The Philadelphia Phillies are an American professional baseball franchise based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They are the oldest continuous, one-name, one-city franchise in all of professional American sports, the Phillies compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League East division. Since 2004, the home has been Citizens Bank Park. The Phillies have won two World Series championships and seven National League pennants, the first of which came in 1915, the franchise has experienced long periods of struggle. The 77 season drought is the fourth longest World Series drought in Major League Baseball history, the longevity of the franchise and its history of adversity have earned it the dubious distinction of having lost the most games of any team in the history of American professional sports. Despite the teams lack of success historically, they are one of the more successful franchises since the start of the Divisional Era in Major League Baseball. The Phillies have won their division 11 times, which ranks 6th among all teams and 4th in the National League, the franchise was founded in Philadelphia in 1883, replacing the team from Worcester, Massachusetts in the National League.
The teams spring training facilities are located in Clearwater and its Double-A affiliate is the Reading Fightin Phils, which plays in Reading and its Triple-A affiliate is the Lehigh Valley IronPigs, which plays in Allentown, Pennsylvania. After being founded in 1883 as the Quakers, the changed its name to the Philadelphias. This was soon shortened to Phillies, Quakers continued to be used interchangeably with Phillies from 1883 until 1890, when the team officially became known as the Phillies. Player defections to the newly formed American League, especially to the cross-town Philadelphia Athletics, poor fiscal management after their appearance in the 1915 World Series, doomed the Phillies to sink back into relative obscurity, from 1918 to 1948 they only had one winning season. Though Chuck Klein won the Most Valuable Player Award in 1932 and the National League Triple Crown in 1933, after lumber baron William B. Cox purchased the team in 1943, the Phillies rose out of the standings cellar for the first time in five years.
As a result, the fan base and attendance at home games increased, but it soon became clear that not all was right in Coxs front office. Eventually Cox revealed that he had been betting on the Phillies, the new owner, Bob Carpenter, Jr. scion of the Delaware-based DuPont family, tried to polish the teams image by unofficially changing its name to the Bluejays. However, the new moniker did not take, and it was dropped by 1949. This led to the advent of the Whiz Kids, led by a lineup of players developed by the Phillies farm system that included future Hall of Famers Richie Ashburn. In contrast, the Philadelphia Athletics finished last in 1950 and long-time manager Connie Mack retired, the team struggled on for four more years with only one winning season before abandoning Philadelphia under the Johnson brothers, who bought out Mack. They began play in Kansas City in 1955, as part of the deal selling that team to the Johnson brothers, the Phillies bought Shibe Park, where both teams had played since 1938
Dominican Professional Baseball League
The leagues players include many prospects that go on to play in Major League Baseball in the United States while signing many current MLB veterans. The champion of LIDOM advances to play in the yearly Caribbean Series, each team plays a fifty-game round-robin schedule that begins at the middle of October and runs to the end of December. The leagues champion advances to the Caribbean Series to play against the representatives from Mexico, Cuba, the current champion of LIDOM are the Tigres del Licey, who won the National Championship nine-game Series versus theirs opponents Águilas Cibaeñas. During the years 1930-1963, military dictator General Rafael Trujillo can be credited with furthering the sport of baseball in Dominican Republic, Trujillo encouraged many sugar refineries to create teams of cane cutting laborers to play baseball during the idle months of cultivation. Fostering high levels of competition, the structure continued to mature stimulating growth in the intensity and popularity of the game.
In 1937, teams of the Dominican Republic signed a large amount of players from the Negro League of the United States and these players were given large salaries by Dominican men with money and political power. Among these players were baseball stars James Thomas Cool Papa Bell, these contracts exhausted team finances leading to a decline of Dominican baseball until 1950. In the early 1900s, four Dominican teams formed and these players avoided the ethnocentrism and exclusion of the major leagues of the United States, and developed their own teams. This brief era of Dominican baseball history is known as romantic or the Era of Romantic Baseball. During the Romantic era, national play was revived and free of the influence of individuals outside of the country, fandom of these teams skyrocketed and the sport of baseball became the national pastime of the Dominican Republic. From a cultural standpoint, baseball in the Dominican Republic was, despite its American origins, as a cultural icon of the Haiti, baseball holds a strong presence in the country.
