Bas-Rhin is a department in Alsace, a part of the Grand Est super-region of France. The name means "Lower Rhine", geographically speaking it belongs to the Upper Rhine region, it is the more populous and densely populated of the two departments of the traditional Alsace region, with 1,121,407 inhabitants in 2016. The prefecture and the General Council are based in Strasbourg; the INSEE and Post Code is 67. The inhabitants of the department are known as Bas-Rhinoises; the Rhine has always been of great historical and economic importance to the area, it forms the eastern border of Bas-Rhin. The area is home to some of the foothills of the Vosges Mountains. To the north of Bas-Rhin lies the Palatinate forest in the German State of Rhineland-Palatinate, the German State of Baden-Württemberg lies to the east. To the south lies the department of Haut-Rhin, the town of Colmar and southern Alsace, to the west the department of Moselle. On its south-western corner, Bas-Rhin joins the department of Vosges.
The Bas-Rhin has a continental-type climate, characterised by cold, dry winters and hot, stormy summers, due to the western protection provided by the Vosges. The average annual temperature is 7 °C on high ground; the annual maximum temperature is high. The average rainfall is 700 mm per year. Established according to data from the Infoclimat station at Strasbourg-Entzheim, over the period from 1961 to 1990; this is the last French department to have kept the term Bas meaning "Lower" in its name. Other departments using this prefix preferred to change their names - e.g.: Basses-Pyrenees in 1969 became Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Basses-Alpes in 1970 became the department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence. The same phenomenon was observed for the inférieur departments such as Charente-Inférieure, Seine-Inférieure, Loire-Inférieure. Bas-Rhin is one of the original 83 departments created on 4 March 1790, during the French Revolution. On 14 January 1790 the National Constituent Assembly decreed: "- That Alsace be divided into two departments with Strasbourg and Colmar as their capitals.
In 1871 Bas-Rhin was annexed by Germany and became Bezirk Unterelsass in Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen. Strasbourg, the chef lieu of Bas-Rhin is the official seat of the European Parliament as well as of the Council of Europe; the demography of Bas-Rhin is characterized by high density and high population growth since the 1950s. In January 2014 Bas-Rhin had 1,112,815 inhabitants and was 18th by population at the national level. In fifteen years, from 1999 to 2014, its population grew by more than 86,000 people, or about 5,800 people per year, but this variation is differentiated among the 517 communes. The population density of Bas-Rhin is 234 inhabitants per square kilometre in 2014, more than twice the average in France, 112 in 2009; the first census was conducted in 1801 and this count, renewed every five years from 1821, provides precise information on the evolution of population in the department. With 540,213 inhabitants in 1831, the department represented 1.66% of the total French population, 32,569,000 inhabitants.
From 1831 to 1866, the department gained 48,757 people, an increase of 0.26% on average per year compared to the national average of 0.48% over the same period. Demographic change between the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and the First World War was higher than the national average. Over this period, the population increased by 100,532 inhabitants, an increase of 16.74%, compared to 10% nationally. The population increased by 9.23% between the two world wars from 1921 to 1936 compared to a national growth of 6.9%. Like other French departments, Bas-Rhin experienced a population boom after the Second World War, higher than the national level; the rate of population growth between 1946 and 2007 was 83.83%
A marsh is a wetland, dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species. Marshes can be found at the edges of lakes and streams, where they form a transition between the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, they are dominated by grasses, rushes or reeds. If woody plants are present they tend to be low-growing shrubs; this form of vegetation is what differentiates marshes from other types of wetland such as swamps, which are dominated by trees, mires, which are wetlands that have accumulated deposits of acidic peat. Marshes provide a habitat for many species of plants and insects that have adapted to living in flooded conditions; the plants must be able to survive in wet mud with low oxygen levels. Many of these plants therefore have aerenchyma, channels within the stem that allow air to move from the leaves into the rooting zone. Marsh plants tend to have rhizomes for underground storage and reproduction. Familiar examples include cattails, sedges and sawgrass. Aquatic animals, from fish to salamanders, are able to live with a low amount of oxygen in the water.
