Zavala County, Texas
Zavala County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,677, its county seat is Crystal City. The county was created in 1858 and organized in 1884. Zavala is named for Lorenzo de Zavala, Mexican politician, signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence, first vice president of the Republic of Texas. Radiocarbon assays indicate the county’s Tortuga Flat Site was used in the 15th and 16th centuries by Pacuache. Archeologist T. C. Hill of Crystal City conducted excavations in 1972-1973 at uncovering artifacts. More than 100 archeological sites have been identified by researchers of the University of Texas at San Antonio at the Chaparrosa Ranch. Coahuiltecan, Lipan Apache and Mescalero Apache and Comanche have inhabited the area after the Pacuache; the area between the Rio Grande and the Nueces River, which included Zavala County, became disputed territory known as the Wild Horse Desert, where neither the Republic of Texas nor the Mexican government had clear control.
Ownership was in dispute until the Mexican–American War. The area became filled with lawless characters. An agreement signed between Mexico and the United States in the 1930s put the liability of payments to the descendants of the original land grants on Mexico. According to a list of Spanish and Mexican grants in Texas, Pedro Aguirre owned 51,296 acres in Zavala County, while Antonio Aguirre had 34,552. Seven other people (including two women—Juana Fuentes and Maria Escolastica Diaz—each had 4,650 acres. Zavala County was established in 1858 and named for Lorenzo de Zavala, a Mexican colonist and one of the signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence; the county was organized with an error putting an additional "L" in the county. The mistake was not corrected until 1929. Batesville became the county seat. Crystal City won a 1928 election to become the new county seat. Grey White and the Vivian family settled Cometa circa 1867, they were joined by the Ramón Sánchez and Galván families in 1870 and by J. Fisher in 1871.
Murlo community was settled about the same time. Ranching dominated the county until overgrazing destroyed the grasslands. Zavala became the first county in Texas to grow flax commercially. Ike T. La Pryor advertised the land for farming; the community that sprang up was named La Pryor. Developers E. J. Buckingham and Carl Groos purchased all 96,101 acres of the Cross S Ranch in 1905, platted the town of Crystal City, sold the rest as sections divided into 10-acre farms. Zavala, Frio and LaSalle counties are considered the Winter Garden Region of Texas. Irrigation and mild winter climate has made the area ideal for year-round vegetable farming. During the winter of 1917–18 spinach was introduced to Zavala; the first annual Spinach Festival was introduced in 1936, halted during World War II, but resumed in 1982. Cartoonist E. C. Segar who created the spinach-eating Popeye received a letter of appreciation from the Winter Garden Chamber of Commerce, thanking him for his support of Spinach in the American diet.
Segar's written response appeared in two newspapers exhorting children everywhere to enjoy Segar’s favorite vegetable. He approved a 1937 statue of Popeye to be erected in Crystal City, dedicated "To All The Children of the World". Bermuda onions became a major crop. Spinach and cotton were the three biggest crops; the principal crops grown in Zavala County in 1989 were spinach, pecans and onions. The Crystal City, Texas Family Internment Camp began as a migrant labor camp in the 1930s. By the time it closed, it had held German and Japanese combatants and their families, Latin Americans and at least one Italian Latin American family, as well as German- and Japanese-American families. There were 100 acres for security measures. An additional 190 acres were for farming and personnel residences; the first internees, of German ethnicity, arrived on December 12, 1942, were expected to work on construction, being paid 10 cents an hour. A 70-bed hospital was built in 1943. Internees ran nursery kindergartens.
From its inception through June 30, 1945, the Crystal City camp held 4,751 internees and saw 153 births. The camp closed in 1948; the Mexican Revolution that began in 1910 resulted in thousands of laborers flowing across the border to cultivate vegetable crops. By 1917 and 1918 Pancho Villa was sending banditos across the Rio Grande. Crystal City organized home guards for protection against Villa's associates. By 1930 Crystal City was overwhelmingly composed of Hispanic Americans; that year, Zavala County had the highest percentage of laborers and the lowest percentage of tenants of all counties in South Texas. Owner-operators were Anglo, whereas sharecroppers and farm laborers were Hispanic. By the late 1950s a majority of those graduating from high school in the county were Hispanic American. In 1990, 89.4 percent of the county population of 12,162 were Hispanic. Juan Cornejo of the Teamsters Union and The Political Association of Spanish-Speaking Organizations organized the Hispanic population among cannery workers and farm laborers of Crystal City in 1962–63 and succeeded in electing an all Latino city council.