Surrounded by impoverished neighborhoods, these baseball stadiums of the larger Dominican cities are routinely maintained, owners of big businesses like sugar refineries funded the construction of these fields, and benefit from the games. Games in these stadiums attract major crowds and a sense of community can be observed, like their American counterparts, these latinized games exude free-spiritedness, social cohesion, and festivity from the fans and players alike. In the Dominican Republic, baseball players are regaled as sports heroes and this idolization is covered by the media more so than in the United States. The Dominican Republic is a third world country plagued with poverty, in a 2010 CIA estimate, it was shown that 34.4 percent of Dominicans live below the poverty line. In addition, the CIA estimated in 2012 that unemployment of the Dominican Republic was 14.7 percent, due to the Dominican Republics weak economy, Dominican men have very few options for employment. Baseball provides children living in the impoverished Dominican streets hope of a future where they can provide for themselves, because of this, children begin playing organized baseball as early as six years old, and compete with others in leagues with the hopes of being recognized by baseball scouts.
Some argue that the perception of baseball as economic salvation is in reality detrimental to the youth of the Dominican Republic, after Fidel Castros revolution in Cuba and the subsequent U. S. blockade, scouts of the majors turned their sights towards the Dominican Republic
As social and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. The Greater São Paulo is a term for one of the multiple definitions the large metropolitan area located in the São Paulo state in Brazil. A metropolitan area combines an urban agglomeration with zones not necessarily urban in character and these outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, and may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example, El Monte, California is considered part of the Los Angeles metro area in the United States, in practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Population figures given for one area can vary by millions. A polycentric metropolitan area is one not connected by continuous development or conurbation, in defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus that other areas have a high degree of integration with.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines statistical divisions as areas under the influence of one or more major towns or a major city. However, this definition has become obsolete with the conurbation of several statistical divisions into a larger metropolitan areas. In Brazil, metropolitan areas are called metropolitan regions, each State defines its own legislation for the creation and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a region is not intended for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography. Their main purpose is to allow for a management of public policies of common interest to all cities involved. They dont have political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so living in a metropolitan region do not elect representatives for them. Statistics Canada defines a metropolitan area as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the area must have a population of at least 100,000.
To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a degree of integration with the core. As of the Canada 2011 Census, there were 33 CMAs in Canada, including six with a population over one million—Toronto, Vancouver, Ottawa and Edmonton. In Denmark the only area is Greater Copenhagen, consisting of the Capital Region of Denmark along with the neighboring regions Region Zealand. Greater Copenhagen has an population of 1.25 million people
Santo Domingo, officially Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic and the largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean by population. In 2010, its population was counted as 965,040, the city is coterminous with the boundaries of the Distrito Nacional, itself bordered on three sides by Santo Domingo Province. Santo Domingo is the site of the first university, castle, the citys Colonial Zone was declared as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Santo Domingo was called Ciudad Trujillo, from 1936 to 1961, after the Dominican Republics dictator, Rafael Trujillo, following his assassination, the city resumed its original designation. Santo Domingo is the cultural, political and industrial center of the Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo serves as the chief seaport of the country. The citys harbor at the mouth of the Ozama River accommodates the largest vessels, temperatures are high year round, with a cool breeze around winter time. At the time, the territory consisted of five chiefdoms, Marién, Maguá, Jaragua.
These were ruled respectively by caciques Guacanagarix, Caonabo, Bohechío, dating from 1496, when the Spanish settled on the island, and officially from 5 August 1498, Santo Domingo became the oldest European city in the Americas. Bartholomew Columbus founded the settlement and named it La Nueva Isabela, in 1495 it was renamed Santo Domingo, in honor of Saint Dominic. Santo Domingo came to be known as the Gateway to the Caribbean, in June 1502, Santo Domingo was destroyed by a major hurricane, and the new Governor Nicolás de Ovando had it rebuilt on a different site on the other side of the Ozama River. The original layout of the city and a portion of its defensive wall can still be appreciated today throughout the Colonial Zone. Diego Colon arrived in 1509, assuming the powers of Viceroy, in 1512, Ferdinand established a Real Audiencia with Juan Ortiz de Matienzo, Marcelo de Villalobos, and Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon appointed as judges of appeal. In 1514, Pedro Ibanez de Ibarra arrived with the Laws of Burgos, rodrigo de Alburquerque was named repartidor de indios and soon named visitadores to enforce the laws.
