Seat of local government
In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre, a guildhall, a Rathaus, or a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality. It houses the city or town council, its associated departments, their employees, it usually functions as the base of the mayor of a city, borough, or county/shire. By convention, until the mid 19th-century, a single large open chamber formed an integral part of the building housing the council; the hall may be used for other significant events. This large chamber, the "town hall" has become synonymous with the whole building, with the administrative body housed in it; the terms "council chambers", "municipal building" or variants may be used locally in preference to "town hall" if no such large hall is present within the building. The local government may endeavor to use the town hall building to promote and enhance the quality of life of the community. In many cases, "town halls" serve not only as buildings for government functions, but have facilities for various civic and cultural activities.
These may include art shows, stage performances and festivals. Modern town halls or "civic centres" are designed with a great variety and flexibility of purpose in mind; as symbols of local government and town halls have distinctive architecture, the buildings may have great historical significance – for example the Guildhall, London. City hall buildings may serve as cultural icons that symbolize their cities; the term "town hall" may be a general one applied without regard to whether the building serves or served a town or a city. This is the case in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Hong Kong, many other Commonwealth countries. English-speakers in some regions use the term "city hall" to designate the council offices of a municipality of city status; this is the case in North America. The Oxford English Dictionary sums up the generic terms: town hall: "A large hall used for the transaction of the public business of a town, the holding of a court of justice, entertainments, etc.. Conversely, cities that have subdivisions with their own councils may have borough halls.
In Scotland, local government in larger cities operates from the "City Chambers", otherwise the "Town House". Elsewhere in English-speaking countries, other names are used. In London, the official headquarters of administration of the City of London retains its Anglo-Saxon name, the Guildhall, signifying a place where taxes were paid. In a small number of English cities the preferred term is "Council House": this was the case in Bristol until 2012, when the building was renamed "City Hall". In Birmingham, there is a distinction between the Council House, the seat of local government, the Town Hall, a concert and meeting venue which pre-dates it. In the City of Sheffield, the distinction is between the Town Hall, the seat of local government, the City Hall, a concert and ballroom venue. Large halls called basilicas were used in Ancient Rome for the administration of justice, as meeting places, for trade. In the Early Medieval period, the hall, a single large open chamber, was the main, sometimes only room of the home of a feudal lord.
There the lord lived with his family and retinue, ate and administered rule and justice. Activities in the hall played an essential role in the functioning of the feudal manor, the administrative unit of society; as manorial dwellings developed into manor houses and palaces, the hall, or "great hall" as it was termed, remained an essential unit within the architectural complex. In the Middle Ages or early modern period, many European market towns erected communal market halls, comprising a covered open space to function as a sheltered marketplace at street level, one or more rooms used for public or civic purposes on the upper floor or floors; such buildings were the precursors of dedicated town halls. The modern concept of the town hall developed with the rise of regional government. Cities administered by a group of elected or chosen representatives, rather than by a lord or princely ruler, required a place for their council to meet; the Cologne City Hall of 1135 is a prominent example for self-gained municipal autonomy of medieval cities.
The Palazzo Pubblico of the Republic of Siena and the Palazzo Vecchio of the Republic of Florence, both town halls, date from 1297 and 1299 respectively. In each case the large, fortified building comprises a large meeting hall and numerous administrative chambers. Both buildings are topped by tall towers. Both buildings have ancient timepieces. Both buildings have facilities for the storage of documents and references that pertain to the city's administration; these features: a hall, a tower and a clock, as well as administrative chambers and an archive or muniment room became the standard features of town halls across Europe
A budget is a financial plan for a defined period one year. It may include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities and expenses, assets and cash flows. Companies, governments and other organizations use it to express strategic plans of activities or events in measurable terms. A budget is the sum of money allocated for a particular purpose and the summary of intended expenditures along with proposals for how to meet them, it may include a budget surplus, providing money for use at a future time, or a deficit in which expenses exceed income. A budget is a quantified financial plan for a forthcoming accounting period. A budget is an important concept in microeconomics, which uses a budget line to illustrate the trade-offs between two or more goods. In other terms, a budget is an organizational plan stated in monetary terms. In summary, the purpose of budgeting tools: Tools provide a forecast of revenues and expenditures, that is, construct a model of how a business might perform financially if certain strategies and plans are carried out.