The feat became known as the Crystal City Revolts. The Raza Unida Party was established in 1970 in Crystal City and Zavala County to bring greater self-determination among Tejanos. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,302 square miles, of which 1,297 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 57
Republic of Texas
The Republic of Texas was a sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846. It was bordered by Mexico to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two U. S. states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, United States territories encompassing parts of the current U. S. states of Oklahoma, Colorado and New Mexico to the north and west. The citizens of the republic were known as Texians; the region of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas referred to as Mexican Texas declared its independence from Mexico during the Texas Revolution in 1836. The Texas war of independence ended on April 21, 1836, but Mexico refused to recognize the independence of the Republic of Texas, intermittent conflicts between the two states continued into the 1840s; the United States recognized the Republic of Texas in March 1837 but declined to annex the territory. The Republic-claimed borders were based upon the Treaties of Velasco between the newly created Texas Republic and Antonio López de Santa Anna of Mexico.
The eastern boundary had been defined by the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 between the United States and Spain, which recognised the Sabine River as the eastern boundary of Spanish Texas and western boundary of the Missouri Territory. Under the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 the United States had renounced its claim to Spanish land to the east of the Rocky Mountains and to the north of the Rio Grande, which it claimed to have acquired as part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803; the republic's southern and western boundary with Mexico was disputed throughout the republic's existence. Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its southern boundary, while Mexico insisted that the Nueces River was the boundary. Texas was annexed by the United States on December 29, 1845 and was admitted to the Union as the 28th state on that day, with the transfer of power from the Republic to the new state of Texas formally taking place on February 19, 1846. However, the United States again inherited the southern and western border dispute with Mexico, which became a trigger for the Mexican–American War.
Texas had been one of the Provincias Internas of New Spain, a region known historiographically as Spanish Texas. Though claimed by Spain, it was not formally colonized by them until competing French interests at Fort St. Louis encouraged Spain to establish permanent settlements in the area. Sporadic missionary incursions occurred into the area during the period from the 1690s–1710s, before the establishment of San Antonio as a permanent civilian settlement. Owing to the area's high Native American populations and its remoteness from the population centers of New Spain, Texas remained unsettled by Europeans, although Spain maintained a small military presence to protect Christian missionaries working among Native American tribes, to act as a buffer against the French in Louisiana and British North America. In 1762, France ceded to Spain most of its claims to the interior of North America, including its claim to Texas, as well as the vast interior that became Spanish Louisiana. During the years 1799 to 1803, the height of the Napoleonic Empire, Spain returned Louisiana back to France, which promptly sold the territory to the United States.
The status of Texas during these transfers was unclear and was not resolved until 1819, when the Adams–Onís Treaty ceded Spanish Florida to the United States, established a clear boundary between Texas and Louisiana. Starting in 1810, the territories of New Spain north of the Isthmus of Panama sought independence in the Mexican War of Independence. Many Americans fought on the side of Mexico against Spain in filibustering expeditions. One of these, the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition consisted of a group of about 130 Americans under the leadership of Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara. Gutierrez de Lara initiated Mexico's secession from Spain with efforts contributed by Augustus Magee. Bolstered by new recruits, led by Samuel Kemper, the expedition gained a series of victories against soldiers led by the Spanish governor, Manuel María de Salcedo, their victory at the Battle of Rosillo Creek convinced Salcedo to surrender on April 1, 1813. On April 6, 1813, the victorious Republican Army of the North drafted a constitution and declared the independent Republic of Texas, with Gutiérrez as its president.
Soon disillusioned with the Mexican leadership, the Americans under Kemper returned to the United States. The ephemeral Republic of Texas came to an end following the August 18, 1813 Battle of Medina, where the Spanish Army crushed the Republican Army of the North; the harsh reprisals against the Texas rebels created a deep distrust of the Royal Spanish authorities, veterans of the Battle of Medina became leaders of the Texas Revolution and signatories of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico 20 years later. Along with the rest of Mexico, Texas gained its independence from Spain in 1821 following the Treaty of Córdoba, the new Mexican state was organized under the Plan of Iguala, which created Mexico as a constitutional monarchy under its first Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. During the transition from a Spanish territory to part of the independent country of Mexico, Stephen F. Austin led a group of American settlers known as the Old Three Hundred, who negotiated the right to settle in Texas with the Spanish Royal governor of the territory.
Since Mexican independence had been ratified by Spain shortly thereafter, Austin traveled to Mexico City to secure the support of the new country for his right to settle. The establishment of Mexican Texas coincided with the Austin-led settleme
Bexar County, Texas
Bexar County is a county of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,714,773, a 2017 estimate put the population at 1,958,578, it is the fourth-most populated in Texas. Its county seat is San Antonio, the second-most populous city in Texas and the seventh-largest city in the United States. Bexar County is included in TX metropolitan statistical area. Bexar County includes Government Canyon State Natural Area in the northwestern part of the county. Bexar County was created on December 20, 1836, encompassed the entire western portion of the Republic of Texas; this included the disputed areas of western New Mexico northward to Wyoming. After statehood, 128 counties were carved out of its area; the county was named for San Antonio de Béxar, one of the 23 Mexican municipalities of Texas at the time of its independence. San Antonio de Béxar—originally Villa de San Fernando de Béxar—was the first civil government established by the Spanish in the province of Texas; the municipality was created in 1731 when 55 Canary Islanders settled near the system of missions, established around the source of the San Antonio River.
The new settlement was named after the Presidio San Antonio de Béjar, the Spanish military outpost that protected the missions. The presidio, located at the San Pedro Springs, was founded in 1718 and named for Viceroy Balthasar Manuel de Zúñiga y Guzmán Sotomayor y Sarmiento, second son of the Duke of Béjar; the modern city of San Antonio in the U. S. state of Texas derived its name from San Antonio de Béjar. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,256 square miles, of which 1,240 sq mi is land and 16 sq mi is water. Bexar County is in south-central Texas, about 190 miles west of Houston and 140 mi from both the US-Mexican border to the southwest and the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast; the Balcones Escarpment bisects the county from west to northeast. South of the escarpment are the South Texas plains; the San Antonio River rises from springs north of Downtown San Antonio, flows southward and southeastward through the county. Bexar County has a comprehensive "wagon wheel" freeway system, with radial freeways and beltways that encircle Downtown San Antonio, allowing for simplified countywide freeway access, in a manner much like the freeways around Houston or Dallas.
San Antonio is unique, however, in that unlike Houston or Dallas, none of these highways is tolled. Kendall County Comal County Guadalupe County Wilson County Atascosa County Medina County Bandera County San Antonio Missions National Historical Park As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,714,773 people residing in the county. Of those, 72.9% were White, 7.5% Black or African American, 2.4% Asian, 0.8% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 12.7% of some other race and 3.5% of two or more races. 58.7% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, 1,392,931 people, 488,942 households, 345,681 families were residing in the county; the population density was 1,117 inhabitants per square mile. There were 521,359 housing units at an average density of 418 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.86% White, 7.18% Black or African American, 0.80% Native American, 1.61% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 17.80% from other races, 3.64% from two or more races. About 54.35 % of the population were Latino of any race.
Of 488,942 households, 36.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.50% were married couples living together, 15.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were not families. About 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.33. A Williams Institute analysis of 2010 census data found there were about 6.2 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was distributed as 28.50% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 30.60% from 25 to 44, 19.90% from 45 to 64, 10.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household was $38,328, for a family was $43,724. Males had a median income of $30,756 versus $24,920 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,363.
