The Pleistocene is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the worlds most recent period of repeated glaciations. The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period, the Pleistocene is the first epoch of the Quaternary Period or sixth epoch of the Cenozoic Era. In the ICS timescale, the Pleistocene is divided into four stages or ages, all of these stages were defined in southern Europe. In addition to this subdivision, various regional subdivisions are often used. Charles Lyell introduced the term pleistocene in 1839 to describe strata in Sicily that had at least 70% of their molluscan fauna still living today and this distinguished it from the older Pliocene Epoch, which Lyell had originally thought to be the youngest fossil rock layer. The Pleistocene has been dated from 2.588 million to 11,700 years before present and it covers most of the latest period of repeated glaciation, up to and including the Younger Dryas cold spell.
The end of the Younger Dryas has been dated to about 9640 BC, the IUGS has yet to approve a type section, Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, for the upper Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. The proposed section is the North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core 75°06 N 42°18 W, the lower boundary of the Pleistocene Series is formally defined magnetostratigraphically as the base of the Matuyama chronozone, isotopic stage 103. Above this point there are notable extinctions of the calcareous nanofossils, Discoaster pentaradiatus, the Pleistocene covers the recent period of repeated glaciations. The name Plio-Pleistocene has, in the past, been used to mean the last ice age. The revised definition of the Quaternary, by pushing back the date of the Pleistocene to 2.58 Ma. Pleistocene climate was marked by repeated glacial cycles in which continental glaciers pushed to the 40th parallel in some places and it is estimated that, at maximum glacial extent, 30% of the Earths surface was covered by ice.
In addition, a zone of permafrost stretched southward from the edge of the sheet, a few hundred kilometres in North America. The mean annual temperature at the edge of the ice was −6 °C, during interglacial times, such as at present, drowned coastlines were common, mitigated by isostatic or other emergent motion of some regions. The effects of glaciation were global, antarctica was ice-bound throughout the Pleistocene as well as the preceding Pliocene. The Andes were covered in the south by the Patagonian ice cap, there were glaciers in New Zealand and Tasmania. The current decaying glaciers of Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, glaciers existed in the mountains of Ethiopia and to the west in the Atlas mountains. In the northern hemisphere, many glaciers fused into one, the Cordilleran ice sheet covered the North American northwest, the east was covered by the Laurentide
The scientific name Pithecanthropus rudolfensis was proposed in 1978 by V. P. Alekseyev who changed it to Homo rudolfensis for the specimen Skull 1470. On 8 August 2012, a team led by Meave Leakey announced the discovery of a face, the fossil KNM-ER1470 was the center of much debate concerning its species. The skull was at first incorrectly dated at nearly three years old, predating the Homo habilis species. Since then, the estimate has been corrected to 1 and it is not certain whether H. rudolfensis, H. habilis or some, as of yet undiscovered, third species was ancestral to the Homo line. In March 2007, a team led by Timothy Bromage, an anthropologist at New York University, reconstructed the skull of KNM-ER1470. Bromage said his teams reconstruction included biological knowledge not known at the time of the skulls discovery, a newer publication by Bromage has since increased the cranial capacity estimate back up, from 526 cm³ to 700 cm³. When compared to other older H. habilis fossils like OH24, KNM-ER1470 displays less prognathism and a rounder brain case.
After much debate, but no settlement, fossil KNM ER1813 was found in 1973 by Kamoya Kimeu. When compared to ER1813, ER1470 manifests a larger braincase ranging from 750-800ml, even if sexual dimorphism were considered, the size difference in the mandible and teeth would be too great compared to KNM-ER1813. Fossil KNM-ER1470, a male H. rudolfensis, has massive teeth in comparison to the female H. habilis fossil KNM-ER1813 and portrays a much larger brain case than KNM-ER1813. When KNM-ER1813 and KNM-ER1470 are compared to OH24 and these similarities include smaller orbits, the projection of the mid-face below the nose and a smaller skull size over all. The face was of a juvenile, but had features in common with KNM-ER1470, suggesting that the latter skulls uniqueness is due to being a separate species, rather than a large male H. habilis. Team member Fred Spoor described the face as incredibly flat, with a line from the eye socket to the incisor tooth. The jawbones, which appeared to match KNM-ER1470 and KNM-ER62000, were shorter, the fossils were dated to about two million years ago, being contemporaneous with H. habilis.
