Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
The Oak at Flagey
The Oak at Flagey or The Vercingetorix Oak is an 1864 landscape painting by Gustave Courbet, measuring 89 by 110 cm. It shows an oak near the Courbet family farm in the village of Flagey, Doubs, a few kilometres from Ornans in Franche-Comté, named in relation to Vercingetorix; the oak was struck by lightning and no longer survives. In 1880 the artist's sister Juliette Courbet sold it to the banker Henry C. Gibson and on the latter's death it was offered to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in 1896, it was sold at Sotheby's New York in 1987 to a Japanese collector, Michimasa Murauchi, for $450 000. It was bought for 4.5 million Euros in 2012 by the musée Courbet, including 2.7 million Euros from private donations and 1.3 million Euros from public funds. It was lent to the Volez, Voyagez exhibition on Louis Vuitton at the Grand Palais
Jo, the Beautiful Irishwoman
Jo, the Beautiful Irishwoman is the title of a series of four oil on canvas bust-length portraits by Gustave Courbet. They all show the same redheaded Irish model Joanna Hiffernan looking in a mirror - she modelled for Whistler; the works have minor differences in details and dimensions but their exact chronology is unknown. They are now in the Nationalmuseum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art and a private collection; the nickname in the title indicates the friendship between the artist and his model and is unusual for contemporary portraits of women in that it gives the model's first name. They were painted in Trouville, where the painter spent August to November 1865 painting seascapes with Whistler and Joanna. On 17 November, towards the end of his stay, he wrote to his parents that he "bore himself admirably" and told them that he was Whistler's "pupil". Whistler himself painted the portrait Courbet by the River or My Dear Courbet during the latter's stay with him.
Courbet had painted a series of paintings of women looking in mirrors in 1860 - this had been quite successful with the public and was exhibited in Brussels. The best known from that series, Woman with a Mirror, was painted in Ornans in winter 1859-1860 and is now in the Kunstmuseum Basel- it shows a brunette with a mirror and a prominent décolletage
Young Ladies Beside the Seine (Summer)
Young Ladies Beside the Seine is an oil on canvas painting by Gustave Courbet. He painted it between late 1856 and early 1857 and presented it to the Paris Salon jury, which accepted it and exhibited it on 15 June 1857 with two portraits and three landscapes by the same artist, it was bought by Courbet's friend and patron Étienne Baudry left by him to the painter's daughter Juliette, who left it to the French state in 1906. It now hangs in the Petit Palais in Paris. A smaller sketch version is now in the National Gallery, London
The Wandering Jew is a mythical immortal man whose legend began to spread in Europe in the 13th century. The original legend concerns a Jew who taunted Jesus on the way to the Crucifixion and was cursed to walk the earth until the Second Coming; the exact nature of the wanderer's indiscretion varies in different versions of the tale, as do aspects of his character. The earliest extant manuscript with the legend is the Flores Historiarum by Roger of Wendover, where it appears in the part for the year 1228, under the title Of the Jew Joseph, still alive awaiting the last coming of Christ. At least from the 17th century the name Ahasver has been given to the Wandering Jew adapted from Ahasuerus, the Persian king in the Book of Esther, not a Jew, whose name among medieval Jews was an exemplum of a fool; this name may have been chosen because the Book of Esther describes the Jews as a persecuted people, scattered across every province of Ahasuerus' vast empire, similar to the Jewish diaspora in countries whose state and/or majority religions were forms of Christianity.
A variety of names have since been given to the Wandering Jew, including Matathias, Paul Marrane, Isaac Laquedem, a name for him in France and the Low Countries, in popular legend as well as in a novel by Dumas. Where German or Russian are spoken, the emphasis has been on the perpetual character of his punishment, thus he is known there as Ewiger Jude and vechny zhid, the "Eternal Jew". In French and other Latin languages, the usage has been to refer to the wanderings, as in French "le Juif errant", in Spanish "el judío errante" or in Italian "l'ebreo errante" and this has been followed in English from the Middle Ages, as the Wandering Jew. In Finnish he is known as Jerusalemin suutari; the origins of the legend are uncertain. According to Jehoshua Gilboa, many commentators have pointed to Hosea 9:17 as a statement of the notion of the "eternal/wandering Jew". According to some sources, the legend stems from Jesus' words given in Matthew 16:28: Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, εἰσίν τινες ὧδε ἑστῶτες, οἵτινες οὐ μὴ γεύσωνται θανάτου, ἕως ἂν ἴδωσιν τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενον ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ αὐτοῦ.
I tell you, some who are standing here will not taste death before they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom. Verily I say unto you, There be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom. A belief that the disciple whom Jesus loved would not die was popular enough in the early Christian world to be denounced in the Gospel of John: And Peter, turning about, seeth the disciple following whom Jesus loved, who had leaned on His breast at the supper, had said, he who betrayeth Thee? When, Peter saw him, he said to Jesus and what shall he do? Jesus saith to him, If I will that he remain till I come, what is that to thee? Follow thou Me; this saying went forth among the brethren, that that disciple would not die. Another passage in the Gospel of John speaks about a guard of the high priest. Earlier, the Gospel of John talks about Simon Peter striking the ear from Malchus, a servant of the high priest. Although this servant is not the same guard who struck Jesus, Malchus is nonetheless one of the many names given to the wandering Jew in legend.
Extant manuscripts have shown that as early as the time of Tertullian, some Christian proponents were likening the Jewish people to a "new Cain", asserting that they would be "fugitives and wanderers the earth". Aurelius Prudentius Clemens writes in his Apotheosis: "From place to place the homeless Jew wanders in ever-shifting exile, since the time when he was torn from the abode of his fathers and has been suffering the penalty for murder, having stained his hands with the blood of Christ whom he denied, paying the price of sin." Some scholars have identified components of the legend of the Eternal Jew in Teutonic legends of the Eternal Hunter, some features of which are derived from Odin mythology."In some areas the farmers arranged the rows in their fields in such a way that on Sundays the Eternal Jew might find a resting place. Elsewhere they assumed that he could rest only upon a plough or that he had to be on the go all year and was allowed a respite only on Christmas."A variant of the Wandering Jew legend is recorded in the Flores Historiarum by Roger of Wendover around the year 1228.
An Armenian archbishop visiting England, was asked by the monks of St Albans Abbey about the celebrated Joseph of Arimathea, who had spoken to Jesus, was reported to be still alive. The archbishop answered that he had himself seen such a man in Armenia, that his name was Cartaphilus, a Jewish shoemaker, when Jesus stopped for a second to rest while carrying his cross, hit him, told him "Go on quicker, Jesus! Go on quicker! Why dost Thou loiter?", to which Jesus, "with a stern countenance", is said to have replied: "I shall stand and rest, but thou shalt go on till the last day." The Armenian bishop reported that Cartaphilus had since converted to Christianity and spent his wandering days proselytizing and leading a hermit's life. Matthew Paris included this passage from Ro
Killing a Deer
Killing a Deer or A Deer Hunt - The Kill, is a large picture, representing a hunting scene, painted in 1867 by Gustave Courbet. The picture is on display in the Musée d'Orsay of Paris; the painting was done during the winter of 1866-1867. It is in the large format newly adopted by Courbet, as in A Burial at Ornans and The Artist's Studio; the work was exhibited at the French art salons and academies of 1869. The picture caused some scandal, major formats being reserved for noble history paintings rather than hunting scenes; the scene shows a deer collapsed on the snowy ground. Two characters are on the right; the drill is Cusenier Jules, a resident of Ornans while the man on horseback is Felix Gaudy, of Vuillafans. L'Hallali is from the seventeenth century. Courbet uses a harsh realistic representation closer to Flemish models. Hunting scenes are common in the paintings of Courbet, his influence is reflected through the mounted character
Proudhon and His Children
Proudhon and His Children is an 1865 group portrait by Gustave Courbet, now held in the Petit Palais in Paris. The main figure is a posthumously-produced image of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon