The áo dài is a Vietnamese national garment, worn by both sexes but now most worn by women. In its current form, it is a tight-fitting silk tunic worn over trousers. Áo translates as shirt. Dài means "long"; the word "ao dai" was applied to the outfit worn at the court of the Nguyễn Lords at Huế in the 18th century. This outfit evolved into the áo ngũ thân, a five-paneled aristocratic gown worn in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Inspired by Paris fashions, Nguyễn Cát Tường and other artists associated with Hanoi University redesigned the ngũ thân as a modern dress in the 1920s and 1930s; the updated look was promoted by the artists and magazines of Tự Lực văn đoàn as a national costume for the modern era. In the 1950s, Saigon designers tightened the fit to produce the version worn by Vietnamese women today; the dress was popular in South Vietnam in the 1960s and early 1970s. On Tết and other occasions, Vietnamese men may wear an áo gấm, a version of the ao dai made of thicker fabric. Academic commentary on the ao dai emphasizes the way the dress ties feminine beauty to Vietnamese nationalism in the form of "Miss Ao Dai" pageants, popular both among overseas Vietnamese and in Vietnam itself.
"Ao dai" is one of the few Vietnamese words. Tà sau: back flap Nút bấm thân áo: hooks used as fasteners and holes Ống tay: sleeve Đường bên: inside seam Nút móc kết thúc: main hook and holeTà trước: front flap Khuy cổ: collar button Cổ áo: collar Đường may: seam Kích: waistThe ao dai can be worn with a nón lá, a style associated with Huế. On weddings and other formal occasions, a circular headgear called. For centuries, peasant women wore a halter top underneath a blouse or overcoat, alongside a skirt. Aristocrats, on the other hand, favored a cross-collared robe called áo giao lĩnh, which bore resemblance to the Chinese Hanfu. In 1744, Lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát of Huế decreed that both men and women at his court wear trousers and a gown with buttons down the front. Writer Lê Quý Đôn described the newfangled outfit as an áo dài; the members of the southern court were thus distinguished from the courtiers of the Trịnh Lords in Hanoi, who wore áo giao lĩnh with long skirts. Chinese Ming style clothing was forced on Vietnamese people by the Nguyễn dynasty.
The tunics and trouser clothing of the Han Chinese on the Ming and Qing tradition was worn by the Vietnamese. However, Han-Chinese clothing is assembled by several pieces of clothing including both pants and skirts called Qun or chang, a part of Hanfu garments throughout the history of Han Chinese clothing; the Ao Dai was created when tucks which were close fitting and compact were added in the 1920s to this Chinese style. The Chinese clothing in the form of trousers and tunic were mandated by the Vietnamese Nguyen government, it was up to the 1920s in Vietnam's north area in isolated hamlets. The Chinese Ming dynasty, Tang dynasty, Han dynasty clothing was referred to be adopted by Vietnamese military and bureaucrats by the Nguyen Lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát. Chinese clothing started influencing Vietnamese dress in the Ly dynasty; the current Ao Dai was introduced by the Nguyen Lords. The áo ngũ thân had two flaps sewn together in the back, two flaps sewn together in the front, a "baby flap" hidden underneath the main front flap.
The gown appeared to have two-flaps with slits on both sides, features preserved in the ao dai. Compared to a modern ao dai, the front and back flaps were much broader and the fit looser and much shorter, it was buttoned in the same fashion as a modern ao dai. Women could wear the dress with the top few buttons undone, revealing a glimpse of their yếm underneath. Vietnamese garments throughout the centuries: Huế's Đồng Khánh Girl's High School, which opened in 1917, was praised for the ao dai uniform worn by its students; the first modernized ao dai appeared at a Paris fashion show in 1921. In 1930, Hanoi artist Cát Tường known as Le Mur, designed a dress inspired by the áo ngũ thân and by Paris fashions, it fit the curves of the body by using darts and a nipped-in waist. When fabric became inexpensive, the rationale for multiple layers and thick flaps disappeared. Modern textile manufacture allows for wider panels, eliminating the need to sew narrow panels together; the áo dài Le Mur, or "trendy" ao dai, created a sensation when model Nguyễn Thị Hậu wore it for a feature published by the newspaper Today in January 1935.