According to Leakey et al. the new fossils confirm the presence of two species of early Homo, in addition to Homo erectus, in the early Pleistocene of eastern Africa. Lee Rogers Berger, called the argument weak, and proposed the finds be compared to other possibilities, such as Australopithecus africanus and Australopithecus sediba. Tim D. Leakey replied, I would challenge Tim to find any primate in which you would see the same degrees of variation as those that we are seeing between our new fossils and KNM-ER1802. KNM-ER1802 is a fossil that is thought to be of a Homo rudolfensis
It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools, probably by Homo habilis initially,2.6 million years ago, to the end of the Pleistocene around 10,000 BP. The Paleolithic era is followed by the Mesolithic, the date of the Paleolithic–Mesolithic boundary may vary by locality as much as several thousand years. During the Paleolithic period, humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, the Paleolithic is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were adapted for use as tools, including leather and vegetable fibers, due to their nature, surviving artifacts of the Paleolithic era are known as paleoliths. About 50,000 years ago, there was a increase in the diversity of artifacts. For the first time in Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record, the first evidence of human fishing is noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa. The new technology generated an explosion of modern humans which is believed to have led to the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Humankind gradually evolved from members of the genus Homo—such as Homo habilis. The climate during the Paleolithic consisted of a set of glacial and interglacial periods in which the climate periodically fluctuated between warm and cool temperatures, by c. 50,000 – c. 40,000 BP, the first humans set foot in Australia. By c. 45,000 BP, humans lived at 61°N latitude in Europe, by c. 30,000 BP, Japan was reached, and by c. 27,000 BP humans were present in Siberia, above the Arctic Circle. At the end of the Upper Paleolithic, a group of humans crossed Beringia, the term Paleolithic was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865. It derives from Greek, παλαιός, old, and λίθος, stone, human evolution is the part of biological evolution concerning the emergence of anatomically modern humans as a distinct species. The Paleolithic Period coincides almost exactly with the Pleistocene epoch of geologic time and this epoch experienced important geographic and climatic changes that affected human societies.
During the preceding Pliocene, continents had continued to drift from possibly as far as 250 km from their present locations to positions only 70 km from their current location. South America became linked to North America through the Isthmus of Panama, most of Central America formed during the Pliocene to connect the continents of North and South America, allowing fauna from these continents to leave their native habitats and colonize new areas. Africas collision with Asia created the Mediterranean Sea, cutting off the remnants of the Tethys Ocean, climates during the Pliocene became cooler and drier, and seasonal, similar to modern climates. The formation of an Arctic ice cap around 3 million years ago is signaled by a shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice-rafted cobbles in the North Atlantic. Mid-latitude glaciation probably began before the end of the epoch, the global cooling that occurred during the Pliocene may have spurred on the disappearance of forests and the spread of grasslands and savannas
Australopithecus sediba is a species of Australopithecus of the early Pleistocene, identified based on fossil remains dated to about 2 million years ago. The fossils were found together at the bottom of the Malapa Cave, where they fell to their death. Over 220 fragments from the species have recovered to date. MH1 is disarticulated and 34% complete if skeletal elements known to be in a block are included while MH2 is 45. 6% complete. Australopithecus sediba may have lived in savannas but ate fruit and other foods from the similar to modern-day savanna chimpanzees. The conditions in which the individuals were buried and fossilized were extraordinary, the first specimen of A. sediba was found by paleoanthropologist Lee Bergers nine-year-old son, Matthew, on August 15,2008. While exploring near his fathers dig site in the hills north of Johannesburg, on the Malapa Nature Reserve. The boy alerted his father to the find, who could not believe what he saw — a hominid clavicle, upon turning the block over, sticking out of the back of the rock was a mandible with a tooth, a canine, sticking out.