Tools enable the actual financial operation of the business to be measured against the forecast. Lastly, tools establish the cost constraint for program, or operation; the budget of a company is compiled annually, but may not be a finished budget requiring considerable effort, is a plan for the short-term future allows hundreds or thousands of people in various departments to list their expected revenues and expenses in the final budget. If the actual figures delivered through the budget period come close to the budget, this suggests that the managers understand their business and have been driving it in the intended direction. On the other hand, if the figures diverge wildly from the budget, this sends an'out of control' signal, the share price could suffer. Campaign planners incur two types of cost in any campaign: the first is the cost of human resource necessary to plan and execute the campaign; the second type of expense that campaign planners incur is the hard cost of the campaign itself.
A budget is a fundamental tool for an event director to predict with a reasonable accuracy whether the event will result in a profit, a loss or will break-even. A budget can be used as a pricing tool. There are two basic philosophies, when it comes to budgeting. One approach is telling you on mathematical models, the other on people; the first school of thought believes that financial models, if properly constructed, can be used to predict the future. The focus is on variables and outputs, drivers and the like. Investments of time and money are devoted to perfecting these models, which are held in some type of financial spreadsheet application; the other school of thought holds that it's not about models, it's about people. No matter how sophisticated models can get, the best information comes from the people in the business; the focus is therefore in engaging the managers in the business more in the budget process, building accountability for the results. The companies that adhere to this approach have their managers develop their own budgets.
While many companies would say that they do both, in reality the investment of time and money falls squarely in one approach or the other. The budget of a government is a summary or plan of the intended revenues and expenditures of that government. There are three types of government budget: the operating or current budget, the capital or investment budget, the cash or cash flow budget; the budget is prepared by the Treasury team led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer and is presented to Parliament by the Chancellor of the Exchequer on Budget Day. It is customary for the Chancellor to stand on the steps of Number 11 Downing Street with his or her team for the media to get photographic shots of the Despatch Box prior to them going to the House of Commons. Once presented in the House of Commons it is debated and voted on. Minor changes may be made however with the budget being written and presented by the party with the majority in the House of Commons, the Whips will ensure that it is passed as written by the Chancellor.
The federal budget is prepared by the Office of Management and Budget, submitted to Congress for consideration. Invariably, Congress makes substantial changes. Nearly all American states are required to have balanced budgets, but the federal government is allowed to run deficits; the budget is prepared by the Budget Division Department of Economic Affairs of the Ministry of Finance annually. The Finance Minister is the head of the budget making committee; the present Indian Finance minister is Arun Jaitley. The Budget includes supplementary excess grants and when a proclamation by the President as to failure of Constitutional machinery is in operation in relation to a State or a Union Territory, preparation of the Budget of such State; the first budget of India was submitted on 18 February 1869 by James Wilson. James Wilson is known as the father of Indian budget; the Philippine budget is considered the most complicated in the world, incorporating multiple approaches in one single budget system: line-item and zero-based budgeting.
The Department of Budget and Management prepares the National Expenditure Program and forwards it to the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives to come up with a General Appropriations Bill. The GAB will go through voting. After both houses of Congress approves the GAB, the Presid
Kingdom of Valencia
The Kingdom of Valencia, located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon. When the Crown of Aragon merged by dynastic union with the Crown of Castile to form the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Valencia became a component realm of the Spanish monarchy; the Kingdom of Valencia was formally created in 1238 when the Moorish taifa of Valencia was taken in the course of the Reconquista. It was dissolved by Philip V of Spain in 1707, by means of the Nueva Planta decrees, as a result of the Spanish War of Succession. During its existence, the Kingdom of Valencia was ruled by the laws and institutions stated in the Furs of Valencia which granted it wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon and on, under the Spanish Kingdom; the boundaries and identity of the present Spanish Autonomous Community of Valencia are those of the former Kingdom of Valencia. The conquest of what would become the Kingdom of Valencia started in 1232 when the king of the Crown of Aragon, James I, called Jaume I el Conqueridor, took Morella with Aragonese troops.
Shortly after, in 1233, Borriana and Peniscola were taken from the بلنسية Balansiyya taifa. A second and more relevant wave of expansion took place in 1238, when James I defeated the Moors from the Balansiya taifa, he entered the city of Valencia on 9 October 1238, regarded as the dawn of the Kingdom of Valencia. A third phase started in 1243 and ended in 1245, when it met the limits agreed between James I and the heir to the throne of Castile, Alfonso the Wise, who would succeed to the throne as Alfonso X in 1252; these limits were traced in the Treaty of Almizra between the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon, which coordinated their Reconquista efforts to drive the Moors southward by establishing their desired areas of influence. The Treaty of Almizra established the south line of Aragonese expansion in the line formed by the villes of Biar and Busot, today in the north of the Alicante province. Everything south of that line, including what would be the Kingdom of Murcia, was reserved by means of this treaty for Castile.