Some can obtain oxygen from the air instead, while others can live indefinitely in conditions of low oxygen. Marshes provide habitats for many kinds of invertebrates, amphibians and aquatic mammals. Marshes have high levels of biological production, some of the highest in the world, therefore are important in supporting fisheries. Marshes improve water quality by acting as a sink to filter pollutants and sediment from the water that flows through them. Marshes are able to absorb water during periods of heavy rainfall and release it into waterways and therefore reduce the magnitude of flooding; the pH in marshes tends to be neutral to alkaline, as opposed to bogs, where peat accumulates under more acid conditions. Marshes differ depending on their location and salinity. Both of these factors influence the range and scope of animal and plant life that can survive and reproduce in these environments; the three main types of marsh are salt marshes, freshwater tidal marshes, freshwater marshes. These three can be found worldwide and each contains a different set of organisms.
Saltwater marshes are found around the world in mid to high latitudes, wherever there are sections of protected coastline. They are located close enough to the shoreline that the motion of the tides affects them, sporadically, they are covered with water, they flourish where the rate of sediment buildup is greater than the rate at which the land level is sinking. Salt marshes are dominated by specially adapted rooted vegetation salt-tolerant grasses. Salt marshes are most found in lagoons, on the sheltered side of shingle or sandspit; the currents there carry the fine particles around to the quiet side of the spit and sediment begins to build up. These locations allow the marshes to absorb the excess nutrients from the water running through them before they reach the oceans and estuaries; these marshes are declining. Coastal development and urban sprawl has caused significant loss of these essential habitats. Although considered a freshwater marsh, this form of marsh is affected by the ocean tides.
However, without the stresses of salinity at work in its saltwater counterpart, the diversity of the plants and animals that live in and use freshwater tidal marshes is much higher than in salt marshes. The most serious threats to this form of marsh are the increasing size and pollution of the cities surrounding them. Ranging in both size and geographic location, freshwater marshes make up the most common form of wetland in North America, they are the most diverse of the three types of marsh. Some examples of freshwater marsh types in North America are: Wet meadows occur in areas such as shallow lake basins, low-lying depressions, the land between shallow marshes and upland areas, they occur on the edges of large lakes and rivers. Wet meadows have high plant diversity and high densities of buried seeds, they are flooded but are dry in the summer. Vernal pools are a type of marsh found only seasonally in shallow depressions in the land, they can be covered in shallow water, but in the summer and fall, they can be dry.
In western North America, vernal pools tend to form in open grasslands, whereas in the east they occur in forested landscapes. Further south, vernal pools form in pine flatwoods. Many amphibian species depend upon vernal pools for spring breeding. An example is the endangered gopher frog. Similar temporary ponds occur in other world ecosystems. However, the term vernal pool can be applied to all such temporary pool ecosystems. Playa lakes are a form of shallow freshwater marsh that occurs in the southern high plains of the United States. Like vernal pools, they are only present at certain times of the year and have a circular shape; as the playa dries during the summer, conspicuous plant zonation develops along the shoreline. Prairie potholes are found in the northern parts of North America as the Prairie Pothole Region; these landscapes were once covered by glaciers, as a result shallow depressions were formed in great numbers. These depressions fill with water in the spring, they provide important breeding habitats for many species of waterfowl.
Some pools only occur seasonally. Many kinds of marsh occur along the fringes of large rivers; the different types are produced by factors such as water level, ice scour, waves. Large tracts of marshland have been embanked and ar
A bakery is an establishment that produces and sells flour-based food baked in an oven such as bread, cakes and pies. Some retail bakeries are cafés, serving coffee and tea to customers who wish to consume the baked goods on the premises. Baked goods have been around for thousands of years; the art of baking was developed early during the Roman Empire. It was a famous art as Roman citizens loved baked goods and demanded for them for important occasions such as feasts and weddings etc. Due to the fame and desire that the art of baking received, around 300 BC, baking was introduced as an occupation and respectable profession for Romans; the bakers began to prepare bread at home in an oven, using mills to grind grain into the flour for their breads. The oncoming demand for baked goods vigorously continued and the first bakers' guild was established in 168 BC in Rome; this drastic appeal for baked goods promoted baking all throughout Europe and expanded into the eastern parts of Asia. Bakers started selling them out on the streets.
