Most of these states have historically been a polity, but in some occasions were rather territories in respect of which a princely title is held. The princes estate and wealth may be located mainly or wholly outside the confines of the principality. Generally recognised surviving sovereign principalities are Liechtenstein and the co-principality of Andorra, extant royal primogenitures styled as principalities include Asturias, and Wales. The term principality is often used informally to describe Wales as it currently exists, since that time, the title Prince of Wales has traditionally been granted to the heir to the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom, but it confers no responsibilities for government in Wales. It has country status and is one of four countries in the United Kingdom, principality of Asturias is the official name of autonomous community of Asturias. No sovereign duchy currently exists, but Luxembourg is an example of a sovereign grand duchy. Historically there have been sovereign principalities with many styles of ruler, such as Countships and even Lordships, feudalism increased the power of local princes within a kings lands.
As princes continued to more power over time, the authority of the king was diminished in many places. This led to political fragmentation as the lands were broken into mini-states ruled by princes and dukes who wielded absolute power over their small territories. This was especially prevalent in Europe, and particularly with the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, during the Late Middle Ages from 1200 to 1500, principalities were often at war with each other as royal houses asserted sovereignty over smaller principalities. These wars caused a deal of instability and economies were destroyed. Episodes of bubonic plague reduced the power of principalities to survive independently. Eventually, agricultural progress and development of new goods and services boosted commerce between principalities. Many of these states became wealthy, expanded their territories and improved the services provided to their citizens and dukes developed their lands, established new ports and chartered large thriving cities.
Some used their wealth to build palaces and other institutions now associated with sovereign states. While some principalities prospered in their independence, less successful states were swallowed by stronger royal houses, Europe saw consolidation of small principalities into larger kingdoms and empires. This had already happened in England in the first millennium, and this subsequently led to the creation of such states as France, Portugal. Another form of consolidation was orchestrated in Italy during the Renaissance by the Medici family, a banking family from Florence, the Medici took control of governments in various Italian regions and even assumed the papacy
Communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department
The following is a list of the 163 communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department of France. Communauté dagglomération du Pôle Azur Provence, created in 2002, communauté dagglomération de la Riviera Française, created in 2002. Communauté urbaine de Nice-Côte dAzur, created in 2002, communauté dagglomération de Sophia Antipolis, created in 2002
The Tropaeum Alpium, was built by the Romans for the emperor Augustus to celebrate his decisive victory over the ancient tribes who populated the Alps. The monuments remains are in the commune of La Turbie, a few kilometers from the Principality of Monaco, the Trophy was built c.6 BC in honor of the emperor Augustus to celebrate his definitive victory over the 45 ancient tribes who populated the Alps. The Alpine populations were defeated during the campaign to subdue the Alps conducted by the Romans between 16 and 7 BC. The stone used to build the monument was originally extracted from the Roman quarry located about 500 metres away, visitors to that site can still see the traces of sections of carved columns in the stone. The monument as partially restored by archaeologists at the beginning of the 20th century, is 35 meters high, one of the stones of the tower, which Pliny the Elder transcribed, contained the names of the tribes. It reads, The monument originally served no purpose and contained no fortress.
Rather, it marked the boundary between Italy and Gallia Narbonensis, pushed back to the Var, between the 12th and 15th centuries, the Trophy did become a fortress, with locals building houses around its walls. In 1705, when war broke out between Savoy and France during the War of the Spanish Succession, Louis XIV ordered the destruction of all fortresses in the region, including this one. The partially destroyed Trophy became a quarry and its stones were used, among other things, the area surrounding the Trophy is rich with remnants of the Roman empire such as the famous Roman roads. The Trophy is situated on the Via Julia Augusta, named after the emperor Augustus, various fountains within the territory of the communes of Beausoleil and Roquebrune-Cap-Martin are said to be Roman. Trophy of the Alps Livius. org, La Turbie
Albert II, Prince of Monaco
Albert II is the reigning monarch of the Principality of Monaco and head of the princely house of Grimaldi. He is the son of Prince Rainier III and the American actress Grace Kelly, Prince Alberts sisters are Caroline, Princess of Hanover, and Princess Stéphanie. In July 2011, Prince Albert married Charlene Wittstock, Prince Albert II is one of the wealthiest royals in the world, with assets valued at more than $1 billion, which include land in Monaco and France. Albert was born in the Princes Palace of Monaco and he has ancestry from Ireland, the United States, France and Monaco. His godmother was the Spanish queen Victoria Eugenia of Battenberg, Albert graduated with distinction from the Lycee Albert Premier, in 1976. He was a camper and a counselor for six summers at Camp Tecumseh, on Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire and he speaks French, English and Italian. He spent the summer of 1979 touring Europe and the Middle East with the Amherst Glee Club, Albert undertook an exchange program with the University of Bristol, at the Alfred Marshall School of Economics and Management in 1979.
