San Antonio River
The San Antonio River is a major waterway that originates in central Texas in a cluster of springs in midtown San Antonio, about 4 miles north of downtown, follows a southeastern path through the state. It feeds into the Guadalupe River about 10 miles from San Antonio Bay on the Gulf of Mexico; the river is 240 miles long and crosses five counties: Bexar, Karnes and Wilson. The first documented record of the river was from Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca on his explorations of Texas in 1535; the river was named after San Antonio de Padua by the first governor of Spanish Texas, Domingo Terán de los Ríos in 1691. On June 13, 1691, Governor Terán and his company camped at a rancheria on a stream called Yanaguana They renamed the stream "San Antonio" because it was Saint Anthony's Day. Father Damián Massanet accompanied Governor Terán on his trip. During the Texas Revolution, the river was host to several major conflicts; the Battle of Concepcion occurred when the Mexican forces in Bexar and Texian militia fired upon each other in a small skirmish on the mission's grounds.
The Grass Fight occurred when Texian militia mistook mules carrying grass to feed horses as mules carrying supply and gold money. The siege of Bexar was the climax of all these previous events when the Texian militia surrounded Bexar and began continuous attacks into the Mexican stronghold of Bexar until the Mexican General Martín Perfecto de Cos surrendered; the Goliad Campaign occurred when 50 Texian militia captured the mission at Goliad, being used as a garrison by the Mexican forces. The Battle of the Alamo occurred when 180 Texian regulars and volunteers occupied a 3-acre garrison built around an old Spanish mission, they withheld a Mexican force of around 3,000 troops for 12 days until the garrison was overrun by a Mexican assault on dawn of the 13th day. During Fiesta every April, the River Parade runs on the San Antonio River in downtown San Antonio, it is one of Fiesta's most popular events. Five major 18th-century Spanish missions are lined up along the historical course of the river in San Antonio, including Mission Espada, Mission Concepcion, Mission San José, Mission San Juan Capistrano.
The most famous mission is San Antonio de Valero, better known as the Álamo, its complementing fortress is Presidio San Antonio de Bexar. These five missions in San Antonio are now designated as a UNESCO World Heritage site; the Presidio La Bahía and its mission, Mission Nuestra Señora del Espíritu Santo de Zúñiga in Goliad, are located along the southern portion of the river. The waterway is host to the San Antonio River Walk, one of San Antonio's primary tourist destinations and the centerpiece of the city, with several river improvement projects occurring so far; the Riverwalk was extended to the north in 2009, that section of the river is now called the Museum Reach and features attractions such as the Pearl Brewery and the San Antonio Museum of Art. In 2013, the Mission Reach stretch of the Riverwalk was opened in the south, which features hiking and paddling trails. Work was authorized to begin in 2015 by the Bexar County Commissioners Court on the restoration of the former Hot Wells hotel and bathhouse, located along the San Antonio River in the south side of the city.
San Antonio River Authority San Antonio Missions National Historical Park List of rivers of Texas U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: San Antonio River Edwards Aquifer history of the San Antonio River Official site of the San Antonio River Walk "San Antonio River"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879
Shops at Rivercenter
The Shops at Rivercenter is a shopping mall located in Downtown San Antonio, United States along the city's River Walk. It is anchored by Macy's, H&M, as well as a 1,001-room Marriott hotel; the mall was purchased in 2005 by Ashkenazy Acquisition Corporation. The landmark 1871 St. Joseph's Catholic Church did not sell to the original developers, Joske's Department Store, in 1945, the store was built around it; the Shops at Rivercenter opened in 1988 as Rivercenter Mall, with San Antonio's first Lord & Taylor department store, an IMAX theater, as well as Dillard's. Part of the downtown redevelopment included an extension of San Antonio's famed River Walk into the Rivercenter lagoon. Lord & Taylor owned by May Department Stores, was converted into a Foley's in 1989. In 2006, the space became Macy's after Macy's parent, Federated Department Stores, bought May Department Stores; the structure that houses Dillard's, an AMC Theatres, as well as other shops opened in 1887 as a freestanding Joske's at the corner of Alamo and Commerce streets.