This trend became common and soon, baked products were getting sold in streets of Rome, Germany and many more. This resulted in a system of delivering the goods to households, as the demand for baked breads and goods increased; this provoked the bakers to establish a place where people could purchase baked goods for themselves. Therefore, in Paris, the first open-air bakery of baked goods was developed and since bakeries became a common place to purchase delicious goods and get together around the world. By the colonial era, bakeries were viewed as places to gather and socialize. On July 7, 1928, a bakery in Chillicothe, Missouri introduced pre-cut bread using the automatic bread-slicing machine, invented by Otto Frederick Rohwedder. While the bread failed to sell, due to its "sloppy" aesthetic, the fact it went stale faster, it became popular. In World War II bread slicing machines were banned, as the metal in them was required for wartime use; when they were requisitioned, creating 100 tonnes of metal alloy, the decision proved unpopular with housewives.
World War II directly affected bread industries in the UK. Baking schools closed during this time so when the war did end there was an absence of skilled bakers; this resulted in new methods being developed to satisfy the world’s desire for bread. Methods like: adding chemicals to dough and specialised machinery; these old methods of baking were completely eradicated when these new methods were introduced and became industrialised. The old methods were seen as unnecessary and financially unsound, during this period there were not many traditional bakeries left; some bakeries provide services for special occasions or for people who have allergies or sensitivities to certain foods. Bakeries can provide a wide range of cakes designs such as sheet cakes, layer cakes, tiered cakes, wedding cakes. Other bakeries may specialize in traditional or hand made types of bread made with locally milled flour, without flour bleaching agents or flour treatment agents, baking what is sometimes referred to as artisan bread.
Grocery stores and supermarkets, in many countries, sell prepackaged or pre-sliced bread and other pastries. They can offer in-store baking and basic cake decoration. Nonetheless, many people still prefer to get their baked goods from a small artisanal bakery, either out of tradition, the availability of a greater variety of baked goods, or due to the higher quality products characteristic of the trade of baking. Media related to Bakeries at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of bakery at Wiktionary
Gambsheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department and Grand Est region of north-eastern France. Gambsheim lies adjacent to a river-crossing into Germany, favoured by southbound traffic on the A35 autoroute wishing to avoid traffic delays around Strasbourg; the crossing coincides with the location of a large river lock, the site of one of the Rhine's first fish ladders. The latter was installed to support migratory fish in general and, more in an attempt to restore the abundant salmon population for which the upper Rhine was famous before the early 20th century, when the installation of a series of locks rendered the river navigable beyond Basel for boats, but blocked it for migrating fish; the church of St Nazaire. Gambsheim lock gates. Town hall, built in 1823 to replace an 18th-century building. Gambsheim hydroelectrical power plant. Communes of the Bas-Rhin department INSEE commune file The Gambsheim fish ladder
A train is a form of transport consisting of a series of connected vehicles that runs along a rail track to transport cargo or passengers. The word "train" comes from the Old French trahiner, derived from the Latin trahere meaning "to pull" or "to draw". Motive power for a train is provided by a separate locomotive or individual motors in a self-propelled multiple unit. Although steam propulsion dominated, the most common types of locomotive are diesel and electric, the latter supplied by overhead wires or additional rails. Trains can be hauled by horses, pulled by engine or water-driven cable or wire winch, run downhill using gravity, or powered by pneumatics, gas turbines or batteries. Train tracks consist of two running rails, sometimes supplemented by additional rails such as electric conducting rails and rack rails. Monorails and maglev guideways are used occasionally. A passenger train includes passenger-carrying vehicles and can be long and fast. One notable and growing long-distance train.
In order to achieve much faster operation at speeds of over 500 km/h, innovative maglev technology has been the subject of research for many years. The term "light rail" is sometimes used to refer to a modern tram system, but it may mean an intermediate form between a tram and a train, similar to a heavy rail rapid transit system. In most countries, the distinction between a tramway and a railway is precise and defined in law. A freight train uses freight cars to transport materials, it is possible to carry passengers and freight in the same train using a mixed consist. Rail cars and machinery that are used for the maintenance and repair of tracks, are termed "maintenance of way" equipment. Dedicated trains may be used to provide support services to stations along a train line, such as garbage or revenue collection. There are various types of train. A train can consist of a combination of one or more locomotives and attached railroad cars, or a self-propelled multiple unit, or a single or articulated powered coach called a railcar.