In 1586, Francis Drake captured the city and held it for ransom, an expedition sent by Oliver Cromwell in 1655 attacked the city of Santo Domingo, but was defeated. The English troops withdrew and took the less guarded colony of Jamaica, in 1697, the Treaty of Ryswick included the acknowledgement by Spain of Frances dominion over the Western third of the island, now Haiti. From 1795 to 1822 the city changed several times along with the colony it headed. The city was ceded to France in 1795 after years of struggles, it was captured by Haitian rebels in 1801, recovered by France in 1802. In 1821 Santo Domingo became the capital of an independent nation after the Criollo bourgeois within the country, led by José Núñez de Cáceres, the nation was unified with Haiti just two months later
A company town is a place where practically all stores and housing are owned by the one company that is the main employer. Company towns are often planned with a suite of amenities such as stores, schools, the best examples of company towns have had high ideals, but many have been regarded as paternalistic or exploitative. Others developed more or less in unplanned fashion, such as Summit Hill, one of the oldest, traditional settings for company towns were where extractive industries — coal, metal mines, lumber — had established a monopoly franchise. Dam sites and war-industry camps founded other company towns, since company stores often had a monopoly in company towns, it was possible to pay in scrip through a truck system. In the Soviet Union there were cities of nuclear scientists known as atomgrad, particularly in Ukraine those were Pripyat, Varash. The company may donate a building to a local congregation, operate parks, host cultural events such as concerts. If the owning company cuts back or goes out of business, Company towns often become regular public cities and towns as they grow and attract other settlement, business enterprises, and pool transportation and services infrastructure.
Other times, a town may not officially be a company town, such dependencies extend to neighborhoods and regions of larger cities. Paternalism, a form of social engineering, refers to the control of workers by their employers who sought to force middle-class ideals upon their working-class employees. Accordingly, the town offered a unique opportunity to achieve such ends. Additionally, for-profit shops within company towns were owned by the company. Although economically successful, company towns sometimes failed politically due to a lack of elected officials, workers often had no say in local affairs and therefore, felt dictated. Ultimately, this political climate caused resentment amongst workers and resulted in many residents eventually losing long-term affection for their towns, such was the case at Pullman. The town, entirely company-owned, provided housing, markets, a library and entertainment for the 6,000 company employees, employees were required to live in Pullman, although cheaper rentals could be found in nearby communities.
The town operated successfully until the panic of 1893, when demands for the companys products declined. Despite this, the company refused to lower rents in the town or the price of goods at its shops, a national commission formed to investigate the causes of the strikes found that Pullmans paternalism was partly to blame and labelled it un-American. In 1898, the Illinois Supreme Court required Pullman to dissolve their ownership of the town, historian Linda Carlson argues that the managers of corporate towns in the early 20th century believed they could avoid the mistakes made by George Pullman in the 1880s. She says they, wanted to create a life for their employees, decent housing, good schools
Bayahíbe is a town in the Dominican Republic, located about 10 miles east of La Romana on the shore of the Caribbean Sea. Founded as a village in 1874 by Juan Brito and his family, who came from Puerto Rico. Its meaning is not known for sure, but there are names that include the Tainos word Baya. Baya is the given to a bivalve mollusk, like clams that are glued to the rocks or roots of mangrove trees. Jib is the name of a sieve manufactured from used to sift cassava flour. Bayahíbe Beach, a beach, is located less than a mile from the town center. Bayahíbe serves as a point for boat trips to Saona Island. In the vicinity of Bayahíbe and Dominicus Beach, numerous large resorts are located, scuba diving is probably the most common tourist attraction in Bayahíbe - Bayahíbe being the best location for scuba in the Dominican Republic. There are numerous scuba diving shops scattered around the beach that take scuba divers to the many dive sites around the area. There are over 20 official dive sites located near Bayahíbe and all are accessible from the boats in the area.
