2016 Philippine general election
A general election in the Philippines took place on May 9, 2016, for executive and legislative branches for all levels of government – national and local, except for the barangay officials. At the top of the ballot was the election for successors to Philippine President Benigno Aquino III and Vice President Jejomar Binay. There were elections for: 12 seats to the Senate; the regional election for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao were scheduled for May 9, but that would have changed if the Bangsamoro political entity had replaced the ARMM. The ARMM elections pushed through, as scheduled. Barangay and Sangguniang Kabataan elections were scheduled for October 2016, but were postponed to 2017. Congress postponed anew to barangay elections to May 2018. Elections are organized and adjudicated by the Commission on Elections better known as COMELEC with appeals under certain conditions allowed to the Regional Trial Courts, the Congress of the Philippines, or the Supreme Court of the Philippines sitting as the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal, the Senate Electoral Tribunal, or the Presidential Electoral Tribunal.
On May 4, 2015, President Benigno Aquino III appointed Presidential Commission on Good Government chairman Andres D. Bautista as chairman, former Commission on Audit member Rowena Ganzon and Bangsamoro Business Club's board chairman Sherif Abas as commissioners. Bautista replaced Sixto Brillantes, while Guanzon and Abas replaced Lucenito Tagle and Elias Yusoph, who all retired in February 2015. All appointees will serve until February 2022. A few days after the announcement, it was revealed that Abas is a nephew of Mohagher Iqbal, the chief negotiator of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. Bautista said. Iqbal neither confirmed nor denied their relationship, calling it is a non-issue, that there's nothing wrong if his nephew is appointed to a sensitive position. Bautista was confirmed by the Commission on Appointments on September 21; the commission started voter registration for the elections on May 6, 2014, to October 31, 2015. Under the law, the 9.6 million registered voters who do not have biometrics attached their registration will not be allowed to vote.
Voter registration was suspended from October 12 to 16 to give way to the filing of candidacies. From October 17 to 31, the commission would extend its hours up to 9:00 p.m. to accommodate last minute registrants. Voter registration was suspended in Puerto Princesa from April 20 to May 17, 2015, because of the 2015 mayoral recall election; the Voters' Registration Act prohibits voter registration during recall elections. In June 2015, the commission denied reports that some voters' biometrics were lost, saying that they were only "degraded," and that "two thousand" voters would have to have their biometrics taken again. A month the commission opened booths in Metro Manila and Luzon to further registration. By that time, there were still 4.3 million voters with incomplete biometrics. The commission, seeing the successful turnout for registration at the malls, mulled holding the elections itself inside such malls; the commission's en banc had approved "in principle" the mall voting process. Near the end of the month, the commission said that the number of voters without biometrics has decreased to 3.8 million.
By mid-August, the commission announced that they had purged 1.3 million records from the voters' list, including the deceased and voters who did not vote in the two immediate preceding elections, the 2013 general and 2013 barangay, that voters without biometrics had fallen to 3.5 million. By August 30, the number of registered voters without biometrics data had fallen to 3.1 million. The Commission on Elections concluded the 17-month registration on October 31, offered no extension, except for voters in Cagayan Valley, devastated by Typhoon Lando, who were given until the next day to finish theirs; this was despite a petition to the Supreme Court by the Kabataan party-list to extend registration until January 8, 2016. Acting on the said petition, the Supreme Court issued a restraining order on the No Bio, No Boto mandatory voters biometrics campaign on December 1, it was lifted after 16 days. The Philippines began using technology to streamline vote counting in 2010 when it automated its general elections.