Special kinds of train running on corresponding purpose-built "railways" are monorails, high-speed railways, atmospheric railways, rubber-tired underground and cog railways. A passenger train consists of several coaches. Alternatively, a train may consist of passenger-carrying coaches, some or all of which are powered. In many parts of the world the Far East and Europe, high-speed rail is used extensively for passenger travel. Freight trains consist of wagons or trucks rather than carriages, though some parcel and mail trains appear outwardly to be more like passenger trains. Trains can have mixed consist, with both passenger accommodation and freight vehicles; these mixed trains are most to be used for services that run infrequently, where the provision of separate passenger and freight trains would not be cost-effective, but the disparate needs of passengers and freight means that this is avoided where possible. Special trains are used for track maintenance. In the United Kingdom, a train hauled using two locomotives is known as a "double-headed" train.
In Canada and the United States, it is quite common for a long freight train to be headed by three or more locomotives. A train with a locomotive attached at both ends is described as "top and tailed", this practice being used when there are no reversing facilities available. Where a second locomotive is attached temporarily to assist a train when ascending steep banks or gradients, this is referred to as "banking" in the UK. Many loaded trains in the US are assembled using one or more locomotives in the middle or at the rear of the train, which are operated remotely from the lead cab; this is referred to as "DP" or "Distributed Power." The railway terminology, used to describe a train varies between countries. In the United Kingdom, the interchangeable terms set and unit are used to refer to a group of permanently or semi-permanently coupled vehicles, such as those of a multiple unit. While when referring to a train made up of a variety of vehicles, or of several sets/units, the term formation is used.
The word rake is used for a group of coaches or wagons. Section 83 of the UK's Railways Act 1993 defines "train" as follows: a) two or more items of rolling stock coupled together, at least one of, a locomotive. In the United States, the term consist is used to describe the group of rail vehicles that make up a train; when referring to motive power, consist refers to the group of locomotives powering the train. The term trainset refers to a group of rolling stock, permanently or semi-permanently coupled together to form a unified set of equipment. There are three types of locomotive: electric and steam; the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway's 1948 operating rules define a train as: "An engine or more than one engine coupled, with or without cars, displaying markers." A bogie is trolley. In mechanics terms, a bogie is a framework carrying wheels, attached to a vehicle, it can be fixed in place, as on a cargo truck, mounted on a swivel, as on a railway carriage or locomotive, o
The Ill is a river in Alsace, in north-eastern France. It is western, tributary of the Rhine, it starts down from its source near the village of Winkel, in the Jura mountains, with a resurgence near Ligsdorf, turns around Ferrette on its east side, runs northward through Alsace, flowing parallel to the Rhine. Taking apart the Largue coming from the Jura mountains near Illfurth, it receives several tributaries from the west bank Vosges mountains after passing through Altkirch: the Doller in Mulhouse, the Thur near Ensisheim, the Lauch in Colmar, the Fecht in Illhaeusern, the Giessen in Sélestat, the Andlau near Fegersheim, the Ehn near Geispolsheim, the Bruche next to Strasbourg and the Souffel upstream from La Wantzenau before meeting with the Rhine downstream from Gambsheim's lock; as the Ill nears the city of Mulhouse, most of its flow is diverted into a discharge channel leading to the Doller, protecting the historical center of the town from floods. Flowing through the city of Strasbourg, the river forms part of the 17th-century fortifications and passes through a series of locks and channels in the picturesque old town, including the Petite France quarter, where its waters were once used to power mills and tanneries.
One of these channels is the Canal du Faux-Rempart that, together with the main channel of the Ill, surrounds the Grande Île or historic centre of Strasbourg. The Ill is navigable from a junction with the Canal de la Marne au Rhin for a distance of just under 10 kilometres upstream to a head of navigation at Nachtweid; this stretch of river passes through the centre of Strasbourg, makes connection with the Canal du Faux-Rempart, the Canal du Rhone au Rhine and the, no longer navigable, Canal de la Bruche. There is a single lock, in the Petite France quarter of central Strasbourg. Navigation through the section of the central part of this section, through Petite France, is restricted to small pleasure craft in the downstream direction only. Passenger trip boats use this section in the opposite direction, completing their loop via the Canal du Faux-Rempart, closed to all other traffic. Other stretches of the Ill, downstream of the Canal de la Marne au Rhin to the confluence with the Rhine, upstream of Nachtweid, are not navigable by powered craft, although they may be used by canoes and similar craft.