Several expansions from 1909 to 1953 brought the space to 551,000 square feet. Joske's closed the flagship store for remodeling in 1987, planning to reopen in 1988, to coincide with the Rivercenter opening, but Dillard's acquired the Joske's chain shortly. The massive flagship store was divided up, with Dillard's occupying only a portion of the five-level building; the remaining area of the building was converted into lease space and a retail atrium for Rivercenter and an AMC movie theater. With the division of the building into other uses, portions of the structure, including 200,000 sq ft. of space on the top two floors, as well as the old "bargain basement," remained unoccupied. In October 2006, plans were revealed to redevelop the property over a number of years. Five-star restaurants and more outdoor seating would be added in the first phase of redevelopment; the redevelopment of the Joske's space would be the next phase. The Joske's facade along Commerce Street would be restored, bringing back the windows and brick that were covered in one of Joske's own renovations before Rivercenter was built, tenants would be added for the vacant two upper floors.
A luxury hotel would be added in the last phase, forcing a multi-level parking garage to close, but another parking garage would be built on another part of the property. San Antonio's Historic and Design Review Commission approved the redevelopment plan on October 4, 2006. A grand re-opening is planned for 2008, it was reported in June 2008 that Ashkenazy purchased the historic Joske's building from Dillard's and plans to revitalize the landmark property as part of the property's redevelopment. In 2016 the old Joske's building was added as a new modern wing of the mall with notable tenants such as Dave & Buster's, H&M, Johnny Rockets; the mall was renamed to Shops at Rivercenter in the same year. The place contains 4 floors, under the first floor, there is a river level; this is the part of the mall. Rivercenter website Ashkenazy Acquisition Corporation website New owner needed to breathe fresh life into downtown mall, San Antonio Business Journal, September 17, 2004. Rivercenter Mall will be put on sales block, San Antonio Business Journal, April 17, 1998
San Antonio Zoo
The San Antonio Zoo is an Association of Zoos and Aquariums-accredited zoo in Midtown San Antonio, United States. It is located in the city's Brackenridge Park; the 35-acre zoo has a collection of over 3,500 animals representing 750 species. The zoo's annual attendance exceeds 1,000,000, it runs non-animal attractions, such as the 2 ft narrow gauge San Antonio Zoo Eagle train ride, which first opened in 1956 and utilizes three Chance Rides C. P. Huntington locomotives; the Richard Friedrich Aquarium was opened in 1948. It was the only aquarium in the city until SeaWorld San Antonio was opened in 1988. What is now known as the San Antonio Zoo began in 1914 when Colonel George Washington Brackenridge, one of the city's leading citizens, placed bison, monkeys, African lions, bears on land he had deeded to the city; the land became Golf Course. The San Antonio Zoo opened two of the first cageless exhibits in the United States in November 1929 that offered visitors views of the animals not available in caged exhibits.
The Richard Friedrich Aquarium was dedicated in 1948, the Hixon Bird House, funded through the efforts of Colonel Frederick C. Hixon, opened in 1966; the San Antonio Zoo housed the first herd of addra gazelle in captivity in 1969 and continues to be active in the breeding program for this critically endangered species. Due to the former hoofstock quarantine point in San Antonio, the San Antonio Zoo has had a wide variety of hoofstock species; the zoo is involved in breeding a number of endangered species including black rhino, golden lion tamarin, dama gazelle, Attwater's prairie chicken, black mangabey, African lion, black-footed ferret, Komodo dragon, Andean condor, Caribbean flamingos. The zoo opened Phase II of Africa Live in 2010. Phase I, which opened in 2007, brought a new exhibit for hippos with underwater viewing area and one for new Nile crocodiles as well as many other smaller animals. Phase II contains Angolan colobus monkeys, African hunting dogs, rock hyrax, various species of birds contained in the second largest aviary in the world.
On June 18, 2013, a two-headed turtle, along with three one-headed turtles hatched. The two-headed turtle was named Thelma and Louise after the 1991 film. Thelma and Louise died on July 29, 2014, from unknown causes. Africa Live! is the San Antonio Zoo's newest exhibit. Consisting of three phases, Africa Live! Gives guests a chance to experience Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi. Guests can observe the hippopotamus, Nile crocodile, African cichlids through underwater viewing windows. Found in Africa Live! are Angola colobus, African wild dog, rock hyrax, Wolf's mona monkey, various species of birds. Phase III of Africa Live will consist of new or remodeled exhibits for African elephants, zebra and rhinoceros. In November 2015, the zoo opened a remodeled Giraffe exhibit with a feeding station and other animals like zebras and ostriches will move in with them. African Plains takes visitors through a arid expanse, backed by natural limestone walls. African Plains hosts a number of animals including zebra, topi, marabou stork, various antelope.