During the 2013 Mid Term elections it used the same technology, processing 760 million votes cast by some 50 million voters. The 2016 general elections represented the largest electronic vote counting exercise in history as 92,509 vote counting machines were used to digitize voter-marked ballots and transmit the results to the Municipal Board of Canvassers; the counting machines were leased from London-based Smartmatic after the Supreme Court of the Philippines invalidated the 300 million-peso contract between the Commission and the Smartmatic-TIM consortium for diagnostics and repair of 80,000 Precinct Count Optical Scan machines in April 2015. The court said that the commission "failed to justify its resort to direct contracting."Two months the Commissi
Trento, Agusan del Sur
Trento the Municipality of Trento, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Agusan del Sur, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 51,565 people. Trento was a barrio of Bunawan called Bahayan. On June 15, 1968, it became a separate municipality through Republic Act No. 5283. The town’s name was derived from the Council of Trent. Trento is located at 8°03′N 126°04′E. According to the Philippine Statistics Authority, the municipality has a land area of 555.7 square kilometres constituting 5.56% of the 9,989.52-square-kilometre- total area of Agusan del Sur. Trento is classified as Type II climate which has no dry season but with pronounced maximum rain period occurring from December to January. Trento is politically subdivided into 16 barangays. In the 2015 census, Trento had a population of 51,565; the population density was 93 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its economy is dependent on subsistence agriculture, wood products, some mining. Trento National High School
Davao Region called Southern Mindanao, is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region XI. It is situated at the southeastern portion of Mindanao, comprising five provinces: Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental and Davao Occidental, the newly created province; the region encloses the Davao Gulf, its regional center is Davao City. Dávao is the Hispanicized pronunciation of daba-daba, the Bagobo word for "fire". Many historians believe that the name Davao is the mixture of the three names that three different tribes, the earliest settlers in the region, had for the Davao River; the Manobos, an aboriginal tribe, referred to the Davao Rivers as Davohoho. Another tribe, the Bagobos, referred to the river as Davohaha, which means "fire", while another tribe, the Guiangan tribe, called the river as Duhwow; the history of the region dates back to the times. It is believed that the Manobos, Kalagans and the Bagobos occupied the area; these are the same tribes that created the small settlements and communities that became Mindanao.
The Davao Gulf area is the first region in the country, in contact with the Europeans, with such contacts taking place as early as 16th century. The Portuguese are the ones who preceded the Spaniards, who are the ones to colonize the region albeit much in sighting and visiting the region. In 1512, Francisco Serrano was shipwrecked in the shallow waters and coral reefs of Cape of San Agustín, located in what is now the province of Davao Oriental. In 1538, Francisco de Castro, a Portuguese captain, was driven by strong winds to the southeastern coast of Mindanao, he baptized several chieftains in the area. Around January 1546, Francis Xavier, a Jesuit priest, left Malacca and went to Molucca Islands called the Spice Islands, where the Portuguese had some settlements, for a year and a half he preached the Gospel to the inhabitants of Amboyna, Ternate and other lesser islands, it is claimed by some that during this expedition he landed on the island of Mindanao, confirmed by some writers of the seventeenth century, in the Bull of canonization issued in 1623.
It is said that he is the one to have preached the Gospel in Mindanao. For centuries the tribes lived in relative peace until the Spanish, under the adventurous Spanish businessman Don Jose Oyanguren, arrived in the region in 1847. At that time, the Kalagan Moro chieftain Datu Bago was in control of the area in what is now Davao City. Don Oyanguren attempted to conquer the area; this is the time the town of Davao called Nueva Vergara by the Spaniards, was established in the year 1848. Don Oyanguren attempted to develop the region. Although the Spanish gained the upper hand when they controlled the ports of the region, the population of Davao grew slowly until the arrival of Christian missionaries in the area in 1890. After the Spanish–American War in 1898, Spanish rule in the region ended. Americans landed in the region and they subsequently developed the regions communications and transportation systems. During this period, private farm ownership grew in the region. Japanese migration in the region began as two Japanese entrepreneurs, Kyosaburo Ohta and Yoshizo Furokawa, were finding better agricultural lands for building abaca and coconut plantations in the region.