Http://www.geoportail.fr The Ill at the Sandre database
A prince-bishop is a bishop, the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty. Thus the principality or prince-bishopric ruled politically by a prince-bishop could wholly or overlap with his diocesan jurisdiction, since some parts of his diocese the city of his residence, could be exempt from his civil rule, obtaining the status of free imperial city. If the episcopal see is an archbishopric, the correct term is prince-archbishop. A prince-bishop is considered an elected monarch. In the West, with the decline of imperial power from the 4th century onwards in the face of the barbarian invasions, sometimes Christian bishops of cities took the place of the Roman commander, made secular decisions for the city and led their own troops when necessary. Relations between a prince-bishop and the burghers were invariably not cordial; as cities demanded charters from emperors, kings, or their prince-bishops and declared themselves independent of the secular territorial magnates, friction intensified between burghers and bishops.
In the Byzantine Empire, the still autocratic Emperors passed general legal measures assigning all bishops certain rights and duties in the secular administration of their dioceses, but, part of a caesaropapist development putting the Eastern Church in the service of the Empire, with its Ecumenical Patriarch reduced to the Emperor's minister of religious affairs. Bishops had been involved in the government of the Frankish realm and subsequent Carolingian Empire as the clerical member of a duo of envoys styled Missus dominicus, but, an individual mandate, not attached to the see. Prince-bishoprics were most common in the feudally fragmented Holy Roman Empire, where many were formally awarded the rank of an Imperial Prince Reichsfürst, granting them the immediate power over a certain territory and a representation in the Imperial Diet; the stem duchies of the German kingdom inside the Empire had strong and powerful dukes, always looking out more for their duchy's "national interest" than for the Empire's.
In turn the first Ottonian king Henry the Fowler and more so his son, Emperor Otto I, intended to weaken the power of the dukes by granting loyal bishops Imperial lands and vest them with regalia privileges. Unlike dukes they could not pass hereditary lands to any descendants. Instead the Emperors reserved the implementation of the bishops of their proprietary church for themselves, defying the fact that according to canon law they were part of the transnational Catholic Church; this met with increasing opposition by the Popes, culminating in the fierce Investiture Controversy of 1076. The Emperors continued to grant major territories to the most important bishops; the immediate territory attached to the episcopal see became a prince-diocese or bishopric. The German term Hochstift was used to denote the form of secular authority held by bishops ruling a prince-bishopric with Erzstift being used for prince-archbishoprics. Emperor Charles IV by the Golden Bull of 1356 confirmed the privileged status of the Prince-Archbishoprics of Mainz and Trier as members of the electoral college.
At the eve of the Protestant Reformation, the Imperial states comprised 53 ecclesiastical principalities. They were secularized in the 1803 German Mediatization upon the territorial losses to France in the Treaty of Lunéville, except for the Mainz prince-archbishop and German archchancellor Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg, who continued to rule as Prince of Aschaffenburg and Regensburg. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the title became defunct. However, in some countries outside of French control, such as in the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, the institution nominally continued, in some cases was revived. No less than three of the prince-electors, the highest order of Reichsfürsten, were prince-archbishops, each holding the title of Archchancellor for a part of the Empire; the bishops of Vienna and Wiener Neustadt didn't control any territory, nor did they claim a princely title. Upon the incorporation of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1237, the territory of the Order's State corresponded with the Diocese of Riga.
Bishop Albert of Riga in 1207 had received the lands of Livonia as an Imperial fief from the hands of German king Philip of Swabia, he however had to come to terms with the Brothers of the Sword. At the behest of Pope Innocent III the Terra Mariana confederation was established, whereby Albert had to cede large parts of the episcopal territory to the Livonian Order. Albert proceeded tactically in the conflict between the Papacy and Emperor Frederick II: in 1225 he reached the acknowledgement of his status as a Prince-Bishop of the Empire, though the Roman Curia insisted on the fact that the Christianized Baltic territories were under the suzerainty of the Holy See. By the 1234 Bull of Rieti, Pope Gregory IX stated that all lands acquired by the Teutonic Knights were no subject of any conveyancing by the Emperor. Within this larger conflict, the continued dualism of the autonomous Riga prince-bishop and the Teutonic Knigh