About 12.70% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.40% of those under age 18 and 12.20% of those age 65 or over. The Bexar County jail facilities are at 200 North Comal in downtown San Antonio, operated by the Bexar County Sheriff's Office. In late 2012, press reports noted an increase in the number of suicides at the facility; the issue was a topic of debate in the election for sheriff that year. The jail holds an average of about 3,800 prisoners in 2012, with a total capacity of 4,596, making it the fourth-largest in the state; the Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Dominguez Unit, a state jail for men, in an unincorporated section of Bexar County. In the fall of 2013, Bexar County opened BiblioTech - Bexar County's Digital Library, the nation's first bookless library. In 2016, for the third consecutive year, Bexar County increased the appraised value of businesses and residences. Most will hence find their prop
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War. The treaty came into force on July 4, 1848. With the defeat of its army and the fall of its capital, Mexico entered into negotiations to end the war; the treaty called for the U. S. to pay US$15 million to Mexico and to pay off the claims of American citizens against Mexico up to US$5 million. It gave the United States the Rio Grande as a boundary for Texas, gave the U. S. ownership of California and a large area comprising half of New Mexico, most of Arizona and Utah, parts of Wyoming and Colorado. Mexicans in those annexed areas had the choice of relocating to within Mexico's new boundaries or receiving American citizenship with full civil rights; the U. S. Senate advised and consented to ratification of the treaty by a vote of 38–14.
The opponents of this treaty were led by the Whigs, who had opposed the war and rejected Manifest destiny in general, rejected this expansion in particular. The amount of land gained by the United States from Mexico was further increased as a result of the Gadsden Purchase of 1853, which ceded parts of present-day southern Arizona and New Mexico to the United States of America; the peace talks were negotiated by Nicholas Trist, chief clerk of the US State Department, who had accompanied General Winfield Scott as a diplomat and President Polk's representative. Trist and General Scott, after two previous unsuccessful attempts to negotiate a treaty with General José Joaquín de Herrera, determined that the only way to deal with Mexico was as a conquered enemy. Nicholas Trist negotiated with a special commission representing the collapsed government led by Don José Bernardo Couto, Don Miguel de Atristain, Don Luis Gonzaga Cuevas of Mexico. Although Mexico ceded Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo México, the text of the treaty did not list territories to be ceded, avoided the disputed issues that were causes of war: the validity of the 1836 secession of the Republic of Texas, Texas's unenforced boundary claims as far as the Rio Grande, the 1845 annexation of Texas by the United States.
Instead, Article V of the treaty described the new U. S.–Mexico border. From east to west, the border consisted of the Rio Grande northwest from its mouth to the point Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico, as shown in the Disturnell map due west from this point to the 110th meridian west north along the 110th Meridian to the Gila River and down the river to its mouth. Unlike the New Mexico segment of the boundary, which depended on unknown geography, "in order to preclude all difficulty in tracing upon the ground the limit separating Upper from Lower California", a straight line was drawn from the mouth of the Gila to one marine league south of the southernmost point of the port of San Diego north of the previous Mexican provincial boundary at Playas de Rosarito. Comparing the boundary in the Adams–Onís Treaty to the Guadalupe Hidalgo boundary, Mexico conceded about 55% of its pre-war, pre-Texas territorial claims and now has an area of 1,972,550 km². In the United States, the 1.36 million km² of the area between the Adams-Onis and Guadalupe Hidalgo boundaries outside the 1,007,935 km2 claimed by the Republic of Texas is known as the Mexican Cession.
That is to say, the Mexican Cession is construed not to include any territory east of the Rio Grande, while the territorial claims of the Republic of Texas included no territory west of the Rio Grande. The Mexican Cession included the entirety of the former Mexican territory of Alta California, but only the western portion of Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico, includes all of present-day California and Utah, most of Arizona, western portions of New Mexico and Wyoming. Articles VIII and IX ensured safety of existing property rights of Mexican citizens living in the transferred territories. Despite assurances to the contrary, the property rights of Mexican citizens were not honored by the U. S. in accordance with modifications to and interpretations of the Treaty. The U. S. agreed to assume $3.25 million in debts that Mexico owed to United States citizens. The residents had one year to choose whether they wanted Mexican citizenship; the others returned to Mexico, or in some cases in New Mexico were allowed to remain in place as Mexican citizens.