The Port of Davao was opened on 1900, becoming the first Philippine international port to be established in the south. In 1903 until 1914, the region was one of the districts of the former Moro Province in Mindanao. After 1914, the province was replaced by an American colonial agency called Department of Mindanao and Sulu, which spanned the entire Mindanao island except Lanao; the agency lasted from 1914 to 1920. In 1942, during World War II, as the Japanese occupation of the Philippines began, the region was one of the first among the Philippine regions to be subjected by Japanese occupation; the Japanese immigrants in Davao acted as a fifth column, welcoming the Japanese invaders during World War II. These Japanese disliked by the Chinese; the Moros were judged as "fully capable of dealing with Japanese fifth columnists and invaders alike." The Moros were to fight the Japanese invaders. The Japanese went back to their ships at night to sleep since the Moros struck so much fear into them though the Moros were outnumbered by the Japanese.
The longest battle of the Allied liberation campaign, the Battle of Davao, took place in 1945. After the war, the region passed to the American hands again for at least one year before the formal Philippine independence in July 4, 1946, most of the Japanese living in the region were now integrated in the Filipino population. Before the Philippine independence in 1946, the entire region was a single province called Davao Province, with Davao City serving as its capital; the province was one of the largest provinces in the Philippines during that time, spanning more than 20,000 square kilometres. It lasted from 1920 until 1967, when the province was split into three provinces in May 1967: Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur and Davao Oriental. After the division, Davao City was named its regional center. Region XI known as Southern Mindanao covered 6 provinces, the cities of Davao, Panabo, Samal, General Santos and Koronadal. Surigao del Sur was moved
Tropical rainforest climate
A tropical rainforest climate is a tropical climate found within 10 to 15 degrees latitude of the equator, has at least 60 mm of rainfall every month of the year. Regions with this climate are designated Af by the Köppen climate classification. A tropical rainforest climate is hot and wet. Tropical rain forests have a type of tropical climate in which there is no dry season&mash. In rain forest climates the dry season is short, rainfall is heavy throughout the year. One day in a tropical rain forest climate can be similar to the next, while the change in temperature between day and night may be larger than the average change in temperature during the year. A tropical rain forest climate is found at latitudes within 15 degrees North and South of the equator, which are dominated by the Inter tropical Convergence Zone; the climate is most found in South America, Central Africa, Southeast Asia and Oceania. These rain forests are monotonously wet throughout the year. Locations in Oceania, areas along the coast of South and Central America, from Ecuador to Belize, parts of Central Africa, much of Indonesia have this type of climate.
When tropical rain forest climates are more dominated by the ITCH than the trade winds, so located near the equator, they are called equatorial climates. Otherwise, when they are more dominated by the trade winds than the ITCH, they are called tropical trade-wind climates. In the last case there are a number of instances where this climate is found some distance away from the equator. For instance, Santos and Palm Beach, Florida are not only far removed from the equator, but are located just outside the tropics. Both cities feature a tropical trade-wind rain forest climate, with noticeably cooler and warmer periods of the year. Tropics Köppen climate classification
Compostela Valley, or ComVal, is a province in the Philippines located in the Davao Region in Mindanao. The province, called ComVal for short, used to be part of Davao del Norte until it was made independent in 1998, it is the fourth newest province of the Philippines, behind Zamboanga Sibugay, Dinagat Islands, Davao Occidental. Its capital is Nabunturan; the province borders Davao del Norte to the west, Agusan del Sur to the north, Davao Oriental to the east. To the southwest lies the Davao Gulf; the first elected governor was Jose Caballero a lawyer for a mining group in the province. Compostela Valley, the 78th province in the country, was carved out of Davao del Norte Province by virtue of Republic Act No. 8470, signed by President Fidel V. Ramos on January 30, 1998. On March 7 of the same year, the law was ratified through a plebiscite conducted in the twenty-two municipalities of the mother province; the movement to create a separate province from Davao del Norte started in the 1980s during the time of Congressman Lorenzo S. Sarmiento, Sr. himself the author of RA No. 6430.