Amazonia houses animals. The zoo's main waterway makes up a large portion of Amazonia; the open flight deck allows guests to enter the exhibit and observe scarlet ibis, among other birds, the family of spider monkeys, giant anteaters, purchase food to feed tilapia. Several cats, including the jaguar and ocelot are located within Amazonia; the exhibit is home to New World monkeys including tamarins, capuchin monkeys, sakis. Other animals include anaconda, sloths and the Andean condor. A cave-like area for visitors to walk through, it houses the zoo's smaller cats, such as a fishing cat, black-footed cats, clouded leopards, a caracal. As well as a few mammals that look similar to cats: ringtail cat, a northern treeshrew; the zoo contains whooping cranes, blue cranes, Manchurian cranes, the hooded crane. The exhibit is a lush environment constructed on the existing waterway that allows guests to be immersed in the cranes' habitat, it is an opportunity, becoming rare in the wild. Spanning the quarry wall is the zoo's white-cheeked gibbon exhibit.
With plenty of ropes to swing on, they stay high above, while below a family of Asian small-clawed otters play in the river. A enclosed circular building, with glass-fronted enclosures displaying a wide variety of bird species from all over the world. In the middle of the rotunda is a small island planted with trees and shrubs, containing a small pond; the free-flight birds stay here, sometimes venture out into the open to explore. Visitors head straight from African Plains to Rift Valley. Walking uphill, the zoo displays large animals such as white rhinoceros and cheetah, as well as smaller animals such as dik-dik, a bateleur eagle; as you head back down, you'll come across more antelopes and the lions. A building housing the zoo's amphibian collection, including frogs, toads and caecilians. Brackenridge Park City of San Antonio SeaWorld San Antonio Media related to San Antonio Zoo at Wikimedia Commons Official website
National Register of Historic Places listings in Bexar County, Texas
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Bexar County, Texas. This is intended to be a complete list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Bexar County, Texas. There are 27 districts, 126 individual properties, one former property listed on the National Register in the county. Two districts and seven individually listed. One district is a National Historical Park, one property is a National Historic Site. One property is a State Historic Site. Two districts and 15 individually listed properties are State Antiquities Landmarks while six districts contain several more. Two districts are Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks while 33 individual properties are designated RTHLs or contain one or more. Ten districts contain many more RTHLs; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted March 29, 2019. The publicly disclosed locations of National Register properties and districts may be seen in a mapping service provided.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Bexar County Media related to National Register of Historic Places in Bexar County, Texas at Wikimedia Commons
Buckhorn Saloon & Museum (San Antonio)
The Buckhorn Saloon & Museum is a run museum located at 318 E. Houston Street in Downtown San Antonio, Texas, U. S. Owned by Albert Friedrich, the Buckhorn became a tourist attraction for its unique collections. Theodore Roosevelt and his Rough Riders were reputed to frequent the establishment. Housed in 1956 in the Lone Star Brewery, the collection passed to Friedrich's heirs who had it moved to its current location; the Buckhorn Saloon & Museum began as a private collection of Albert Friedrich in 1881. He was the youngest son of Agnes Urbaneck Friedrich; the elder Friedrich was an award-winning cabinetmaker who expanded into horn furniture and included Queen Victoria, Otto von Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhelm I among those who owned his creations. Friedrich acquired a saloon on Dolorosa Street and opened his collection for display in the saloon; the name and date of the first saloon is undocumented. In 1890 -- 95, Friedrich purchased a seventy-eight point buck. By 1896, Friedrich opened the first Buckhorn Saloon on the corner of Soledad and West Houston streets.
Friedrich amassed his collection from his own hunting trips, from other hunters and trappers acquiring the collection of a hunter named Capt. Ernest Dosch. In its early years, Friedrich would swap a drink for anyone who would bring in a set of horns to be displayed; the collection became known as the Buckhorn Hall of Horns. A collection of firearms and a mirrored bar were added to the collection of horns; the saloon was reputed to be frequented by Theodore Roosevelt and his Rough Riders during the time period that the Rough Riders were deployed to San Antonio. When Prohibition went into effect, Friedrich could no longer sell alcohol. In 1922, he relocated his business to 400 W. Houston Street, renaming it Albert's Curio Store and the Buckhorn Curio Store and Cafe. In 1956, the Buckhorn Saloon and the Buckhorn Hall of Horns collection were restored at the Lone Star Brewery; the collection added a 1964 Hall of Fins, as well as a 1973 Hall of Feathers. The Buckhorn Museum hosts the SA Live television show.