And I almost died, he recalled, the fossil turned out to belong to a 4 ft 2 in juvenile male, whose skull was discovered in March 2009 by Bergers team. The find was announced to the public on April 8,2010, found at the Malapa archeological site were a variety of animal fossils, including saber-toothed cats and antelopes. Berger and geologist Paul Dirks speculated that the animals might have fallen into a deep 100–150-foot death-trap, the bodies may have been swept into a pool of water with a sandy bottom and rich with lime, allowing the remains to become fossilized. The fossil was dated using a combination of palaeomagnetism and uranium-lead dating which showed that the fossils are no older than ~2.0 Ma, the presence of animal species which became extinct at ~1.5 Ma indicates the deposit is no younger than 1.5 Ma. The sediments have a normal polarity and the only major period between 2.0 and 1.5 Ma when this occurred is the Olduvai sub-Chron between 1.95 and 1.78 Ma. Accordingly, the fossils were dated to ~1.95 Ma.
Recent dating of a capping flowstone demonstrated this was not possible, the cusp spacing is more like Australopithecus. The femur and tibia are fragmentary, but the foot combines an advanced anklebone combined with a primitive heel and its cranial capacity is estimated at around 420–450 cm3, about one-third that of modern humans. A. sediba had a modern hand, whose precision grip suggests it might have been another tool-making Australopithecus. Evidence of the precision gripping and stone tool production can be seen from Homo-like features such as having a long thumb, the nearly complete wrist and hand of an adult female from Malapa, South Africa presents Australopithecus-like features, such as a strong flexor apparatus associated with arboreal locomotion
Royal University of Phnom Penh
The Royal University of Phnom Penh is the national university of Cambodia, located in the capital Phnom Penh. Established in 1960, is the countrys largest university and it hosts more around 20,000 students in undergraduate and postgraduate programs. It offers degrees in such as the sciences and social sciences, as well as vocational courses in fields such as information technology, psychology. RUPP provides Cambodia’s foremost degree-level language programs through the Institute of Foreign Languages, RUPP has full membership in the ASEAN University Network. RUPP has over 420 full-time staff, all of its 294 academic staff hold tertiary qualifications, including 24 PhDs and 132 Masters degrees. They are supported by 140 administrative and maintenance staff, the university maintains linkage networks with Cambodian and international NGOs, universities and government ministries. As a result and non-government organizations and government offices regularly contribute adjunct faculty members to help expand RUPP’s capacity, the Institute of Foreign Languages is the most famous division in Royal University of Phnom Penh as well as Cambodia.
The Royal University of Phnom Penh began as the Royal Khmer University in 1960, the language of instruction during this period was French. With the establishment of the Khmer Republic in 1970, the Royal Khmer University became the Phnom Penh University. The Democratic Kampuchea period of 1975-1979 saw the closure and destruction of schools, the decimation of the teaching service, phung Ton, the dean of Phnom Penh University, was arrested and murdered at Tuol Sleng. During this period Phnom Penh University, as well as all other institutions in Cambodia, was closed down. Under this regime an education was perceived as a dangerous asset — hence, the educated were targeted, the campus was abandoned and remained deserted for almost five years. Of the educated people who survived, few remained in Cambodia once the borders reopened following the Vietnamese invasion that toppled Khmer Rouge rule, in 1980, under the Peoples Republic of Kampuchea, the Ecole Normale Supérieure reopened, again teaching predominantly in French.
In 1981, the Institute of Foreign Languages began, initially training students to become Vietnamese, the purpose of both colleges was to provide surviving graduates of primary school or above with crash courses in teaching. In 1988, the college and the IFL merged to create Phnom Penh University, during the past decade, the university has grown and now includes the Faculty of Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, and the Institute of Foreign Languages. In 2001, RUPP began its first postgraduate degrees with the graduate diploma, the Campus 2 of the Royal University of Phnom Penh was built between 1989 and 1991 with the support of the Vietnamese Communist government. It is located on five hectares of land on Russian Boulevard and has a lot of red brick walls. Apart from the classrooms of the Departments of Geography and Sociology, the former university dormitories house the research center of the Royal Academy of Cambodia
Australopithecus anamensis is a stem-human species that lived approximately four million years ago. Nearly one hundred specimens are known from Kenya and Ethiopia. It is accepted that A. anamensis is ancestral to A. afarensis, fossil evidence determines that the Australopithecus anamensis is the earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin. Due to an inability to retrieve a collection of fossils researchers are not able to make enough observations to differentiate a lot of the early hominids. The specimen was assigned at the time to Australopithecus and dated about four million years old. One method used to determine the age of the Kanapoi fossils was based on faunal correlation data, based on the limited postcranial evidence available, A. anamensis appears to have been habitually bipedal, although it retained some primitive features of its upper limbs. Leakey determined that this species was independent of many others and it does not represent an intermediate species of any type. Although the excavation team did not find hips, feet or legs, tree climbing was one behavior retained by early hominins until the appearance of the first Homo species about 2.5 million years ago. A.
anamensis shares many traits with Australopithecus afarensis and may well be its direct predecessor. Fossil records for A. anamensis have been dated to between 4.2 and 3.9 million years ago, with recent findings from stratigraphic sequences dating to about 4. 1–4. 2 million years ago. Specimens have been found two layers of volcanic ash, dated to 4.17 and 4.12 million years. The fossils include upper and lower jaws, cranial fragments, in addition to this, the aforementioned fragment of humerus found thirty years ago at the same site at Kanapoi has now been assigned to this species. In 2006, a new A. anamensis find was officially announced, one site known as Asa Issie provided 30 A. anamensis fossils. These new fossils, sampled from a context, include the largest hominid canine tooth yet recovered. Ardipithecus was a primitive hominid, considered the next known step below Australopithecus on the evolutionary tree. Australopithecus anamensis was found in Kenya, specifically at Allia Bay, through analysis of stable isotope data, it is believed that their environment had more closed woodland canopies surrounding Lake Turkana than are present today.
The greatest density of woodlands at Allia Bay was along the ancestral Omo River, there was believed to be more open savanna in the basin margins or uplands. Similarly at Allia Bay, it is suggested that the environment was much wetter, while it is not definitive, it could have been possible that nut or seed-bearing trees could have been present at Allia Bay, however more research is needed
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate, about 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778, like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids and these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, and leave these shells behind when they die. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i. e. travertine.
Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters and this produces speleothems, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance, the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters. Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments, calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors, especially with weathered surfaces, Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation.
Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock, when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly there are waterfalls. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls, coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble
Peking Man, Homo erectus pekinensis, is an example of Homo erectus. Their age is estimated to be between 500,000 and 300,000 years old and they are thought to belong to an adult man, an adult woman and a young adult, with brain sizes of 1225 cc,1015 cc and 1030 cc respectively. These pieces were found at a level, and appear to be more modern than the other skullcaps. Most of the study on these fossils was done by Davidson Black until his death in 1934, pierre Teilhard de Chardin took over until Franz Weidenreich replaced him and studied the fossils until he left China in 1941. The original fossils disappeared in 1941, but excellent casts and descriptions remain, swedish geologist Johan Gunnar Andersson and American palaeontologist Walter W. Granger came to Zhoukoudian, China in search of prehistoric fossils in 1921. They were directed to the site at Dragon Bone Hill by local quarrymen, immediately realising the importance of this find he turned to his colleague and announced, Here is primitive man, now all we have to do is find him.