The matter of the large majority of Mudéjar population, left behind from the progressively more southern combat front, lingered from the beginning until they were expelled en masse in 1609. Up to that moment, they represented a complicated issue for the newly established Kingdom, as they were essential to keep the economy working due to their numbers, which inspired frequent pacts with local Muslim populations, such as Mohammad Abu Abdallah Ben Hudzail al Sahuir, allowing their culture various degrees of tolerance but, on the other side, they were deemed as a menace to the Kingdom due to their lack of allegiance and their real or perceived conspiracies to bring the Ottoman Empire to their rescue. There were indeed frequent rebellions from the Moor population against Christian rule, the most threatening being those headed by the Moor chieftain Mohammad Abu Abdallah Ben Hudzail al Sahuir known as Al-Azraq, he led important rebellions in 1244, 1248 and 1276. During the first of these, he regained Muslim independence for the lands South of the Júcar, but he had to surrender soon after.
During the second revolt, king James I was killed in battle, but Al-Azraq was subjugated, his life spared only because of a longtime relationship with the Christian monarch. During the third rebellion, Al-Azraq himself was killed but his son would continue to promote Muslim unrest and local rebellions remained always at sight. James II called Jaume II el Just or the Just, a grandson of James I, initiated in 1296 a final push of his army further southwards than the Biar-Busot pacts, his campaign aimed at the fertile countryside around Murcia and the Vega Baja del Segura whose local Muslim rulers were bound by pacts with Castile and governing by proxy on behalf of this kingdom. The campaign under James II was successful to the point of extending the limits of the Kingdom of Valencia well south of the agreed border with Castile, his troops took Murcia. What was to become the definite dividing line between Castile and the Crown of Aragon was agreed by virtue of the Sentencia Arbitral de Torrellas, amended by the Treaty of Elche, which assigned Orihuela to the Kingdom of Valencia, while Murcia went to the Crown of Castile, so drawing the final Southern border of the Kingdom of Valencia.
At the end of the process, four taifas had been wiped out: Balansiya, Alpuente and Murcia. Taking into account the standards of the day, it can be considered as a rather rapid conquest, since most of the territory was gained in less than fifty years and the maximum expansion was completed in less than one century; the toll in terms of social and politic unrest, to be paid for this fast process was the existence of a large Muslim population within the Kingdom which neither desired to become a part of it nor, as long as they remained Muslim, was given the chance to. Modern historiography sees the conquest of Valencia in the light of similar Reconquista efforts by the Crown of Castile, i.e. as a fight led by the king in order to gain new territories as free as possible of a serfdom subject to the nobility. The new territories would be accountable only to the king, thus enlarging and consolidating his power versus that of the nobility; this development was part
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15
Sagunto is a town in Eastern Spain, in the modern fertile comarca of Camp de Morvedre in the province of Valencia. It is located c. 30 km north of Valencia, close to the Costa del Azahar on the Mediterranean Sea. It is best known for the remains of the ancient Iberian and Roman city of Saguntum, which played a significant part in the Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and the Romans. During the 5th century BC, the Iberians built a walled settlement on the hill overseeing the plain; the city traded with coastal colonies in the western Mediterranean such as Carthage and, under their influence, minted its own coins. During this period, the city was known as Arse. By 219 BC, Saguntum was a large and commercially prosperous town, which sided with the local colonists and Rome against Carthage, drew Hannibal's first assault, his siege of Saguntum, which triggered the Second Punic War, one of the most important wars of antiquity. After stiff resistance over the course of eight months, related by the Roman historian Livy and in more detail by Silius Italicus, Saguntum was captured in 219 BC by the armies of Hannibal.
Seven years the town was retaken by the Romans. In 214 BC, it became a municipium, was flourished. Hispania was not pacified and Romanised, as the Iberian career of Quintus Sertorius makes clear. Saguntum minted coins under his protection, but continued to house a mint in Roman times; the Romans built a great circus in the lower part of the city and a theatre seating 8,000 spectators. Texts found indicate that the city had about 50,000 inhabitants; this prosperity lasted for most of the empire, is attested by inscriptions and ruins. Under the Arian Visigothic kings, Saguntum received its Catholic patron saint, a bishop named Sacerdos, "the priest", who died peacefully of natural causes about AD 560. In the early 8th century, the Muslim Arabs came and the city became part of the Caliphate of Cordoba and at that time the city reached an era of splendor, with baths, palaces and schools open for its cosmopolitan population; the town was known as Morvedre, a name derived from Latin muri veteres "ancient walls."