The style was promoted by the artists of Tự Lực văn đoàn as a national costume for the modern era. The painter Lê Phô introduced several popular styles of ao dai beginning in 1934; such Westernized garments temporarily disappeared during World War II. In the 1950s, Saigon designers tightened the fit of the ao dai to create the version seen today. Trần Kim of Thiết Lập Tailors and Dũng of Dũng Tailors created a dress with raglan sleeves and a diagonal seam that runs from the collar to the underarm. Madame Nhu, first lady of South Vietnam, popularized a collarless version beginning in 1958; the ao dai was most popular from 1960 to 1975. A brightly colored áo dài hippy was introduced in 1968; the áo dài mini, a version designed for practical use and convenience, had slits that extended above the waist and panels that reached only to the knee. The ao dai has always been more common in the South than in the North; the communists, who gained power in the North in 1954 and in the South in 1975, had conflicted feelings about the ao dai.
They praised it as a national costume and one was worn to the Paris Peace Conference by Vie
Jesus referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, is described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament. All modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. Jesus was a Galilean Jew, baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry, he preached orally and was referred to as "rabbi". Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers, he was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, the community they formed became the early Church.
The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25th as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on his resurrection on Easter; the used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini, the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus. Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Most Christians believe; the Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or as non-scriptural. Jesus figures in non-Christian religions and new religious movements.
In Islam, Jesus is considered one of the Messiah. Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God; the Quran states. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, was neither divine nor resurrected. A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes followed by the phrase "son of <father's name>", or the individual's hometown. Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth". Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon", "the carpenter's son", or "Joseph's son". In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth"; the name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς. The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע, a variant of the earlier name יהושע, or in English, "Joshua", meaning "Yah saves".
This was the name of Moses' successor and of a Jewish high priest. The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus; the 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament, refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus. The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is given as "Yahweh is salvation". Since early Christianity, Christians have referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ"; the word Christ was a office, not a given name. It derives from the Greek Χριστός, a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh meaning "anointed", is transliterated into English as "Messiah". In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture. Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.
In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". The term "Christian" has been in use since the 1st century; the four canonical gospels are the foremost sources for the message of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23. Acts of the Apostles refers to the early ministry of its anticipation by John the Baptist. Acts 1:1 -- 11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus. In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the gospels, the words or instructions of Jesus are cited several times; some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance. It is a journey to a shrine or other location of importance to a person's beliefs and faith, although sometimes it can be a metaphorical journey into someone's own beliefs. Many religions attach spiritual importance to particular places: the place of birth or death of founders or saints, or to the place of their "calling" or spiritual awakening, or of their connection with the divine, to locations where miracles were performed or witnessed, or locations where a deity is said to live or be "housed", or any site, seen to have special spiritual powers; such sites may be commemorated with shrines or temples that devotees are encouraged to visit for their own spiritual benefit: to be healed or have questions answered or to achieve some other spiritual benefit. A person who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim; as a common human experience, pilgrimage has been proposed as a Jungian archetype by Wallace Clift and Jean Dalby Clift.
The Holy Land acts as a focal point for the pilgrimages of the Abrahamic religions of Judaism and Islam. According to a Stockholm University study in 2011, these pilgrims visit the Holy Land to touch and see physical manifestations of their faith, confirm their beliefs in the holy context with collective excitation, connect to the Holy Land. Bahá'u'lláh decreed pilgrimage to two places in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas: the House of Bahá'u'lláh in Baghdad and the House of the Báb in Shiraz, Iran. `Abdu'l-Bahá designated the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh at Bahji, Israel as a site of pilgrimage. The designated sites for pilgrimage are not accessible to the majority of Bahá'ís, as they are in Iraq and Iran and thus when Bahá'ís refer to pilgrimage, it refers to a nine-day pilgrimage which consists of visiting the holy places at the Bahá'í World Centre in northwest Israel in Haifa and Bahjí. There are four places that Buddhists pilgrimage to: Lumbini: Buddha's birthplace Bodh Gaya: place of Enlightenment Sarnath: where he delivered his first teaching Kusinara: where he attained mahaparinirvana.