Albert was a sportsman, participating in cross country, javelin throwing, judo, tennis, sailing, squash. He is a patron of Monacos football teams, Albert competed in the bobsleigh at five consecutive Winter Olympics for Monaco, taking part in both the two-man and four-man events. In the two-man bobsleigh Albert finished 25th at the 1988 games in Calgary, 43rd at the 1992 games in Albertville, and 31st at the 2002 games. In the four-man bobsleigh Albert finished 27th in 1992, 26th at the 1994 games in Lillehammer, Albert was Monacos flag bearer at the 1988,1994, and 1998 Winter Olympics. Albert took part in the 1985 Paris–Dakar Rally, but did not finish it and he became a judo black belt. On 7 March 2005, Alberts father was admitted to a hospital in the principality, the Prince was being treated for breathing and heart trouble. This decision was reached by the Crown Council of Monaco, a made up of notable local figures with residual powers to make judgments about certain constitutional matters.
On 6 April 2005, Ranier III died and Albert succeeded him as Albert II, the first part of Prince Albert IIs enthronement as ruler of the Principality was on 12 July 2005, after the end of the three-month mourning period for his father. A morning mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral presided over by the Archbishop of Monaco, afterward Albert II returned to the princely palace to host a garden party for 7,000 Monégasques born in the principality. In the courtyard, the Prince was presented with two keys of the city as a symbol of his investiture, the evening ended with a spectacular fireworks display on the waterfront. The second part of his investiture was on 19 November 2005, Albert was enthroned at Saint Nicholas Cathedral
Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia and his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesars will as his adopted son and heir, known as Octavianus. He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar, following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvate was eventually torn apart by the ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, in reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule.
He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis, the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of peace known as the Pax Romana. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Pannonia and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, expanding into Germania, beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. Augustus died in AD14 at the age of 75 and he probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him. He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son Tiberius, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life, At birth, he was named Gaius Octavius after his biological father. Historians typically refer to him simply as Octavius between his birth in 63 until his adoption by Julius Caesar in 44 BC, upon his adoption, he took Caesars name and became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus in accordance with Roman adoption naming standards.
He quickly dropped Octavianus from his name, and his contemporaries referred to him as Caesar during this period, historians. In 27 BC, following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra and it is the events of 27 BC from which he obtained his traditional name of Augustus, which historians use in reference to him from 27 BC until his death in AD14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri, approximately 40 kilometres from Rome and he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his fathers victory at Thurii over a band of slaves. Due to the nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his fathers home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius only mentions his fathers equestrian family briefly in his memoirs and his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War
Rudolf Khametovich Nureyev was a Soviet ballet dancer and choreographer. He was director of the Paris Opera Ballet from 1983 to 1989, named Lord of the Dance, Rudolf Nureyev is regarded as one of ballets most gifted male dancers. In addition to his prowess, Rudolf Nureyev was an accomplished choreographer. He produced his own interpretations of classical works, including Swan Lake, Giselle. Rudolf Nureyev had his career with the Mariinsky Ballet in St. Petersburg. He defected from the Soviet Union to the West in 1961 and this was the first defection of a Soviet artist during the Cold War and it created an international sensation. He went on to dance with The Royal Ballet in London and he was raised as the only son with three older sisters in a Tatar family in a village near Ufa in Bashkir ASSR, Soviet Union. When his mother took Rudolf Nureyev and his sisters into a performance of the ballet Song of the Cranes, as a child he was encouraged to dance in Bashkir folk performances and his precocity was soon noticed by teachers who encouraged him to train in Saint Petersburg.