Article XII engaged the United States to pay, "In consideration of the extension acquired", 15 million dollars, in annual installments of 3 million dollars. Article XI of the treaty was important to Mexico, it provided that the United States would prevent and punish raids by Indians into Mexico, prohibited Americans from acquiring property, including livestock, taken by the Indians in those raids, stated that the U. S. would return captives of the Indians to Mexico. Mexicans believed that the United States had encouraged and assisted the Comanche and Apache raids that had devastated northern Mexico in the years before the war; this article promised relief to them. Article XI, proved unenforceable. Destructive Indian raids continued despite a heavy U. S. presence near the Mexican border. Mexico filed 366 claims with the U. S. government for damages done by Comanche and Apache raids between 1848 and 1853. In 1853, in the Treaty of Mesilla conclu
Webb County, Texas
Webb County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 250,304, its county seat is Laredo. The county was named after James Webb, who served as Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of State, Attorney General of the Republic of Texas, judge of the United States District Court following the admission of Texas to statehood. By area, Webb County is the sixth largest in the state. Webb County includes the Laredo metropolitan area. Webb County was split in 1856. Encinal County was established on February 1, 1856, was to have consisted of the eastern portion of Webb County. However, Encinal County was never organized and was dissolved on March 12, 1899, with its territory returned as part of Webb County. Much of Webb County history is based on the prevalence of ranching in the 19th century and continuing thereafter; the Webb County Heritage Foundation is a nonprofit organization that seeks to preserve documents and artifacts of the past to guarantee that the regional history is not lost to upcoming generations.
In 2015, the foundation, headed by President James E. Moore, presented Heritage Awards to such local notables as the artist Janet Krueger, the journalist Maria Eugenia Guerra, the Laredo Community College art instructor Martha F. Fenstermaker. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,376 square miles, of which 3,361 square miles is land and 14 square miles is covered by water; the Webb County - City of Laredo Regional Mobility Authority has responsibility for a comprehensive transport system in the region. As of the 2015 Texas Population Estimate Program, the population of the county was 273,536, non-Hispanic whites 8,699. Black Americans 552. Other non-Hispanic 2,134. Hispanics and Latinos 262,151; as of the census of 2000, 193,117 people, 50,740 households, 43,433 families resided in the county. The county gained 57,000 additional residents between 2000 and 2010; the population density was 58 people per square mile. The 55,206 housing units averaged 16 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 82.16% White, 0.37% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 14.00% from other races, 2.54% from two or more races. About 94% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 50,740 households, 53.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.60% were married couples living together, 18.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.40% were not families. The average household size was 3.75 and the average family size was 4.10. In the county, the population was distributed as 36.20% under the age of 18, 11.40% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 15.60% from 45 to 64, 7.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,100, for a family was $29,394. Males had a median income of $23,618 versus $19,018 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $10,759. About 26.70% of families and 31.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.40% of those under age 18 and 26.90% of those age 65 or over. Like all Texas counties, Webb County is governed by four part-time county commissioners paid $76,220 annually and elected by single-member districts of equivalent population, a county-wide county judge, the full-time administrator of the county. County judge Danny Valdez left the position after two terms on December 31, 2014, was succeeded by Tano Tijerina, a former professional baseball player and local businessman. Valdez narrowly defeated Tijerina in 2010, but Tijerina rebounded with a 65 to 35% victory over Valdez in the Democratic primary election held on March 4, 2014; the private prison operator GEO Group runs the Rio Grande Detention Center in Webb County, which opened in 2008 and holds a maximum of 1900 federal detainees. On March 27, 2017, the Laredo attorney Victor G. Villarreal was named judge of Position 2 of the Webb County Court at Law.
He succeeds Jesus "Chuy" Garza, a popular veteran judge who resigned after indictment on an influence peddling charge. The commissioners interviewed six candidates for the position before deciding on Villarreal. Meanwhile, jury selection for Garza's trial is scheduled to begin on October 2, 2017; the indictment alleges that Garza in 2015 sought a $3,000 loan from Shirley Mathis on behalf of Christopher Casarez, a coordinator in Garza’s court. Casarez committed suicide in December 2016 the day before being scheduled to meet with authorities about the probe into the Garza case. On April 26, 2017, the Federal Bureau of Investigation conducted raids on municipal and county offices in Laredo to seek information in an undisclosed public corruption probe. Mayor Pete Saenz called the raids "embarrassing," but welcomed the investigation to halt any corruption that may be uncovered. A raid was conducted on Dannenbaum Engineering Company, a firm that holds large contracts in Laredo, San Antonio, other Texas cities.