Other pilgrimage places in India and Nepal connected to the life of Gautama Buddha are: Savatthi, Nalanda, Vesali, Kapilavastu, Rajagaha. Other famous places for Buddhist pilgrimage include: India: Sanchi, Ajanta. Thailand: Sukhothai, Wat Phra Kaew, Wat Doi Suthep. Tibet: Lhasa, Mount Kailash, Lake Nam-tso. Cambodia: Angkor Wat, Silver Pagoda. Sri Lanka: Polonnaruwa, Temple of the Tooth, Anuradhapura. Laos: Luang Prabang. Malaysia: Kek Lok Si, Cheng Hoon Teng, Maha Vihara Myanmar: Bagan, Sagaing Hill. Nepal: Boudhanath, Swayambhunath. Indonesia: Borobudur. China: Yung-kang, Lung-men caves; the Four Sacred Mountains Japan: Shikoku Pilgrimage, 88 Temple pilgrimage in the Shikoku island. Japan 100 Kannon, pilgrimage composed of the Bandō and Chichibu pilgrimages. Saigoku 33 Kannon, pilgrimage in the Kansai region. Bandō 33 Kannon, pilgrimage in the Kantō region. Chichibu 34 Kannon, pilgrimage in Saitama Prefecture. Chūgoku 33 Kannon, pilgrimage in the Chūgoku region. Kumano Kodō Mount Kōya. Christian pilgrimage was first made to sites connected with the birth, life and resurrection of Jesus.
Aside from the early example of Origen in the third century, surviving descriptions of Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land date from the 4th century, when pilgrimage was encouraged by church fathers including Saint Jerome, established by Saint Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great. The purpose of Christian pilgrimage was summarized by Pope Benedict XVI this way:To go on pilgrimage is not to visit a place to admire its treasures of nature, art or history. To go on pilgrimage means to step out of ourselves in order to encounter God where he has revealed himself, where his grace has shone with particular splendour and produced rich fruits of conversion and holiness among those who believe. Above all, Christians go on pilgrimage to the Holy Land, to the places associated with the Lord’s passion and resurrection, they go to Rome, the city of the martyrdom of Peter and Paul, to Compostela, associated with the memory of Saint James, has welcomed pilgrims from throughout the world who desire to strengthen their spirit with the Apostle’s witness of faith and love.
Pilgrimages were, are made to Rome and other sites associated with the apostles and Christian martyrs, as well as to places where there have been apparitions of the Virgin Mary. A popular pilgrimage journey is along the Way of St. James to the Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, in Galicia, where the shrine of the apostle James is located. A combined pilgrimage was held every seven years in the three nearby towns of Maastricht and Kornelimünster where many important relics could be seen. Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales recounts tales told by Christian pilgrims on their way to Canterbury Cathedral and the shrine of Thomas Becket. According to Karel Werner's Popular Dictionary of Hinduism, "most Hindu places of pilgrimage are associated with legendary events from the lives of various gods.... Any place can become a focus for pilgrimage, but in most cases they are sacred cities, rivers and mountains." Hindus are encouraged to undertake pilgrimages during their lifetime, though this practice is not considered mandatory.
Most Hindus visit sites within their locale. Kumbh Mela: Kumbh Mela is one of the largest gatherings of humans in the world where pilgrims gather to
The Apostolic Palace is the official residence of the pope, the head of the Catholic Church, located in Vatican City. It is known as the Papal Palace, the Palace of the Vatican and the Vatican Palace; the Vatican itself refers to the building as the Palace of Sixtus V, in honor of Pope Sixtus V, who built most of the present form of the palace. The building contains the Papal Apartments, various offices of the Catholic Church and the Holy See and public chapels, Vatican Museums, the Vatican Library, including the Sistine Chapel, Raphael Rooms, Borgia Apartment; the modern tourist can see these last and other parts of the palace, but other parts, such as the Sala Regia and Cappella Paolina, are closed to tourists. The Scala Regia can be not entered. In the fifth century, Pope Symmachus built a papal palace close to the Old St. Peter's Basilica which served an alternative residence to the Lateran Palace; the construction of a second fortified palace was sponsored by Pope Eugene III and extensively modified under Pope Innocent III in the twelfth century.
Upon returning to Rome in 1377 after the interlude of the Avignon Papacy, which saw Rome subject to civil unrest and the abandonment of several Christian monuments, the popes chose to reside first at Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere and at Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore. The Vatican Palace had fallen into disrepair from lack of upkeep and the Lateran Palace underwent two destructive fires, in 1307 and 1361, which did irreparable harm. In 1447, Pope Nicholas V razed the ancient fortified palace of Eugene III to erect a new building, the current Apostolic Palace. In the 15th century, the Palace was placed under the authority of a prefect; this position of Apostolic Prefect lasted from the 15th century till the 1800s, when the Papal States fell into economic difficulties. In 1884, when this post was reviewed in light of saving money, Pope Leo XIII created a committee to administer the palace; the major additions and decorations of the palace are the work of the following popes for 150 years.
