Bargas is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. According to the 2006 census, the municipality has a population of 7963 inhabitants. Official website of the municipality
Casarrubuelos is a municipality of the autonomous community of Madrid in central Spain. It belongs to the comarca of Comarca Sur
Griñón is a municipality of the Community of Madrid, Spain. Party for the Progress of Griñón
Carranque is a town in the Toledo province, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. It is located in the area of the province bordering the province of Madrid called the Alta Sagra. Carranque contains the site of a Roman villa, protected as an archeological park by the Castile-La Mancha government. There are three main buildings visible by above-ground remains, the ruins of a Roman mill and a modern interpretation building, it is located near a Roman road. It seems to be near the lost city of Titultiam The buildings date from the late fourth century and are thought to belong to a "Villa of Maternus Cinigius", the uncle of Theodosius. Theodosius I, Roman emperor, born in Hispania. In 1983 a local peasant, Samuel López Iglesias, found a series of mosaic floors while plowing in the fields known as las Suertes de Abajo; the interpretation facility exhibits objects found during the excavations A Theodosian-era building that takes as models the governors' palaces. The hall was surrounded with 32 monolithic marble columns from the emperor's private quarries in Chios in Greece and Iscehisar and Afyon in Anatolia.
Soon it was converted for use in Christian cult and burials. The Visigothic arrival brought some changes, it was used during the Islamic age. The Knights Templar used it as an monastery, it appears as the hermitage of Santa María de Batres in the Relaciones de Felipe II, with most of the area used as a cemetery. It was used as such until the 17th century; the head of the Roman building, as the hermitage of Santa María de Abajo, lasted until around 1920 when it was dynamited to serve as construction material for the modern town. Its decoration shows the power of the patron. There were plates of marble, red porphyry, green serpentinite, wall painting, opus sectile and mosaics with glass and golden-leaf tiles. Anecdotally, the footprints of a caliga and a dog paw are visible on the mortar; the floorplan, part of the head and some columns are now visible. Only remains of the floorplan were found, its location offers an interpretation as a monumental cistern with a fountain. Its shape reminds of a nymphaeum.
It was built with opus caementicium and opus testaceum. Mosaics covered the floor. Remains of the Roman villa were the first found; the villa was built in the Theodosian era over earlier production facilities of an agricultural villa. The slope was compensated with a terraced construction over around 1,200 m² It is shaped around a peristylum patio; the hypocaust under-floor heating and running water hint of the richness of the owner that becomes luxury when admiring the mosaics, assembled by at least three workshops, two of which took the unusual pride of signing their work. Other rooms are covered with opus signinum; the cubiculum has a mosaic text. This Maternus is thought to be uncle of the emperor Theodosius; the mosaics depict: Portraits of Athena and Diana. The kidnapping of Hylas by the Nymphs. Acteon and the bath of Diana. Pyramus and Thisbe Amymone and Neptune The oecus, where the owner held meetings and banquets showing off his social status, was ended by a raised exedra; the mosaic depicts the death of Adonis.
Two dogs named Leander and Titurus are represented. The hypocaust of the triclinium was complemented by ceramic tubes in the walls that pulled the hot air upwards; the mosaic depicts. A sloped floor formed a semicircular wall fountain with a mosaic of the god Oceanus, featuring crab antennas and claws and a wavy beard; the water effect was completed by blue-glass windows. Roman sites in Spain Spanish Wikipedia as of September 19, 2006. Versión accesible del sitio Web del Parque Arqueológico de Carranque. Turismo de Carranque The Mosaics of Carranque
Alameda de la Sagra
Alameda de la Sagra is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. According to the 2008 census, the municipality has a population of 3324 inhabitants; the municipality dates back to a colony established by plasterers from Cobeja who settled in the area in the 14th century due to its large gypsum deposits. The Church of Toledo owned the land since the 12th century, permitted the settlement. Consisting of wooden shacks and farmhouses, the town converted its structures into masonry starting in 1530; the municipality is located on a gypsum-rich plateau in the comarca of La Sagra. It abuts the municipalities of Borox, Añover de Tajo, Villaseca de la Sagra and Pantoja, its main water sources are the Tagus river and the Guadalén stream, both of which cross the municipality
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Seseña is a municipality located 35 km south of Madrid in the La Sagra comarca, province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. According to the 2009 census, the municipality had a population of 16,231. Although in a sparsely populated area, Seseña has gained some infamy as a result of controversial new speculative development projects in Vallegrande and El Quiñón during the Spanish property bubble; the municipality is nowadays composed of four sectors that are far away from each other and have no footpath connecting them, as is usual in Spanish towns. The Battle of Seseña was an ill-fated Republican assault on the Nationalist stronghold of Seseña in October 1936 during the Spanish Civil War; the battle is notable for being the first time that tank warfare was seen in the Spanish war and for the use of Molotov cocktails against loyalist Soviet T-26 tanks by Francoist rebel troops. The Residencial Francisco Hernando development was built in the El Quiñón area of Seseña by property developer Onde 2000 during the construction boom of the 2000s due to the municipality's location within commuting distance of Madrid.
It was to be one of the largest such developments in Spain, with an original plan of 13,500 units costing over 9 billion euros to build. However, the massive project raised eyebrows, since utilities such as water and gas lines were not included in the plans, as the project had been approved unusually quickly, it turned out that the authorities had been bribed, the former local Mayor José Luis Martín was soon arrested, but never brought to trial. Following scandal and the economic crisis related to the Spanish property bubble, the developer ran into trouble sustaining demand and financing for the project. By mid-2008 fewer than 3000 of the completed apartments had been sold and fewer than a third of the sold apartments were occupied, leaving the development a "ghost town" reminder of Spain's economic woes; the developer, Francisco Hernando, was never criminally charged with wrongdoing and has moved his business to Equatorial Guinea, a former Spanish Colony in Central Africa