; the extension of the name "fondue" to other dishes served in a communal hot pot dates to 1950s New York. Konrad Egli, a Swiss restaurateur, introduced fondue bourguignonne at his Chalet Suisse restaurant in 1956.
In the mid 1960s, he invented chocolate fondue as part of a promotion for Toblerone chocolate. A sort of chocolate mousse or chocolate cake had sometimes been called "chocolate fondue" starting in the 1930s. Cheese fondue consists of a blend of cheeses and seasoning. To prepare the caquelon it is first rubbed with a cut garlic clove. White wine is heated with cornstarch, grated cheese is added and stirred until melted, it is topped off with a bit of kirsch. The cornstarch or other starch is added to prevent separation; the mixture is stirred continuously. When it is ready, diners dip cubes of bread speared on a fondue fork into the mixture. A cheese fondue mixture should be kept warm enough to keep the fondue smooth and liquid but not so hot that it burns. If this temperature is held until the fondue is finished there will be a thin crust of toasted cheese at the bottom of the caquelon; this is called la religieuse. It has the texture of a cracker and is always lifted out and eaten. Vaudoise: Gruyère.
Fribourgeoise: Vacherin fribourgeois à fondue, wherein potatoes are dipped instead of bread. This is the only cheese fondue; the cheese is melted in a few tablespoons of water over low heat. Moitié-moitié called Fondue Suisse: Gruyère and Fribourg vacherin. Neuchâteloise: Gruyère and Emmental. Innerschweiz: Gruyère, Sbrinz. Genevoise: Gruyère with a little Emmentaler and Valais cheese. Sometimes chopped sautéed morels are added. Interlaken: Gruyère, Emmental. Appenzeller: Appenzeller cheese with cream added. Tomato: Gruyère, crushed tomatoes, wine. Spicy: Gruyère, red and green peppers, with chili. Mushroom: Gruyère, Fribourg vacherin, mushrooms. Savoyarde: Comté, Beaufort and one or two other local cheese like Reblochon, Abondance, or French equivalent of Gruyère. Jurassienne: Mature or mild Comté. Auvergnate: Saint-Nectaire and Fourme d'Ambert Valdôtaine: Fontina, milk and truffles, typical of the Aosta Valley. Refrigerated fondue blends are sold in most Swiss supermarkets as convenience food and need little more than melting in the caquelon.
Individual portions heatable in a microwave oven are sold. Fondue chinoise (lit. "Chinese fondue"