Arvier is a town and comune in the Aosta Valley region of northwestern Italy. The local wine, Enfer dArvier, had its own DOC designation before being subsumed into the Valle dAosta DOC and it is a blend made primarily from the Petit Rouge grape with lesser amounts of Dolcetto, Neyret, Pinot noir, and/or Vien de Nus. Arvier was the birthplace of Maurice Garin, the winner of the original Tour de France in 1903 and his family migrated to Northern France in 1885
Ayas, Aosta Valley
Ayas is a comune sparso in the Aosta Valley region of northwestern Italy, with 1359 inhabitants in 2010. It is made up of several frazioni, the two major ones being Antagnod which holds the town hall and the parish, and Champoluc. All the frazioni of Ayas were combined under the one parish of Saint-Martin dAntagnod in 1761. They remained combined in this way until the new parish of Sainte-Anne of Champoluc was built in 1946, the comune of Ayas lies up the Ayas valley from Brusson. The most notable of these peaks are Castor and the Breithorn, another important glacier is the Grand Glacier of Verra. It is the source of the Évançon, which flows down the Val dAyas. In the opposite direction from the Monte Rosa Massif is Dzerbion, a 2,720 metre mountain in the shape of a pyramid, which separated the comune of Ayas from that of Saint-Vincent. Seismic classification, zone 4 With respect to flora, the landscape of Ayas is dominated by species of Alpine plant, such as the cowberry, the gentian. The main trees in the woods are the European spruce, the Swiss pine, the fauna which inhabits the area of Ayas is very varied too.
There are marmots in the parts of the territory and foxes in the woods. The rivers and lakes are characterised by freshwater fish, like the marble trout. / The Latin name is Agatius which seems to be the name of the first Roman colony, the etymology of the name is uncertain - there are many opinions. For example, Ayas could be cognate with the river Ayasse in the Champorcher Valley, another theory is that it might derive from giàs, Piedmontese for livestock pen. As for the earliest human settlement in the valley, it is thought that Ayas was initially populated by the Salassi and these people practiced agriculture, pastoralism and fishing up to the Roman conquest in around 25 BC. The Val dAyas became an important route to other territories of the Empire, this role was consolidated and the connections with Valais were expanded. As a result of connections, Ayas became known as Krämertal. Around 515, the territory of Ayas became part of the controlled by the monks of Saint-Maurice dAgaune. This group imposed Christianity on the peasantry of Ayas and this is the period when the first churches were built and the roads connecting the villages were expanded.
Later the control of the Church over Ayas was strengthened, until the Pope gave total control of the valley to the Bishop of Aosta and this is the first certain attestation of Ayas
A town is a human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. The size definition for what constitutes a town varies considerably in different parts of the world, the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, and the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the meaning of the word. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom, in English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more specifically those of the wealthy, in Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, and is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs, for example, Edina Burgh or Edinburgh was built around a fort and eventually came to have a defensive wall.
In some cases, town is a name for city or village. Sometimes, the town is short for township. A places population size is not a determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, as in India at least until recent times, in the United Kingdom, there are historical cities that are far smaller than the larger towns. Some forms of settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be clearly non-rural. Towns often exist as governmental units, with legally defined borders. In the United States these are referred to as incorporated towns, in other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be unincorporated. Note that the existence of a town may be legally set forth through other means. In the case of planned communities, the town exists legally in the form of covenants on the properties within the town. Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age, although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian qytezë means small city or new city, while in ancient times small residential center within the walls of a castle
Bard, Aosta Valley
Bard is a town and comune in the Aosta Valley region of northwestern Italy. It is part of the Unité des communes valdôtaines du Mont-Rose and has a population of 134, Fort Bard is a fortified complex built in the 19th century by the House of Savoy on a rocky prominence above the town. After many years of neglect, it has completely restored. In 2006 It reopened to tourists as the home for the Museum of the Alps, the fort has art exhibitions. In the summer, the courtyard is used to host musical and theatrical performances. Bard lies at the centre of a deep, narrow gorge at the head of the Aosta valley and this strategic point has been inhabited since the Neolithic period as archaeologists have found several large engraved stones around the area. It became a route between Celtic Gaul and the Roman world of the Italian peninsula. Today the town has many buildings dating back to the 16th century and these include the Bishops House and the House of the Sun Dial. The Dora Baltea is crossed by a Medieval stone bridge Fort Bard, in May 1800, it halted an entire French army launching a surprise attack on Northern Italy.
It eventually fell to the division of French general Joseph Chabran on June 1,1800, Bard is located at the narrowest point of the Aosta Valley. At this point, the Dora Baltea makes a turn around the large rock promontory on which Fort Bard is located. The steep valley sides means the village is full of small streets that are bordered with historic stone buildings, the climate is mild for most of the year. The winter is cold but generally dry, Bard is typical of the area, with agriculture and tourism being the major industries. Bard official website Bard page on The most beautiful villages in Italy website
In recent times, town twinning has increasingly been used to form strategic international business links between member cities. In the United Kingdom, the twin towns is most commonly used. In mainland Europe, the most commonly used terms are twin towns, partnership towns, partner towns, the European Commission uses the term twinned towns and refers to the process as town twinning. Spain uses the term ciudades hermanadas that means sister cities, Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / Miasto Partnerskie / Partnerské město, which translate as Partner Town or City. France uses Ville Jumelée, and Italy has Gemellaggio and Comune gemellato, in the Netherlands, the term is Stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted, in Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, twin towns and twin cities are used, the Americas, South Asia, and Australasia use the term sister cities or twin cities. In China, the term is 友好城市, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea.