However, this was not realized until his death in the late 1980s. His son, Rogelio M. Sarmiento, who became his successor in Congress, made way for the passage of the bill creating the province. Upon consultation with the governor of Davao del Norte, Prospero S. Amatong, the province’s other two legislators, 3rd District Congressman Rodolfo P. Del Rosario and 2nd District Congressman Baltazar A. Sator, other provincial and municipal officials, it was decided that the addition of four municipalities, namely Maco, Mabini and Laak to the proposed province would be the most ideal and equitable configuration as this would make both provinces on an equal footing in terms of area and development opportunities, it was decided that Nabunturan would be the capital town because of its more central location. The name proposed for the province was Davao del Norte, the former name, or so it was thought, of the mother province. However, the House of Representatives’ Reference and Research Bureau which conducted the research and legal work on the creation of the province found out that the mother province continues to be referred to as Davao del Norte in most official documents including the 1987 Philippine Constitution despite the passage of RA No. 6430 on June 17, 1972 renaming it as Davao Province.
Tedious technical and legal issues needed to be resolved before the name could be adopted, the proposal was thus and the name agreed upon was Compostela Valley, referring to the great fertile plain in the heartland of the province. The origin of the province’s inhabitants came from the ethnic tribes of the Mansaka, Manobo, Dibabawon, Kamayo, Davaweño and Kalagan. Similar to the history of other Mindanao provinces, most of the present populations of the province are descendants of migrants who came from Luzon and Visayas islands during the pre-war and post war eras; the bigger wave of immigrants came during the time of President Ramon Magsaysay wherein the policy of attraction adopted by the national government was to offer parcels of land to tenant-farmers. Although a virtual melting pot, the Visayans are the dominant group in Compostela Valley. New, as it is, Compostela Valley has achieved a distinction of sorts with the succession of three governors during the first four months of its existence.
The first governor of the province was Prospero S. Amatong, the three-term governor of the undivided province of Davao del Norte, who held the position only for a day; as provided for in the law creating the new province, "incumbent elected officials are given option to serve the remainder of their term in Compostela Valley," Amatong took this option and assumed the governorship of Compostela Valley on March 26, 1998. The following day, he resigned and filed his candidacy for the congressional seat of the 2nd district of the new province; the governorship was turned over by virtue of a presidential appointment. Luz M. Sarmiento, wife of Congressman Lorenzo S. Sarmiento, Sr. served the province from March 27, 1998 to June 30, 1998. She was succeeded by Jose R. Caballero. Jose R. Caballero, a practicing lawyer and former vice governor of undivided Davao Del Norte was the first elected governor of Compostela Valley. Arturo T. "Chiongkee" Uy is the fourth governor of Compostela Valley. He first served the province as member of the 3rd Sangguniang Panlalawigan of Compostela Valley before he was elected as governor in May 2007 national and local elections.
Among his first acts as governor is the forging of genuine unity among political leaders and among all sectors in the province in order to have synergy in crafting the province’s development and the delivery of public services. He is now serving the province in his second term of office as governor as he ran for the post unopposed during the May 2010 national and local elections. In 1955, the barrio of New Sabonga was transferred to this town from Asuncion. On June 23, 1957 President Carlos P. Garcia signed Republic Act No. 2038 which separated Compostela from Nabunturan. The first Mayor appointed by President Carlos P. Garcia was Mayor Pio P. Galenzoga, one of the pioneer settlers. In the same year the sitios of Kao, Margosan, Magangit, Cabacungan and Camanlangan were constituted into a barrio known as Santo Niño. At the time, Compostela was an incongruous mixture of wooden-roofed houses concentrated along the Agusan River, properly known as "dungguanan"; this area became its center of trade and commerce or Poblacion.
A Senate bill of
House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines, is the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines. It is commonly referred to as Congress and informally referred to as Camara or Kamara. Members of the House are styled as representative and sometimes informally called Congressmen/Congresswomen and are elected to a three-year term, they can not serve more than three consecutive terms. Around eighty percent of congressmen are district representatives, representing a particular geographical area. There are 234 legislative districts in the country, each composed of about 250,000 people. There are party-list representatives elected through the party-list system who constitute not more than twenty percent of the total number of representatives. Aside from needing its agreement to every bill in order to be sent for the President's signature to become law, the House of Representatives has power to impeach certain officials and all money bills must originate from the lower house; the House of Representatives is headed by the Speaker Gloria Macapagal Arroyo of Pampanga.
The official headquarters of the House of Representatives is at the Batasang Pambansa located in the Batasan Hills in Quezon City in Metro Manila. The building is simply called Batasan and the word has become a metonym to refer to the House of Representatives. At the beginning of American colonial rule, from March 16, 1900, the sole national legislative body was the Philippine Commission with all members appointed by the President of the United States. Headed by the Governor-General of the Philippines the body exercised all legislative authority given to it by the President and the United States Congress until October 1907 when it was joined by the Philippine Assembly. William Howard Taft was chosen to be the first American civilian Governor-General and the first leader of this Philippine Commission, which subsequently became known as the Taft Commission; the Philippine Bill of 1902, a basic law, or organic act, of the Insular Government, mandated that once certain conditions were met a bicameral, or two-chamber, Philippine Legislature would be created with the existing, all-appointed Philippine Commission as the upper house and the Philippine Assembly as the lower house.
This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in October 1907. Under the leadership of Speaker Sergio Osmeña and Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th United States Congress was adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature. Osmeña and Quezon led the Nacionalista Party, with a platform of independence from the United States, into successive electoral victories against the Progresista Party and the Democrata Party, which first advocated United States statehood opposed immediate independence, it is this body, founded as the Philippine Assembly, that would continue in one form or another, with a few different names, up until the present day. In 1916, the Jones Act the Philippine Autonomy Act, changed the legislative system; the Philippine Commission was abolished and a new elected, bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was established. The Nacionalistas continued their electoral dominance at this point, although they were split into two factions led by Osmeña and Quezon.
The legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution established a unicameral National Assembly, but in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was adopted. Upon the inauguration of the Republic of the Philippines in 1946, Republic Act No. 6 was enacted providing that on the date of the proclamation of the Republic of the Philippines, the existing Congress would be known as the First Congress of the Republic. The "Liberal bloc" of the Nacionalistas permanently split from their ranks, creating the Liberal Party; these two will contest all of the elections in. The party of the ruling president wins the elections in the House of Representatives; this set up continued until President Ferdinand Marcos abolished Congress. He would rule by decree after the 1973 Constitution abolished the bicameral Congress and created a unicameral Batasang Pambansa parliamentary system of government, as parliamentary election would not occur in 1978.
Marcos' Kilusang Bagong Lipunan won all of the seats except those from the Central Visayas ushering in an era of KBL dominance, which will continue until the People Power Revolution overthrew Marcos in 1986. The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. One deviation from the previous setup was the introduction of the mid-term election. Instead, a multi-party system evolved. Corazon Aquino who nominally had no party, supported the Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP.
Poblacion or población is the common term used for the central, old town or central business district area of a Philippine city or municipality, which may take up the area of a single barangay or multiple barangays. It is sometimes shortened to Pob. During the Spanish rule, the colonial government founded hundreds of towns and villages across the archipelago modeled on towns and villages in Spain; the authorities adopted a policy of Reducción, for the resettlement of inhabitants in far-flung scattered barangays to move into a centralized cabecera where a newly built church and an ayuntamiento were situated. This allowed the government to defend and Christianize the indigenous population, to conduct population counts, to collect tributes; the población is considered the industrial center of the city or municipality. Most citizens of a city or municipality residing in the outlying barangays and satellite sitios flock to the población on market days because most local products and goods from the barrios are brought to the public market located in the población.
In this way their products could be sold faster by a wide range of buyers, though there are instances where some citizens would choose to go to another town's poblacion because it is closer to their residences. In some cities and towns, the población doubles as an old town district that features one or more of a few remaining Spanish-built structures in the country; the cabecera has a basic plan, with a plaza mayor and attached convento, civic buildings such as the town hall, houses of prominent Spaniards. Other features include the public market, the central elementary school and high school, police station, hospital. Barangay Purok Sitio