Excavation work was begun immediately by Anderssons assistant Austrian palaeontologist Otto Zdansky and he returned to the site in 1923, and materials excavated in the two subsequent digs were sent to Uppsala University in Sweden for analysis. In 1926 Andersson announced the discovery of two human molars in this material, and Zdansky published his findings, swedish palaeontologist Anders Birger Bohlin unearthed a tooth that fall, and Black placed it in a gold locket on his watch chain. A lower jaw, several teeth, and skull fragments were unearthed in 1928, Black presented these finds to the foundation and was rewarded with an $80,000 grant that he used to establish the Cenozoic Research Laboratory. Excavations at the site under the supervision of Chinese archaeologists Yang Zhongjian, Pei Wenzhong and these excavations came to an end in 1937 with the Japanese invasion. Excavations at Zhoukoudian resumed after the war, the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian was listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1987.
New excavations were started at the site in June 2009, the first specimens of Homo erectus had been found in Java in 1891 by Eugene Dubois, but were dismissed by many as the remains of a deformed ape. Contiguous findings of remains and evidence of fire and tool usage. The analysis of the remains of Peking Man led to the claim that the Zhoukoudian and this interpretation was challenged in 1985 by Lewis Binford, who claimed that Peking Man was a scavenger, not a hunter. Following the discovery of specimens of Lantian Man starting in 1963, the next year Lantian man was reclassified as a subspecies of Homo erectus. Franz Weidenreich considered Peking Man as an ancestor and specifically an ancestor of the Chinese people. Chinese writings on evolution in 1950 generally considered evidence insufficient to determine whether Peking Man was ancestral to modern humans. By 1952 Peking Man was considered by some to be an ancestor of modern humans
Java Man is the popular name given to early human fossils discovered on the island of Java in 1891 and 1892. Led by Eugène Dubois, the team uncovered a tooth, a skullcap. Arguing that the fossils represented the missing link between apes and humans, Dubois gave the species the scientific name Anthropopithecus erectus, renamed it Pithecanthropus erectus. Less than ten years after 1891, almost eighty books or articles had been published on Duboiss finds, despite Dubois argument, few accepted that Java Man was a transitional form between apes and humans. Some dismissed the fossils as apes and others as modern humans, in the 1930s Dubois made the claim that Pithecanthropus was built like a giant gibbon, a much misinterpreted attempt by Dubois to prove that it was the missing link. Eventually, similarities between Pithecanthropus erectus and Sinanthropus pekinensis led Ernst Mayr to rename both Homo erectus in 1950, placing them directly in the evolutionary tree. To distinguish Java Man from other Homo erectus populations, some began to regard it as a subspecies, Homo erectus erectus.
Other fossils found in the first half of the century in Java at Sangiran and Mojokerto. Estimated to be between 700,000 and 1,000,000 years old, at the time of their discovery the fossils of Java Man were the oldest hominin fossils ever found, the fossils of Java Man have been housed at the Naturalis in the Netherlands since 1900. Charles Darwin had argued that humanity evolved in Africa, because this is where great apes like gorillas, though Darwins claims have since been vindicated by the fossil record, they were proposed without any fossil evidence. Other scientific authorities disagreed with him, like Charles Lyell, a geologist, and Alfred Russel Wallace, Dutch anatomist Eugène Dubois favored the latter theory, and sought to confirm it. In October 1887, Dubois abandoned his career and left for the Dutch East Indies to look for the fossilized ancestor of modern man. Because of his duties, it was only in July 1888 that he began to excavate caves in Sumatra. After he failed to find the fossils he was looking for on Sumatra, again assisted by convict laborers and two army sergeants, Dubois began searching along the Solo River near Trinil in August 1891.