However, as Valencia grew, Saguntum declined. In 1098, the city was conquered by El Cid but the Muslims recovered it shortly thereafter; the city had been under the Muslim Arab rule for over 500 years when James I of Aragon conquered it in 1238. During the Peninsular War, a Spanish attempt to raise the French siege of the castle failed in the Battle of Saguntum on 25 October 1811. In the weeks before the battle, the Spanish garrison made a successful defense. Historian Charles Oman stated that the site was converted into a fortress in 1810–1811 by General Joaquín Blake at the suggestion of British officer Charles William Doyle. At that time, much of the intact Roman theater was dismantled to provide stone for restoring the old walls. Saguntum has retained many Valencian Gothic structures. In the late 19th century, a steel-making industry grew up that supported the modern city, which extends in the coastal plain below the citadel hill; the last steel oven closed in April 1984. It is now a tourist attraction.
The remains of Sagunto Castle may be seen on top of the hill. It preserves much of its walled ramparts, of Moorish origin. A Roman theater restored in late 20th century, it is found on the northern slope of the citadel hill. It was the first official; the Gothic Esglèsia de Santa Maria, in the Plaça Major. The Palau Municipal, or town hall; the early Gothic Esglèsia del Salvador. The narrow streets of the Juderia, on the hillside on the way up to the citadel; the 13th century Santa Ana convent adjacent to the Plaça de Pi. The Sagunto History Museum, located in the house of Mestre Peña, a building in the Jewish quarter dating from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; the largest collection is from the Ibero-Roman Period. The famed composer Don Joaquín Rodrigo, who composed Concierto de Aranjuez, among others, was born in Sagunt. Ripollès i Alegre, P. P.. Arse-Saguntum: historia monetaria de la ciudad y su territorio. Fundación Bancaja. ISBN 8484710270. Oman, Charles. A History of the Peninsular War Volume V. 5.
Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: Stackpole. ISBN 1-85367-225-4. Sagunt, a virtual trip Sagunto: City of Ruins
A necropolis is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments. The name stems from the Ancient Greek νεκρόπολις nekropolis meaning "city of the dead"; the term implies a separate burial site at a distance from a city, as opposed to tombs within cities, which were common in various places and periods of history. They are different from grave fields. While the word is most used for ancient sites, the name was revived in the early 19th century and applied to planned city cemeteries, such as the Glasgow Necropolis; the Giza Necropolis of ancient Egypt is one of the oldest and the most well-known necropolis in the world since the Great Pyramid of Giza was included in the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Aside from the pyramids, which were reserved for the burial of Pharaohs, the Egyptian necropoleis included mastabas, a typical royal tomb of the early Dynastic period. Naqsh-e Rustam is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran; the oldest relief at Naqsh-i Rustam dates to c. 1000 BC.
Though it is damaged, it depicts a faint image of a man with unusual headgear and is thought to be Elamite in origin. The depiction is part of a larger image, most of, removed at the command of Bahram II. Four tombs belonging to Achaemenid kings are carved out of the rock face at a considerable height above the ground; the tombs are known locally after the shape of the facades of the tombs. Sassanian kings added a series of rock reliefs below the tombs. In the Mycenean Greek period predating ancient Greece, burials could be performed inside the city. In Mycenae, for example, the royal tombs were located in a precinct within the city walls; this changed during the ancient Greek period when necropoleis lined the roads outside a city. There existed some degree of variation within the ancient Greek world however. Sparta was notable for continuing the practice of burial within the city; the Etruscans took the concept of a "city of the dead" quite literally. The typical tomb at the Banditaccia necropolis at Cerveteri consists of a tumulus which covers one or more rock-cut subterranean tombs.