There are three shipwrecks in the including the Atlantic Princess, St George and Coco. Bayahíbe benefits from the clear, calm waters of the Caribbean Sea which makes it perfect for many water sports including snorkeling. Deep sea fishing is popular activity. The electricity is powered by Consorcio Energético Punta Cana-Macao, a wind, in Bayahíbe grows a small group of plants that are extremely important to the biological characteristics of this area, in particular, the pereskia quisqueyana. This plant species is endemic to Bayahíbe and it is known for its beautiful flowers. The popular name by which this pink flower is known is Bayahíbe rose, on October 12,2002, Audrey Mestre, French world record-setting free-diver, died while attempting to free-dive to a depth of 171 metres off the coast of Bayahíbe
La Romana International Airport
La Romana International Airport is an international airport located on the southeastern coast of the Dominican Republic, adjacent to the tourist town of La Romana and the resort of Casa de Campo. It is located about 68 miles from the capital, Santo Domingo, in 2008,374,724 passengers passed through the airport. The former airport serviced, aside from private planes, one daily American Airlines flight from Miami, served by an Embraer ERJ-175, the current single terminal is built in the style of an old sugar mill. The airport consists of a terminal with four modern gates. It has facilities for passengers and for the maintenance of aircraft and this airport receives most of the private flights in the country, principally businessmen that come to La Romana for vacations in Casa de Campo. On 7 February 2008, a Caribair flight crashed close to La Romana, there were no fatalities, although the pilot was injured. The aircraft was a Britten Norman Islander BN-2A, registered as HI-653, there was a commission to investigate this accident.
List of the busiest airports in Dominican Republic List of the busiest airports in the Caribbean La Romana International Airport Airport information for MDLR at World Aero Data, Data current as of October 2006. Source, DAFIF. Airport information for MDLR at Great Circle Mapper, current weather for MDLR at NOAA/NWS Accident history for LRM at Aviation Safety Network
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
Gulf and Western Industries
Gulf and Western Industries, Inc. was an American conglomerate. A partial list of Gulf and Westerns holdings between 1958 and 1982, with year of acquisition in parentheses, APS Holding Corp, after Stax was acquired, that label became a subsidiary of Dot, although Dot was not at all mentioned on the label. Later on, the operation was moved under Famous Music. Gulf and Western sold Stax back to its owners in 1970. A year before, Dots non–country music roster and catalog was moved to a newly created label and it assumed Dots status as the flagship label of Paramounts record operations, releasing music by pop artists and soundtracks from Paramounts films and television series. Dot meanwhile became a country label, Famous Music provided distribution for several independent labels, such as Neighborhood Records and Sire Records. Famous began distributing yet another independent label, Blue Thumb Records, in 1971, while working for Paramount, Barry Diller had proposed a fourth network, but he could not convince the board of trustees/directors of the wisdom of this idea.
Fox owner News Corporation was, interested in starting a network. On June 5,1980, Gulf and Western unveiled a car, powered by a zinc chloride battery that would hold a charge for several hours. By years end, the U. S. Department of Energy reported that the battery had 65% less power than predicted and could be recharged only by highly trained personnel. In 1981, former officials of Gulf and Westerns Natural Resources Division led a buyout of New Jersey Zinc and made it a subsidiary of Horsehead Industries, who had come up through Paramount Pictures, as the new chief executive officer. Davis slimmed down the companys wilder diversifications and focused it on entertainment, in 1983, Gulf and Western sold Consolidated Cigar Corporation to five of its senior managers. Also in 1983, Gulf and Western sold the U. S. assets of Sega to pinball manufacturer Bally Manufacturing, the Japanese assets of Sega were purchased by a group of investors led by David Rosen and Hayao Nakayama. In 1984, Gulf and Western divested itself of its many Taylor Forge operations to private owners, Taylor Forges Somerville, NJ plant became Taylor Forge Stainless, while its facilities in Paola, KS and Greeley, KS became Taylor Forge Engineered Systems.