Construction of the current version of the palace began on 30 April 1589 under Pope Sixtus V and its various intrinsic parts were completed by successors, Pope Urban VII, Pope Innocent XI and Pope Clement VIII. In the 20th century, Pope Pius XI built a monumental art museum entrance. Construction of the Papal Palace at the Vatican in Vatican City, took place between 1471 and 1605. Covering 162,000m squared, it contains the Papal Apartments, offices of the Roman Catholic Church and Holy See, Vatican Library and art galleries; the Apostolic Palace is run by the Prefecture of the Pontifical Household. The palace is more a series of self-contained buildings within the well-recognized outer structure, arranged around the Courtyard of Sixtus V, it is located northeast of St Peter's Basilica and adjacent to the Bastion of Nicholas V and Palace of Gregory XIII. The Apostolic Palace houses both residential and support offices of various functions as well as administrative offices not focused on the life and functions of the Pope himself.
The best known of the Palace chapels is the Sistine Chapel named in honor of Sixtus IV. It is famous for its decoration, frescoed throughout by Renaissance artists including Michelangelo, Sandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino, Domenico Ghirlandaio, others. One of the primary functions of the chapel is as a venue for the election of each successive Pope in a conclave of the College of Cardinals. In this closed-door election, the cardinals choose a successor to the traditionally first pope, St. Peter, traditionally buried in the crypts of nearby St. Peter's Church; this suite of rooms is famous for its frescos by a large team of artists working under Raphael. They were intended as a suite of apartments for Pope Julius II, he commissioned Raphael a young artist from Urbino, his studio in 1508 or 1509 to redecorate the existing interiors of the rooms entirely. It was Julius' intent to outshine the apartments of his predecessor Pope Alexander VI, as the Stanze are directly above Alexander's Borgia Apartments.
They are on the third floor. Running from east to west, as a visitor would have entered the apartment, but reversing the sequence in which the Stanze were frescoed, the route of the modern visitor, the rooms are the Sala di Constantino, the Stanza di Eliodoro, the Stanza della Segnatura and the Stanza dell'Incendio del Borgo. After the death of Julius in 1513, with two rooms frescoed, Pope Leo X continued the program. Following Raphael's death in 1520, his assistants Gianfrancesco Penni, Giulio Romano and Raffaellino del Colle finished the project with the frescoes in the Sala di Costantino; the Borgia Apartments is a suite of rooms in the Palace adapted for personal use by Pope Alexander VI. He commissioned the Italian painter Pinturicchio to lavishly decorate the apartments with frescoes; the paintings and frescoes, which were executed between 1492 and 1494, drew on a complex iconographic program that used themes from medieval encyclopedias, adding an eschatological layer of meaning and celebrating the divine origins of the Borgias.
The rooms are variously considered a part of the Vatican Vatican Museums. Some of the rooms are now used for the Vatican Collection of Modern Religious Art, inaugur
A Marian apparition is a reported supernatural appearance by the Blessed Virgin Mary. The figure is named after the town where it is reported, or on the sobriquet given to Mary on the occasion of the apparition. Marian apparitions sometimes are reported to recur at the same site over an extended period of time. In the majority of Marian apparitions only one person or a few people report having witnessed the apparition. Exceptions to this include Zeitoun, Assiut where thousands claimed to have seen her over a period of time; some Marian apparitions and their respective icons have received a Canonical coronation from the Pope, most notably Our Lady of Lourdes, Our Lady of Fátima, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Our Lady of Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of Manaoag, Our Lady of the Pillar, Our Lady of Walsingham, many others. Sandra L. Zimdars-Swartz describes an "apparition" as "a specific kind of vision in which a person or being not within the visionary's perceptual range appears to that person, not in a world apart as in a dream...but as part of the environment, without apparent connection to verifiable visual stimuli."
According to Zimdars-Swartz, since the increase in Western Christianity in the tenth and eleventh centuries of devotion to the Mother of God, the figure most seen has been the Virgin Mary. Robert Orsi states that an apparition is a conjunction of transcendence and temporality where the transcendent breaks into time. A public, serial apparition is one in which a seer not only says that they have experienced a vision, but that they expect it will reoccur, people gather to observe. Zimdars-Swatrz notes that this appears to be a recent phenomenon. Up until about the seventeenth century, most reported apparitions happened when the individual was alone, or at least no one else was aware of its occurrence. In some apparitions an image is reported absent any verbal interaction. An example is the reported apparitions at Our Lady of Assiut in which many people reported a bright image atop a building. Photographs at times suggest the silhouette of a statue of the Virgin Mary but the images are subject to varying interpretations, critics suggest that they may just be due to various visual effects.