On a tour stop in Moscow with a ballet company. However, he felt that the Mariinsky Ballet school was the best, so he left the touring company. The ballet master Alexander Ivanovich Pushkin took an interest in him professionally and allowed Nureyev to live with him, upon his graduation in 1958, Nureyev joined the Kirov Ballet. He moved immediately beyond the level, and was given solo roles as a principal dancer from the outset. Rudolf Nureyev regularly partnered Natalya Dudinskaya, the companys senior ballerina, Natalia Dudinskaya,26 years his senior, chose him as her partner in the ballet Laurencia. Before long Rudolf Nureyev became one of the Soviet Unions best-known dancers, not long after, he was told by the Ministry of Culture that he would not be allowed to go abroad again. In one memorable incident, Nureyev interrupted a performance of Don Quixote for 40 minutes, insisting on dancing in tights and he relented in the end, but his preferred dress code was adopted in performances. By the late 1950s, Rudolf Nureyev had become a sensation in the Soviet Union, tensions between Rudolf Nureyev and the Mariinskys artistic director Konstantin Sergeyev and former dance partner of Natalia Dudinskaya, were growing.
After a representative of the French tour organizers saw Nureyev dance in Leningrad in 1960, the French organizers urged Soviet authorities to let him dance in Paris, in Paris, his performances electrified audiences and critics. Oliver Merlin in Le Monde wrote, I will never forget his arrival running across the back of the stage, and his catlike way of holding himself opposite the ramp
An emperor is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the equivalent, may indicate an emperors wife, mother. Emperors are generally recognized to be of an honour and rank than kings. The Emperor of Japan is the currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor. Both kings and emperors are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. In as much as there is a definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler. Thus a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, although initially ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German speaking states. In Eastern Europe the rulers of the Russian Empire used translatio imperii to wield authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire. Their title of Emperor was officially recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, in practice the Russian Emperors are often known by their Russian-language title Tsar, which may used to refer to rulers equivalent to a king.
Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to any large state from the past or the present. Such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia, however such empires did not need to be headed by an emperor. Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century, outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era, the name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below. Later new symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb, rules for indicating successors varied, there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme office, but as well election by noblemen, as ruling empresses are known.
Ruling monarchs could additionally steer the succession by adoption, as occurred in the two first centuries of Imperial Rome. Of course, intrigue and military force could mingle in for appointing successors, probably the epoch best known for this part of the imperial tradition is Romes third century rule. When Republican Rome turned into a de facto monarchy in the half of the 1st century BC
Beausoleil is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France. It adjoins the Principality of Monaco, Beausoleil was formerly known as Monte-Carlo-Supérieur. Located on a hillside above the city-state of Monaco, Beausoleil is surrounded by the Tête de Chien and it is urbanistically contiguous with the principality and shares some streets, as the Boulevard de France, the Boulevard du Maréchal Leclerc, and the Avenue du Maréchal Foch. The commune is very intertwined on Monaco and it functions to some extent as a bedroom community as many of its residents are employed in Monaco. The main part of the consists of Belle Époque houses with ornate entrances. Interesting attractions within Beausoleil include the Gustave Eiffel covered market, St Josephs Sanctuary, another attraction is its Stade Vanco, a well-appointed sports centre. Given the towns proximity to Monaco, real estate in Beausoleil is usually prohibitively expensive for many, the towns border with Monaco was largely fixed during the 18th century.
What is now known as Beausoleil was administered from La Turbie prior to 1904 and this may seem strange since Monacos political parties are more right-leaning. Beausoleil is the home of many Filipino and Portuguese immigrants, communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department INSEE Beausoleil official site Official Office of Tourism website
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco has an area of 2.02 km2 and a population of about 38,400 according to the last census of 2015. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second smallest, Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward. Monacos most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins, through land reclamation, Monacos land mass has expanded by twenty percent, in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2. Monaco is known as a playground for the rich and famous, in 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, more than in Zürich or Geneva.
Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are widely spoken and understood. The states sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite Monacos independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the countrys first casino, Monte Carlo, since then, Monacos mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principalitys status as a tourist destination and recreation center for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking center and has sought to diversify its economy into services and small, high-value-added, the state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven.
It is the host of the street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs, through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004 and it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monacos name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony, according to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos, because the only temple of this area was the House of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, an ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining control