A national anthem is a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. The majority of national anthems are hymns in style; the countries of Latin America, Central Asia, Europe tend towards more ornate and operatic pieces, while those in the Middle East, Oceania and the Caribbean use a more simplistic fanfare. Some countries that are devolved into multiple constituent states have their own official musical compositions for them. A national anthem is most in the national or most common language of the country, whether de facto or official, there are notable exceptions. Most states with more than one national language may offer several versions of their anthem, for instance: The "Swiss Psalm", the national anthem of Switzerland, has different lyrics for each of the country's four official languages; the national anthem of Canada, "O Canada", has official lyrics in both English and French which are not translations of each other, is sung with a mixture of stanzas, representing the country's bilingual nature.
The song itself was written in French. "The Soldier's Song", the national anthem of Ireland, was written and adopted in English, but an Irish translation, although never formally adopted, is nowadays always sung instead. The current South African national anthem is unique in that five of the country's eleven official languages are used in the same anthem, it was created by combining two different songs together and modifying the lyrics and adding new ones. One of the two official national anthems of New Zealand, "God Defend New Zealand", is now sung with the first verse in Māori and the second in English; the tune is the same but the words are not a direct translation of each other. "God Bless Fiji" has lyrics in Fijian which are not translations of each other. Although official, the Fijian version is sung, it is the English version, performed at international sporting events. Although Singapore has four official languages, with English being the current lingua franca, the national anthem, "Majulah Singapura" is in Malay and by law can only be sung with its original Malay lyrics, despite the fact that Malay is a minority language in Singapore.
This is because Part XIII of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore declares, “the national language shall be the Malay language and shall be in the Roman script ” There are several countries that do not have official lyrics to their national anthems. One of these is the national anthem of Spain. Although it had lyrics those lyrics were discontinued after governmental changes in the early 1980s after Francisco Franco's dictactorship. In 2007 a national competition to write words was held. Other national anthems with no words include "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica", the national anthem of San Marino, that of Bosnia and Herzegovina and that of Kosovo, entitled "Europe"; the national anthem of India, "Jana Gana Mana", the official lyrics are in the Devnagari. The lyrics were adopted from a Bengali poem written by Rabindranath Tagore. Despite the most common language in Wales being English, the Welsh regional anthem "Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" is sung in the Welsh language; the national anthem of Finland, was first written in Swedish and only translated to Finnish.
It is nowadays sung in both languages as there is a Swedish speaking minority of about 6% in the country. National anthems rose to prominence in Europe during the 19th century, but some originated much earlier; the presumed oldest national anthem belongs to the Netherlands and is called the "Wilhelmus". It was written between 1568 and 1572 during the Dutch Revolt and its current melody variant was composed shortly before 1626, it was a popular orangist march during the 17th century but it did not become the official Dutch national anthem until 1932. The Japanese national anthem, "Kimigayo", has the oldest lyrics, which were taken from a Heian period poem, yet it was not set to music until 1880; the Philippine national anthem "Lupang Hinirang" was composed in 1898 as wordless incidental music for the ceremony declaring independence from the Spanish Empire. The Spanish poem "Filipinas" was written the following year to serve as the anthem's lyrics. "God Save the Queen", the national anthem of the United Kingdom and the royal anthem reserved for use in the presence of the Monarch in some Commonwealth realms, was first performed in 1619 under the title "God Save the King".
It is not the national anthem of the UK, though it became such through custom and usage. Spain's national anthem, the "Marcha Real", written in 1761, was among the first to be adopted as such, in 1770. Denmark adopted the older of its two national anthems, "Kong Christian stod ved højen mast", in 1780. Serbia became the first Eastern European nation to have a national anthem – "Rise up, Serbia!" – in 1804."Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu", the national anthem of Kenya, is one of the first national anthems to be specifical
Fatshe leno la rona
"Fatshe leno la rona" is the national anthem of the Republic of Botswana. The music was composed by Kgalemang Tumediso Motsete, who authored the song's lyrics, it was adopted when the country became independent in 1966. From the late 19th-century until the height of decolonisation during the 1960s, Bechuanaland was a protectorate of the United Kingdom within its colonial empire. In the run up to independence, proposals for the national symbols for the future country were made. Although the flag and the coat of arms were straightforward choices, the selection of the national anthem became a source of contention. Despite its popularity, "Fatshe leno la rona" was not the frontrunner because its composer – Kgalemang Tumediso Motsete, who possessed "a music degree from London" – was the co-founder and leader of the opposition Botswana People's Party, which at the time was a radical faction. Instead, the government wanted to maintain "Morena boloka Sechaba sa Etsho" as the anthem after independence.
Although the latter song was considered by some government officials to be a "colonial song", it was in fact embraced by nationalists in the south of the continent in their struggle against colonialism, as well as in South Africa during the apartheid era. In an interview with the national newspaper Mmegi, fellow BPP co-founder Motsamai Mpho stated that "Fatshe leno la rona" was written in 1962, he stated that Motsete had penned the anthem in Ghana, where he was inspired by the songs of liberation from that country. Indeed, Mpho asserts that himself and three others affiliated with the BPP were the first people to sing the anthem while returning home on a flight from a Pan-Africanist conference held in Accra that same year. According to the biographer of Gobe Matenge, a former Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Home Affairs, he was one of several civil servants – including the future vice president Peter Mmusi – that compelled the Motswana government to adopt "Fatshe leno la rona" as the anthem of the independent nation.
In order to ascertain the opinion of the general public on the matter, the government transmitted all of the contending hymns over Radio Botswana. However, Matenge's group was able to obtain recordings of these songs for themselves and air them in front of quasi-town hall gatherings held in major settlements like Lobatse and Mafikeng, in addition to the capital Gaborone, they strategically played "Fatshe leno la rona" as the last song – which in theory would increase the likelihood that the audience would remember the tune – while having their organisers add words of praise for it in an attempt to sway the crowd's opinion in favour of that hymn. At the end of the exercise, they would circulate a boilerplate form letter articulating the author's viewpoint of "Fatshe leno la rona" being their favourite candidate for national anthem; this was done because of the low levels of literacy in Botswana at the time. Of the multitude of letters sent to the Department of Information and Broadcasting, the vast majority of them expressed an inclination towards the aforementioned song.
However, this account has been disputed by George Winstanley, the first clerk to the Cabinet after independence. He insists that stories about how the government was pressured into ratifying "Fatshe leno la rona" are inaccurate in light of the fact that the civil servants who did this were "junior executive officers" at the time. Rather, Winstanley remembers how Seretse Khama leaned towards selecting "Morena", before he convinced Khama to select a hymn, "unique to Botswana". Khama's deputy Quett Masire recalled how the future president wanted an anthem, enduring and would transcend the political spectrum, so that it would not be changed when another political party assumed power in the future. A total of seven hymns were shortlisted as finalists for the new national anthem. Motsete made another submission – "Botswana Fatshe le Lentle" – in addition to "Fatshe leno la rona"; the latter was adopted in 1966, the year the country gained independence. One of the first public occasions where the anthem was played was at the flag hoisting ceremony at midnight on 30 September 1966, marking the end of British rule over Botswana.
The anthem is sung in four part vocal harmony. It is performed both at tribal and at national level. For instance, it is sung before traditional village meetings; the lyrics of "Fatshe leno la rona" alludes to God and his standing as the bestower of the nation's land. This is unsurprising given, it promotes values such as love of the country, accord among the different ethnic groups residing in the state. Botswana: Fatshe leno la rona – Audio of the national anthem of Botswana, with information and lyrics Fatshe leno la rona MIDI – Vocal
Ry Tanindrazanay malala ô!
Ry Tanindrazanay malala ô! is the national anthem of Madagascar. The lyrics were written by the music by Norbert Raharisoa, it is similar to a march and was influenced by European music and the French colonial education system It is played by Malagasy musicians on the accordion. The anthem was adopted on April 27, 1959 by the parliament of Madagascar prior to the official granting of independence on 26 June 1960. Philibert Tsiranana was Prime Minister of Madagascar during the creation of the anthem and Michel Debré was the French Prime Minister during this time; the main focus of the anthem is love of the land, as well as thankfulness to God and an appeal to unity and loyalty under the nation. "Pastor" Rahajason is credited with writing the national anthem of Madagascar. He was a priest born in 1897 and died in 1971, he was influenced by the French colonial education system, the aim of, to assimilate the colonized people and was part of the broader civilizing mission. This system was designed to orient local Malagasy populations towards the French colonial project, promoting strong ties to the French language, as well as French civilization and cultural preferences.
The schools were associated with various missionary organizations, imparting a strong religious education overtone accounting for Rahajason's exposure to Christianity and his subsequent decision to become a pastor. Norbert Raharisoa is credited with composing the national anthem of Madagascar. Raharisoa was a music teacher and professor, he was died in 1963, shortly following the adoption of his composition. He was honoured for his contributions to Malagasy culture by being featured on the 40 franc postage stamp in 1967. Like his colleague Rahajason, Norbert Raharisoa was raised under the French colonial education system, which explains the colonial influence on the anthem. Philibert Tsiranana, the Prime Minister of Madagascar during the independence talks with France, was content to remain within the broader influence of the French, including the franc zone, he wanted to ask for an independent ability to conduct diplomatic relations, allowing France to continue its role in other aspects of governance such as defense.
Michel Debré was the French Prime Minister during this time. The anthem is written as a European-style march, consistent with many national anthems around the world; the march is traditionally a military style, with a strong and beat meant to help troops "march" in step while traveling. The anthem betrays its colonial influence through the general absence of local musical styles and instrument types. Ron Emoff, professor of music and anthropology at OSU Newark, notes that the anthem is not played in the vakondra-zana style, the style of the ancestors' music known as a form of traditional music. Emoff notes that the anthem is not played on the local instrument, the valiha; this is because the anthem replicates the same essential ingredients that European hymns use, which are themselves based on old religious and nationalistic hymns. The national anthem of Madagascar was adopted on April 27, 1959 one year before Madagascar achieved independence from the French, on June 26, 1960; the song was written in French and Malagasy, an Indonesian language, indicating both the influence of the French colonizers and the prominence of Indonesian immigration to Madagascar.
Anthems are meant to be hymns to the nation, celebrating important national traditions and histories and Madagascar's anthem follows this tradition well. They are meant to create a strong sense of national unity and nationalism, in nations like Madagascar, they are designed to supersede ethnic affiliations. Researcher Igor Cusack identified several themes under which national anthems fall: calls to awake, arise, or work for future progress. Cusack defines anthems as praise hymns to God, the nation, or a parental figure, in keeping with the European origin of anthems as hymns. Writing about Madagascar, Cusack explains that it was influenced by its French colonial masters, featured the themes: blessed by God, God save our land/people, a nonspecific love of their beloved land; the anthem is written in both French and Malagasy. This is because prior to Madagascar being conquered by the French in 1896, the island was home to many different people groups, beginning with the arrival of Indonesians in AD 350.
African migrants came from AD 1000 and onwards, as well as other smaller groups, making Madagascar a diverse nation and explaining the emphasis in the anthem of uniting as a nation based on the beauty of the land rather than a specific ethnic identity. In all, the people of Madagascar were influenced by Indonesian, Indian and African cultural and religious practices. Although the independence movement in Madagascar can be traced back to the nationalist attacks against the French in late March 1947, it is credited to the successful referendum vote in 1958 and the founding of the Malagasy Republic on October 14, 1958, they were granted independence from France on June 20, 1960 and became known as the Republic of Madagascar. Based on the themes provided by Igor Cusack, the Madagascar anthem demonstrates elements of "blessed by God", "God save our land/people", a "love of their beloved land". Madagascar: Ry Tanindrazanay malala ô - Audio of the national anthem of Madagascar, with information and lyrics
God Bless Our Homeland Ghana
"God Bless Our Homeland Ghana" is the national anthem of Ghana. The anthem "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana" was written and composed by Philip Gbeho and adopted in 1957; the current text was chosen some time after the 1966 coup in Ghana. Philip Gbeho’s text, discarded at that time started with: The current lyrics of the "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana" national anthem, in use since the 1970s were written by Michael Kwame Gbordzoe while a student within the framework of a national competition, is accompanied by Ghana's national pledge. Thus, the lyrics of Ghana’s national anthem "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana" is as follows: Thus, although Philip Gbeho’s composition is still being used, the current lyrics beginning "God Bless our Homeland Ghana" do not originate from him. Michael Kwame Gbordzoe, who became a scientist by profession, has drawn the attention of the Ghana Government to the fact that although his lyrics have been adopted for the country’s national anthem since the 1970s, there has so far been no official Ghana Government recognition for his work, which may be attributed to the abrupt changes in regimes in Ghana in the past.
Messages were sent to various Ghanaian government agencies, was discussed on air at the Ghana Broadcasting Corporation, Uniiq FM programme PTGlive, on 9 March 2008. The National Pledge Of Ghana is the National Pledge to the Republic of Ghana, is recited after "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana". Ghana: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana" - audio of the national anthem of Ghana, with information and lyrics Ghana national anthem, instrumental version Ghana national anthem, vocal version "Hail the name of Ghana" - MIDI Instrumental
"Koste Seselwa" is the national anthem of Seychelles. The anthem was created through a competition, after the adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of Seychelles, dated 21st June 1993; the constitution stated there was to be a national flag, a national anthem, a national emblem and a national motto. The constitution did not mention any anthems; the anthem was created by David André and Georges Payet, as an entry for a competition for a new national anthem of Seychelles. According to Payet, the anthem was written in a single day. During the creation of the anthem, they were approached, along with a third individual, Antoine Azemia, by the organising committee who suggested that they work together and come up with something new, as their initial submission each contained something they were looking for. After Azemia decided to back out, the duo settled in an old house at La Plaine St André where they worked in harmony, pasting bits and pieces, before coming up with the final result; the arrangement for the anthem was made by Russian orchestra expert and band conductor Anatoli Savatinov.
Koste Seselwa was recorded for the first time by the French Republican Guard Band in Paris, where André had the chance to attend and witness the event. The anthem was adopted as the national anthem of Seychelles on the National Day, at 18 June 1996; the anthem played in an official ceremony Vocal Instrumental Fyer Seselwa
Mobutu Sese Seko
Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga was the military dictator and President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1965 to 1997. He served as Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity in 1967–1968. During the Congo Crisis, serving as Chief of Staff of the Army and supported by Belgium and the United States, deposed the nationalist democratically elected government of Patrice Lumumba in 1960. Mobutu installed a government that arranged for Lumumba's execution in 1961. Mobutu continued to lead the country's armed forces until he took power directly in a second coup in 1965; as part of his program of "national authenticity", he changed the Congo's name to Zaire in 1971, his own name to Mobutu Sese Seko in 1972. Mobutu developed a totalitarian regime, amassed vast personal wealth, attempted to purge the country of all colonial cultural influence. At the same time, he was given considerable support by the West and China, owing to his strong anti-Soviet stance, he was the object of a pervasive cult of personality.
During his reign, Mobutu amassed a large personal fortune through economic exploitation and corruption, leading some to call his rule a "kleptocracy". The nation suffered from uncontrolled inflation, a large debt, massive currency devaluations. By 1991, economic deterioration and unrest led him to agree to share power with opposition leaders, but he used the army to thwart change until May 1997, when rebel forces led by Laurent-Désiré Kabila expelled him from the country. Suffering from advanced prostate cancer, he died three months in Morocco. Marshal Mobutu became notorious for corruption and the embezzlement of between US$4 billion and $15 billion during his reign, he was known for extravagances such as shopping trips to Paris via the supersonic and expensive Concorde. He presided over the country for more than three decades, a period of widespread human rights violations. Mobutu, a member of the Ngbandi ethnic group, was born in 1930 in Lisala, Belgian Congo. Mobutu's mother, Marie Madeleine Yemo, was a hotel maid who fled to Lisala to escape the harem of a local village chief.
There she married Albéric Gbemani, a cook for a Belgian judge. Shortly afterward she gave birth to Mobutu; the name "Mobutu" was selected by an uncle. Gbemani died. Thereafter he was raised by a grandfather; the wife of the Belgian judge took a liking to Mobutu and taught him to speak and write fluently in the French language. Yemo relied on the help of relatives to support her four children, the family moved often. Mobutu's earliest education took place in Léopoldville, but his mother sent him to an uncle in Coquilhatville, where he attended the Christian Brothers School, a Catholic-mission boarding school. A physically imposing figure, Mobutu dominated school sports, he excelled in academic subjects and ran the class newspaper. He was known for his impish sense of humor. A classmate recalled that when the Belgian priests, whose first language was Dutch, made an error in French, Mobutu would leap to his feet in class and point out the mistake. Mobutu stowed away aboard a boat to Léopoldville in 1949.
The priests found him several weeks later. At the end of the school year, in lieu of being sent to prison, he was ordered to serve seven years in the colonial army, the Force Publique; this was the usual punishment for rebellious students. Mobutu found discipline in army life, as well as a father figure in Sergeant Louis Bobozo. Mobutu kept up his studies by borrowing European newspapers from the Belgian officers and books from wherever he could find them, reading them on sentry duty and whenever he had a spare moment, his favourites were the writings of French president Charles de Gaulle, British prime minister Winston Churchill, Italian Renaissance philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli. After passing a course in accounting, Mobutu began to dabble professionally in journalism. Still angry after his clashes with the school priests, he did not marry in a church, his contribution to the wedding festivities was a crate of beer, all his army salary could afford. As a soldier, Mobutu wrote pseudonymously on contemporary politics for Actualités Africaines, a magazine set up by a Belgian colonial.
In 1956, he quit the army and became a full-time journalist, writing for the Léopoldville daily L'Avenir. Two years he went to Belgium to cover the 1958 World Exposition and stayed to receive training in journalism. By this time, Mobutu had met many of the young Congolese intellectuals who were challenging colonial rule, he joined Lumumba's Mouvement National Congolais. Mobutu became Lumumba's personal aide. Several contemporaries indicate that Belgian intelligence had recruited Mobutu to be an informer to the government. During the 1960 talks in Brussels on Congolese independence, the US embassy held a reception for the Congolese delegation. Embassy staff were each assigned a list of delegation members to meet, discussed their impressions afterward; the ambassador noted, "One name kept coming up. But it wasn't on anyone's list because he wasn't an official delegation member, he was Lumumba's secretary, but everyone agreed that this was an intelligent man young immature, but a man with great potential."Following the general election, Lumumba was tasked with creating a government.
He gave Mobutu the office of Secretary of State to the Presidency. Mobutu held much influence in the final determination of the rest of the government. On 5 July soldiers of the Force Publique stationed at Camp Léopold II in Léopoldville, dissatisfied with their all-white lea
The Cherifian Anthem is the anthem of the Kingdom of Morocco, it was so before the country gained its independence in 1956. Its music was written by Léo Morgan, the final Arabic lyrics by Ali Squalli Houssaini in 1970. Morocco: Cherifian Anthem - Audio of the national anthem of Morocco, with information and lyrics Audio file of the Hymne Cherifen Video file with Transliteration