When Lone Star Brewing Company changed owners in 1977, the Buckhorn collection was sold off. Mary Friedrich Rogers, granddaughter of Albert Friedrich, her husband Wallace Rogers, acquired the collection in 1997; the collection was moved to 318 E. Houston Street and became managed by Twisthorn Holdings and the Buckhorn Museum and Saloon Limited; the Buckhorn Museum features mounted wildlife from all over the world, including mammals and fish. The animals represent over 520 species of wildlife, including fish from the seven seas and animals from every continent; the Texas Ranger Museum features authentic Texas Ranger Division artifacts including automatic handguns, badges and more. The museum features Ranger Town, a recreation of San Antonio at the turn of the century which includes a replica Buckhorn Saloon, jail cell, blacksmith shop and a replica of the 1934 Ford V8 Deluxe — the famous Bonnie & Clyde getaway car; the Texas Ranger Museum is not affiliated with the official Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum in Waco.
In addition to the horn collection, a visitor will find rattlesnake art, memorabilia of both Native Americans and the cowboy culture. Some of the exhibits include the "Carnival of Curiosities" and the "American Sideshow"; the Hall of Texas History Wax Museum portion of the Buckhorn depicts historic events in Texas. List of museums in Central Texas San Antonio Sporting District Media related to Buckhorn Saloon San Antonio at Wikimedia Commons Burkhorn Museum Official Site
La Antorcha de la Amistad
La Antorcha de la Amistad is a monumental abstract sculpture by Mexican sculptor Sebastián, installed in Downtown San Antonio, in the U. S. state of Texas. The work was commissioned by a group of Mexican businessmen living in the United States and friends of Mexico, presented as a gift from the Mexican government to the City of San Antonio in 2002, it was unveiled on June 27, 2002, by the artist, Mayor Edward D. Garza, then–Secretary of Foreign Affairs for Mexico and political analyst Jorge Castañeda Gutman; the sculpture stands at nearly 65 ft, weighs more than 45 tons. The medium is enameled iron, it is located in the middle of a traffic rotary in Downtown San Antonio, an area known by international tourists for the Paseo del Rio, or River Walk, the Alamo. The group that commissioned it, the Asociación de Empresarios Mexicanos, a Texas non-profit composed of Mexican-American business owners and professionals, worked with the Mexican Consulate and the City of San Antonio to make the sculpture a symbol of cooperation and shared culture between the country and the city.
The sculpture has two posts. The posts appear to rise straightly until they individually curl and twist before meeting at the highest point of the sculpture; the sculpture is lit and with varying colors and light patterns at different periods of the year. The sculpture is geometric but does not seem to form any right angles. From each angle surrounding the sculpture, the shape at the top appears to be from a different sculpture. Due to the location, the one perspective, inaccessible is that right under the sculpture, as it is located on a rotary island in a busy traffic intersection; the artist himself describes the concepts of the sculpture a torch rising from the ground, as a symbolization of two different actors—the United States of America and Mexico—running together: He said the sculpture has many points of view from many angles, how he sees the two nations' relationship. "Sometimes it is complex. Sometimes it is harmonious," he said. "But the two countries are always always with a complex friendship.
That's what I am trying to express with this combination of forms." The comments of the artist and the chief organizer of the commissioning of this work, Alejandro Quiroz, make the meaning of the sculpture as a symbol of international bi-lateral relations complex. In an interview with Quiroz conducted by one of the authors of this article, he says that the sculpture symbolizes "... the two columns signify two countries, two languages, two cultures." That oversaw the political project to get the sculpture to its current site searched for a location in HemisFair Park, a public green space built during the HemisFair world fair of 1968. The park is surrounded by a large convention center, the Tower of the Americas, the Federal Building, the Federal Courthouse; the Asociación de Empresarios Mexicanos chose the traffic island, empty at the intersection of Losoya and Commerce streets. Quiroz inquired about the site's history and found that according to many it was where the prisoners captured during the Battle of the Alamo were executed.
The site was chosen, but was not settled without some debate. Though many of the large public sculptures by Sebastián provoke mixed reactions, as he claims, a particular controversy arose regarding the sculpture's location. Public art and architecture in Downtown San Antonio are controlled. At the time of its erection in San Antonio, citizens made complaints to the City Council about its clash with the surrounding features. Nearby the site are the Alamo, the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in modern brick, two non-uniform mall buildings, the green tree tops that are based on the Paseo del Rio; the City Council sneaked by approval of the site within a week before the dedication. Controversy subsided as the sculpture proceeded to receive kind reviews, it turned out that tax money for maintenance of the work would not be high. Media related to La Antorcha de la Amistad at Wikimedia Commons
Fiesta San Antonio
"Fiesta San Antonio" is an annual festival held in April in San Antonio, is the city's signature event since the late 19th century. The festival began as a single event to honor the memory of the battles of the Alamo and San Jacinto. Fiesta is the city's biggest festival, with an economic impact of $340 million for the city. More than three million people take part, in more than 100 events that take place all over the city and beyond; the festival began in 1891, when local women decorated carriages, baby buggies and bicycles with live flowers, met in front of the Alamo, threw the blossoms at one another, thus inspiring the name "Battle of Flowers." Soon, other activities were added including balls, parties and a carnival. The celebration's name changed over the years from Carnival to Spring Carnival to Fiesta San Jacinto and, in 1960, to Fiesta San Antonio; the Battle of Flowers Parade Association began crowning a Carnival Queen in 1895. In 1909, local businessman John Carrington established The Order of the Alamo with the purpose of crowning a queen, a princess and 24 duchesses — 12 from San Antonio and 12 from out of town.
Coronations of local "royalty", a carnival and other activities became the forerunners of today's fiesta. In 2016, fiesta celebrated its 125th birthday with special events and ceremony. Today, more than 100 local nonprofit groups, members of the Fiesta San Antonio Commission, stage more than 100 events over 17 days with the help of some 75,000 volunteers. Fiesta events include three major parades—two along Broadway and past the Alamo, a boat parade at the San Antonio River Walk. Louisiana cuisine is sold at "A Taste of New Orleans" in Brackenridge Park, oysters and other foods are offered at St. Mary's University's Fiesta Oyster Bake. There are cultural events, lasting two days. A traditional event, held during Fiesta is "Day in Old Mexico Charreada", held at the San Antonio Charro Association; the Asociacion de Charros de San Antonio has been carrying on the tradition of Charrería for more than 60 years. Originated in the 19th century as a way for the landed gentry to prepare horses and riders for war, it evolved into an equestrian competition featuring horse reining, bull riding and artistic roping skills.
Today's charros wear the traditional clothes and use horse equipment as required by the Federation of Charros in Mexico. The event is the final official event of Fiesta, it is a family event, fun for everyone, doors open at admission is $15 for adults. A Night in Old San Antonio is a four-evening block party at La Villita downtown. Fiesta in Blue is another annual event. Two evenings of concerts are put on in downtown San Antonio featuring classical and rock/popular music. Music offered includes Tejano, mariachi, big band and pop. History events are held at the Pilgrimage to This Hallowed Ground. Sporting events include races, soccer and lacrosse. Cornyation is a satirical musical review for adults only. Residents and visitors can get souvenir pins and medals from various dignitaries or from members of the Fiesta royalty; the Battle of Flowers Parade is the oldest event and largest parade of Fiesta San Antonio, attracting crowds of more than 350,000 on the second Friday of Fiesta. It is the only parade in the U.
S. produced by women, all of whom are volunteers. The women, dressed in yellow on parade day and wearing yellow hats, direct operations with the assistance of the Army National Guard. Several school districts within San Antonio treat the day of the Battle of Flowers as a local holiday and don't hold classes; the Fiesta Flambeau Parade starts at sunset on the second Saturday of the festival. Dating from 1948, the parade is illuminated by thousands of lights on the dancers, the band instruments, the horses, the cars, the floats. An estimated crowd of 600,000 filled the parade route in 2011 to watch the Fiesta Flambeau Parade. Overseeing the festival is a single nonprofit organization, the Fiesta San Antonio Commission; the sponsoring organizations must meet the commission's criteria before receiving approval and being invited to join. The commission is governed by an all-volunteer board of community leaders and representatives from its nonprofit participating member organizations; the group works throughout the year, coordinating the details and day-to-day tasks required to plan the citywide event.
The commission serves as a liaison between its nonprofit members, the local military activities, the City of San Antonio. City services are essential to the conduct of Fiesta; the commission receives no government funding. Its income comes from corporate partnerships, sales in the Fiesta Store, membership dues, proceeds from the Fiesta Carnival. Fiesta San Antonio Official website Guide to the Fiesta San Antonio Commission Records, University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries Special Collections