These tombs were elaborately decorated like contemporary houses. The arrangement of the tumuli in a grid of streets gave it an appearance similar to the cities of the living; the art historian Nigel Spivey considers the name cemetery inadequate and argues that only the term necropolis can do justice to these sophisticated burial sites. Etruscan necropoleis were located on hills or slopes of hills. List of necropoleis Funerary art Catacombs
The term "Moors" refers to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors were the indigenous Maghrebine Berbers; the name was also applied to Arabs. Moors are not a distinct or self-defined people, the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica observed that "The term'Moors' has no real ethnological value." Europeans of the Middle Ages and the early modern period variously applied the name to Arabs, North African Berbers, Muslim Europeans. The term has been used in Europe in a broader, somewhat derogatory sense to refer to Muslims in general those of Arab or Berber descent, whether living in Spain or North Africa. During the colonial era, the Portuguese introduced the names "Ceylon Moors" and "Indian Moors" in South Asia and Sri Lanka, the Bengali Muslims were called Moors. In the Philippines, the longstanding Muslim community, which predates the arrival of the Spanish, now self-identifies as the "Moro people", an exonym introduced by Spanish colonizers due to their Muslim faith.
In 711, troops formed by Moors from northern Africa led the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The Iberian peninsula came to be known in Classical Arabic as al-Andalus, which at its peak included most of Septimania and modern-day Spain and Portugal. In 827, the Moors occupied Mazara on Sicily, they went on to consolidate the rest of the island. Differences in religion and culture led to a centuries-long conflict with the Christian kingdoms of Europe, which tried to reclaim control of Muslim areas. In 1224 the Muslims were expelled from Sicily to the settlement of Lucera, destroyed by European Christians in 1300; the fall of Granada in 1492 marked the end of Muslim rule in Iberia, although a Muslim minority persisted until their expulsion in 1609. During the classical period, the Romans interacted with, conquered, parts of Mauretania, a state that covered modern northern Morocco, western Algeria, the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla; the Berber tribes of the region were noted in the Classics as Mauri, subsequently rendered as "Moors" in English and in related variations in other European languages.
Mauri is recorded as the native name by Strabo in the early 1st century. This appellation was adopted into Latin, whereas the Greek name for the tribe was Maurusii; the Moors were mentioned by Tacitus as having revolted against the Roman Empire in 24 AD. During the Latin Middle Ages, Mauri was used to refer to Berbers and Arabs in the coastal regions of Northwest Africa; the 16th century scholar Leo Africanus identified the Moors as the native Berber inhabitants of the former Roman Africa Province. He described Moors as one of five main population groups on the continent alongside Egyptians, Abyssinians and Cafri. In medieval Romance languages, variations of the Latin word for the Moors developed different applications and connotations; the term denoted a specific Berber people in western Libya, but the name acquired more general meaning during the medieval period, associated with "Muslim", similar to associations with "Saracens". During the context of the Crusades and the Reconquista, the term Moors included the derogatory suggestion of "infidels".
Apart from these historic associations and context and Moorish designate a specific ethnic group speaking Hassaniya Arabic. They inhabit Mauritania and parts of Algeria, Western Sahara, Morocco and Mali. In Niger and Mali, these peoples are known as the Azawagh Arabs, after the Azawagh region of the Sahara; the authoritative dictionary of the Spanish language does not list any derogatory meaning for the word moro, a term referring to people of Maghrebian origin in particular or Muslims in general. Some authors have pointed out that in modern colloquial Spanish use of the term moro is derogatory for Moroccans in particular and Muslims in general. In the Philippines, a former Spanish colony, many modern Filipinos call the large, local Muslim minority concentrated in Mindanao and other southern islands Moros; the word is a catch-all term, as Moro may come from several distinct ethno-linguistic groups such as the Maranao people. The term was introduced by Spanish colonisers, has since been appropriated by Filipino Muslims as an endonym, with many self-identifying as members of the Bangsamoro "Moro Nation".
Moreno can mean "dark-skinned" in Spain, Portugal and the Philippines. In Spanish, morapio is a humorous name for "wine" that which has not been "baptized" or mixed with water, i.e. pure unadulterated wine. Among Spanish speakers, moro came to have a broader meaning, applied to both Filipino Moros from Mindanao, the moriscos of Granada. Moro refers to all things dark, as in "Moor", etc, it was used as a nickname. In Portugal, mouro may refer to supernatural beings known as enchanted moura, where "Moor" implies "alien" and "non-Christian"; these beings were siren-like fairies with a fair face. They were believed to have magical properties. From this root, the name moor is applied to unbaptized children. In Basque, mairu means moor and refers to a mythical people. Muslims located in South Asia were distinguished by the Portuguese historians into two groups: Mouros da Terra and the Mouros da Arabia/Mouros de Meca ("Moors from Arabia/Mecca" or "Paradesi