However, such image-like appearances are hardly reported for visions of Jesus and Mary. In most cases these involve some form of reported communication, and apparitions should be distinguished from interior locutions in which no visual contact is claimed. Interior locutions consist of inner voices. Interior locutions are not classified as apparitions. Physical contact is hardly reported as part of Marian apparitions. In rare cases, a physical artifact is reported in apparitions, such as the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, reported to have been miraculously imprinted on the cloak of Saint Juan Diego. According to the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church, the era of public revelation ended with the death of the last living Apostle. A Marian apparition, if deemed genuine by Church authority, is treated as private revelation that may emphasize some facet of the received public revelation for a specific purpose, but it can never add anything new to the deposit of faith; the Church may pronounce an apparition as worthy of belief, but belief is never required by divine faith.
The Holy See has confirmed the apparitions at Guadalupe, Saint-Étienne-le-Laus, Paris, La Salette, Lourdes, Fátima, Pontmain and Banneux. According to Father Salvatore M. Perrella of the Marianum Pontifical Institute in Rome, of the 295 reported apparitions studied by the Holy See through the centuries only 12 had been approved as of May 2008. Other apparitions continue to be approved at the local level, e.g. the December, 2010 local approval of the 19th-century apparitions of Our Lady of Good Help, the first recognized apparition in the United States. An authentic apparition is not believed to be a subjective experience, but a real and objective intervention of divine power; the purpose of such apparitions is to emphasize some aspect of the Christian message. The church states that cures and other miraculous events are not the purpose of Marian apparitions, but exist to validate and draw attention to the message. Apparitions of Mary are held as evidence of her continuing active presence in the life of the Church, through which she "cares for the brethren of her son who still journey on earth."Possibly the best-known apparition sites are Lourdes and Fátima Since 1862, over sixty medical cures associated with Lourdes have been certified as "miraculous" by the Catholic Church, which established its own Medical Bureau in 1883 to review and evaluate claims of cures.
Although an independent study of cures reported in the twentieth century noted that the number of reported cures had declined over the years due to advances in medical science as well as criteria that excluded some cures during a period of time, the results of the study published in 2012 concluded that some of the cures were "currently beyond our ken but still impressive effective, awaiting a scientific explanation." The Roman Catholic Church has instituted processes for formal investigation and recognition of apparitions. In 1978 the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued "Norms of the Congregation for Proceeding in Judging Alleged Apparitions and Revelations" containing the following provisions: The diocesan bishop can initiate a process on his own initiative or at the request of the faithful to investigate the facts of an
Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin; the miraculous conception took place when she was betrothed to Joseph. She accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem; the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to Catholic and Orthodox teachings, at the end of her earthly life her body was raised directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since early Christianity, is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion, she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God.
There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, her Assumption into heaven. Many Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, basing their argument on the relative brevity of biblical references. Mary has a revered position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name מרים, translit. Maryam or Mariam; the English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, a shortened form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament. In Christianity, Mary is referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husband's involvement. Among her many other names and titles are the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint Mary, the Mother of God, the Theotokos, Our Lady, Queen of Heaven, although the title "Queen of Heaven" was a name for a pagan goddess being worshipped during the prophet Jeremiah's lifetime.
Titles in use vary among Anglicans, Catholics, Protestants and other Christians. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Panagia. Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo's Pietà; the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genetrix, although the phrase is more loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei, with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church. However, this same phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication attached to her image in Byzantine icons; the Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God". Some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis.
For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from King David. Other titles have arisen from special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary. To give a few examples, Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators, Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description. In Islam, she is known as mother of Isa, she is referred to by the honorific title sayyidatuna, meaning "our lady". A related term of endearment is Siddiqah, meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Another title for Mary is Qānitah, which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam, she is called "Tahira", meaning "one, purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation to not be touched by Satan at any point. The Gospel of Luke mentions Mary the most identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative.
The Gospel of Matthew mentions her by name six times, five of these in the infancy narrative and only once outside the infancy narrative. The Gospel of Mark names her once and mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming her in 3:31 and 3:32; the Gospel of John never mentions her by name. Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two appearances, she is first seen at the wedding at Cana. The second reference, listed only in this gospel, has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas (or Cleophas