Webb County Judge Tano Tijerina, who like Saenz indicated that he does not know the details of the matter, said that local officials would be standing for "justice and truth" and would cooperate with the FBI in the probes. County Commissioner John Galo said he was not surprised at the developments, which closed off Laredo City Hall for the day: “Corruption in Webb County has been going on for too long,” Galo added; this seat
Cotulla is a city in and the county seat of La Salle County, United States. The population was 3,614 at the 2000 census; the whole of La Salle County had 6,886 persons in the 2010 census. In June 2014, Cotulla "self-declared" its population at 7,000, based on utility connections alone. Polish immigrant Joseph Cotulla, reared in Silesia a part of Prussia, migrated to the United States in the 1850s, he joined the Union Army in Texas. He lived in Atascosa County but arrived in La Salle County in 1868 to establish what became a large ranching operation. After learning that the International-Great Northern Railroad intended to lay tracks in La Salle County, he worked to establish the town which bears his name. In 1881, Cotulla donated 120 acres of his land to the railroad, in 1882, a depot was constructed there. In 1883, the town was granted a post office; the same year, Cotulla became the county seat by special election. Joseph Cotulla's great-grandson, William Lawrence Cotulla, a former storekeeper in Cotulla, is a rancher in La Salle and Webb counties.
In a 2013 interview with the Laredo Morning Times, William Cotulla noted the community of his birth has changed in less than eighty years, having gone through several phases, beginning with emphasis on farming ranching, thereafter hunting leases, now petroleum and natural gas through the Eagle Ford Shale boom. However, with declining gasoline prices, the Eagle Ford boom took a sharp downturn by the fall of 2015. On June 28, 2013, the Texas Historical Commission, the United States Department of the Interior, the National Register of Historic Places designated downtown Cotulla as a significant part of Texas history with the unveiling of an historic marker. In 2006, Cotulla had been designated as a Texas Main Street community. City manager Lazaro "Larry" Dovalina, who held the same position in Laredo, compared the impact of the recent growth of Cotulla to the arrival of the railroad in the late 19th century. Cotulla is believed to have tripled in population since the 2010 census, with 12,000 residents in 2013.
With Eagle Ford Shale and many jobs in the oil and gas fields, Cotulla has seen the building of new hotels, truck stops, refineries. Many older buildings downtown are being renovated for other kinds of use. Dovalina reported that the ad valorem property tax base in Cotulla has increased from $52 million in 2009 to $127 million in 2013; the growth has made affordable housing a premium in the community. In 1973, two railroad locomotives collided in Cotulla, three people were killed as a result. In 2008, the area about Cotulla burned in a huge grass fire. With continuing growth from the Eagle Ford Shale deposit, Cotulla houses the largest sand fracking facility in North America. Cotulla falls within the second largest oil-producing region of the United States; the oil boom has increased sales tax collections in Cotulla from $445,000 in 2009 to more than $3 million in 2013. The city has sixteen seven others under construction; the hotel-motel tax of 7 percent is less than that in larger surrounding cities.
Cotulla is seeking to attract Wal-Mart, H-E-B, other companies once it can show that its growth is sustainable. Cotulla is located at 28°26′3″N 99°14′11″W; this is 81 miles Southwest of Texas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all of it land. The Nueces River flows through southern Cotulla in a southeastward direction to the Gulf of Mexico near Corpus Christi; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,614 people, 1,208 households, 901 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,831.8 people per square mile. There were 1,504 housing units at an average density of 762.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.45% White, 0.64% African American, 0.39% Native American, 0.50% Asian, 12.67% from other races, 2.35% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 83.56% of the population. There were 1,208 households out of which 39.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 17.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.4% were non-families.
22.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.95 and the average family size was 3.50. In the city, the population was spread out with 33.6% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $23,250, the median income for a family was $25,951. Males had a median income of $21,199 versus $17,415 for females; the per capita income for the city was $10,856. About 27.9% of families and 30.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.0% of those under age 18 and 28.1% of those age 65 or over. The La Salle County Courthouse in downtown Cotulla has undergone extensive renovation. Cotulla is within the Cotulla Independent School District.
Cotulla High School, with grades 9-12, is located east of town. The modern structure is divided into several noncontiguous units; the Brush Country Museum, with various local ranching memorabilia, is located in Cotulla. Cotulla has Roman Catholic, Southern Baptist, United Methodist and non-denominational churches; the Presbyterians and Baptists shared the Methodist facilities, which began in 1881. New Methodist buildings were constructed in 1906 and