The Douzelage is a twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. In recent years, the term city diplomacy has gained increased usage and acceptance, particularly as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy. It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments, the importance of cities developing their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, and Le Mans, France, in 836, starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux. The first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War and this was initially referred to as an adoption of the French town, formal twinning charters were not exchanged until 1986.
The practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding, for example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been heavily bombed during the war. Similarly, in 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five leading citizens on a mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with an enemy city – Düsseldorf. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been exclusively and reciprocally twinned with other, following the motto, Only Paris is worthy of Rome. Within Europe, town twinning is supported by the European Union, the support scheme was established in 1989
The Grandes Jorasses is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif, on the boundary between Haute-Savoie in France and Aosta Valley in Italy. The first ascent of the highest peak of the mountain was by Horace Walker with guides Melchior Anderegg, Johann Jaun, one of the most famous walls in the Alps, it towers 1200 m above the Leschaux Glacier, stretching 1 km from end to end. The classic route on the face is the Walker Spur which leads directly to the summit of Pointe Walker, the other major buttress on the mountain is the Croz Spur, which leads to the summit of Pointe Croz. In her solo ascents of the six most difficult faces of the Alps. On the Italian side of the mountain, the face can be accessed from the Boccalatte cabin, above the hamlet of Planpincieux in the Italian Val Ferret. The ridge forms the French-Italian border, almost all of which is above 4,000 m, the High Mountains of the Alps. Grandes Jorasses on French IGN mapping portal Grandes Jorasses
Anthracite is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster. It has the highest carbon content, the fewest impurities, Anthracite is the most metamorphosed type of coal, in which the carbon content is between 92. 1% and 98%. The term is applied to varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point of ignition. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short, Anthracite is categorized into standard grade, which is used mainly in power generation, and high grade and ultra high grade, the principal uses of which are in the metallurgy sector. Anthracite accounts for about 1% of global reserves, and is mined in only a few countries around the world. China accounts for the majority of production, other producers are Russia, North Korea, South Africa, the UK, Canada. Total production in 2010 was 670 million tons, Anthracite derives from the Greek anthrakítēs, literally coal-like. Other terms which refer to anthracite are black coal, hard coal, stone coal, dark coal, coffee coal, blind coal, Kilkenny coal, crow coal or craw coal, markets to distinguish it from its competitors.
Culm has different meanings in British and American English, culm is the imperfect anthracite of north Devon and Cornwall, which was used as a pigment. The term is used to refer to the rock strata whose deposits are found in both Britain and in the Rhenish hill countries. Lastly, it may refer to coal exported from Britain during the 19th century, culm refers to the waste or slack from anthracite mining, mostly dust and small pieces not suitable for use in home furnaces. Anthracite is similar in appearance to the jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its hardness, its higher relative density of 1. 3–1.4, and luster. It contains a percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. It is free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed, anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous coal into anthracite. The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent, the heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis.
The heat content of coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton, on the as-received basis. Since the 1980s, anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for power generation in a form of recycling
The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc, Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4000 metres, the altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe, in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Wildlife such as live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era, a mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established, Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, and the Romans had settlements in the region.
In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the passes with an army of 40,000. The 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists, writers, in World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation in the Bavarian Alps throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, at present, the region is home to 14 million people and has 120 million annual visitors. The English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes, maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp and this may be consistent with the theory that in Greek Alpes is a name of non-Indo-European origin. According to the Old English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might possibly derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb hill, Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe.
In Roman times, Albania was a name for the eastern Caucasus, in modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width, the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the border of Bavaria in Germany
Bourg-Saint-Maurice, popularly known as Bourg, is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. It is the last large town along the Tarentaise valley in the heart of the French Alps, Bergintrum was a place on the Gallic side of the pass of the Alpes Graiae, lying on the road marked in the Antonine Itinerary between Mediolanum and Vienna. DAnville places it, according to the Table, between Axima and Alpis Graia, the distance from Bergintrum to Axima is marked viiii M. P. This is the place DAnville calls lHôpital, on the authority of a map of the country. Bourg-Saint-Maurice is part of the Paradiski ski area, although there is no skiing at this altitude, it is conveniently linked to Arc 1600 by the Arc en Ciel funicular railway and is therefore home to many budget rental properties. Unlike the villages make up Les Arcs, Bourg-Saint-Maurice is open all year. Bourg is a summer destination, as it offers lots of opportunity for lovers of the outdoors.
There is a slalom course on the Isere river used for international canoe. The course on the Isere has been host to the ICF world championships and is used by many European teams as a course in the summer. The course is often changed by the floods that occur during the winter months, the surrounding mountains are good for walking and mountain biking. They are a place for paragliding and hang gliding. Some of Les Arcs ski lifts operate during July and August to get walkers to the higher peaks, mountain bikes can be hired in both Bourg and Les Arcs. Some of the high altitude restaurants open in these months, the ones at Pre st Esprit, the nearest summer glacier skiing is in Tignes on the Grande Motte, due to glacial recession, however, it is now closed at certain times of the year. The French ski mountaineer Bertrand Blanc was born in Bourg-Saint-Maurice on October 29,1973, gare de Bourg-Saint-Maurice Communes of the Savoie department INSEE Official site municipality of Bourg Saint Maurice Webcams from Bourg Saint Maurice Les Arcs updated daily