South Puerto Rico Sugar Co. was sold to an investment group including The Fanjul Brothers in 1984, in 1985, APS auto parts, Kayser-Roth clothing and Simmons Bedding were sold to the Wickes Companies. The company, thus restructured, subsequently renamed itself Paramount Communications in 1989, the Gulf and Western Building by Thomas E. Stanley, was built in 1970 for the Gulf and Western company north of Columbus Circle, at the south-western corner of Central Park. The building occupies a block between Broadway and Central Park West and, at 583 feet, it commands the dramatic view to the north. Similarly, the space in the basement—named Paramount after the picture company that Gulf
Basketball is a non-contact team sport played on a rectangular court by two teams of five players each. The objective is to shoot a ball through a hoop 18 inches in diameter and 10 feet high that is mounted to a backboard at each end of the court. The game was invented in 1891 by Dr. James Naismith, a team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the basket being defended by the opposition team during regular play. A field goal scores three points for the team if the player shoots from behind the three-point line. A team can score via free throws, which are worth one point, the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but additional time is mandated when the score is tied at the end of regulation. The ball can be advanced on the court by passing it to a teammate and it is a violation to lift, or drag, ones pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling. The game has many techniques for displaying skill—ball-handling, passing, dunking, shot-blocking.
The point guard directs the on court action of the team, implementing the coachs game plan, Basketball is one of the worlds most popular and widely viewed sports. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague, the FIBA Basketball World Cup attracts the top national teams from around the world. Each continent hosts regional competitions for teams, like EuroBasket. The FIBA Womens Basketball World Cup features the top womens basketball teams from continental championships. The main North American league is the WNBA, whereas the EuroLeague Women has been dominated by teams from the Russian Womens Basketball Premier League, in early December 1891, Canadian Dr. He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied, after rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball and these laces could cause bounce passes and dribbling to be unpredictable.
Eventually a lace-free ball construction method was invented, and this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith, dribbling was not part of the original game except for the bounce pass to teammates. Passing the ball was the means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a part of the game around the 1950s
The Dominican Republic is a sovereign state occupying the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region. The western one-third of the island is occupied by the nation of Haiti, christopher Columbus landed on the Western part of Hispaniola, in what is now Haiti, on December 6,1492. The island became the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World, the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821 but were forcefully annexed by their more powerful neighbor Haiti in February 1822. After the 1844 victory in the Dominican War of Independence against Haitian rule the country again under Spanish colonial rule until the Dominican War of Restoration of 1865. The Dominican Republic experienced mostly internal strife until 1916, a civil war in 1965, the countrys last, was ended by another U. S. military occupation and was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer, 1966–1978. Since then, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time since 1996.
Danilo Medina, the Dominican Republics current president, succeeded Fernandez in 2012, the Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. Though long known for agriculture and mining, the economy is now dominated by services. Over the last two decades, the Dominican Republic have been standing out as one of the economies in the Americas – with an average real GDP growth rate of 5. 4% between 1992 and 2014. GDP growth in 2014 and 2015 reached 7.3 and 7. 0%, respectively, in the first half of 2016 the Dominican economy grew 7. 4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. Recent growth has been driven by construction and tourism, private consumption has been strong, as a result of low inflation, job creation, as well as high level of remittances. The Dominican Republic has a market, Bolsa de Valores de la Republica Dominicana. and advanced telecommunication system. Nevertheless, government corruption, and inconsistent electric service remain major Dominican problems, the country has marked income inequality.
International migration affects the Dominican Republic greatly, as it receives, mass illegal Haitian immigration and the integration of Dominicans of Haitian descent are major issues. A large Dominican diaspora exists, mostly in the United States, contributes to development, the Dominican Republic is the most visited destination in the Caribbean. The year-round golf courses are major attractions, the island has an average temperature of 26 °C and great climatic and biological diversity. The country is the site of the first cathedral, castle and fortress built in all of the Americas, located in Santo Domingos Colonial Zone, a World Heritage Site. Music and sport are of importance in the Dominican culture, with Merengue and Bachata as the national dance and music