His team soon excavated a molar and a skullcap and its characteristics were a long cranium with a sagittal keel and heavy browridge. Dubois first gave them the name Anthropopithecus, or man-ape, as the chimpanzee was known at the time, in August 1892, Duboiss team found a long femur shaped like a human one, suggesting that its owner had stood upright. Believing that the three belonged to a single individual, probably a very aged female, Dubois renamed the specimen Anthropopithecus erectus. Only in late 1892, when he determined that the cranium measured about 900 cubic centimetres and this specimen has been known as Pithecanthropus 1
Australopithecus africanus is an extinct species of the australopithecines, the first of an early -form species to be classified as hominin. Recently it was dated as living between 3.3 and 2.1 million years ago, or in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene times, it is debated as being a direct ancestor of modern humans. A. africanus was of slender, or gracile and has found only in southern Africa at four sites, Sterkfontein, Makapansgat. Dart assigned the specimen the name Australopithecus africanus, it was dubbed the Taung child. This was the first time the word ape was formally assigned to any hominin, Dart theorized the Taung child skull must represent an intermediate species between apes and humans. And the rejection was buttressed by the widespread belief then, especially in British academia and he dismissed Darts claim, suggesting instead that the Taung child skull belonged to a young ape, most likely an infant gorilla or chimpanzee. Keith immersed himself in defending the Piltdown man and his reputation suffered greatly after the hoax was exposed in 1953, phillip Tobias, in a lengthy essay published in Current Anthropology in 1992, detailed the history of the investigation of the hoax.
As part of the essay Tobias debated the inconsistencies in Keiths statements, Darts theory—that the skull known as the Taung child was a human ancestor—was supported by Robert Broom, a paleontologist with the Transvaal Museum of natural history in Pretoria. In 1936, the Sterkfontein caves yielded the first adult australopithecine, Broom classified an adult endocranial cast having a brain capacity of 485 cc as Plesianthropus transvaalensis. In April 1947, while blasting at Sterkfontein, he and John T. Robinson discovered a skull belonging to a female which he classified as Plesianthropus transvaalensis. Both fossils were classified as Australopithecus africanus. Mrs. Ples, whose capacity is only about 485 cubic centimetres, was one of the first fossils to reveal that upright walking had evolved well before any significant growth in brain size. And, in comparison to modern apes, Dart noted as with the Taung child the lack of facial projection and it has slightly human-like, advanced cranial features, but presents primitive features including ape-like curved fingers adapted to tree climbing.
Both P. robustus and A. africanus crania seem very alike despite the heavily built features of P. robustus. A. africanus had a pelvis that would enable more efficient bipedalism than that of A. afarensis, such a morphology would support an earlier time for making and using tools than previously had been thought likely. Evidence of human-like sexual dimorphism in the spine has recently been described in the primate A. africanus. Recent analysis of the Little Foot specimen dated it to about 3, the Makapansgat fossils have been dated to between 3.0 and 2.6 mya. Those at Sterkfontein currently are dated to between 2.6 and 2.0 mya with the Mrs Ples fossil dating to around 2.0 million years, and Gladysvale fossils were dated between about 2.4 and 2.0 mya
Perm is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains. According to the 2010 Census, Perms population is 991,162, as of the 2010 Census, the city was the thirteenth most populous in Russia. From 1940 to 1957 it was named Molotov, the name Perm is of Finno-Ugric etymology, likely of Uralic origin. Komi is a member of the Permic group of Finno-Ugric languages, in Finnish and Vepsian perämaa means far-away land, similarly, in Hungarian perem means edge or verge. The geologic period of the Permian takes its name from the toponym, the city is located on the bank of the Kama River upon hilly terrain. The Kama is the tributary of the Volga River and one of the deepest and most picturesque rivers of Russia. This river is the waterway which grants the Ural Mountains access to the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black Sea, the Kama divides the city into two parts, the central part and the right bank part.
The city stretches for 70 kilometers along the Kama and 40 kilometers across it, the city street grid parallels the Kama River, traveling generally east-west, while other main streets run perpendicularly to those following the river. The grid pattern accommodates the hills of the city where it crosses them, another distinguishing feature of the citys relief is the large quantity of small rivers and brooks. The largest of them are the Mulyanka, the Yegoshikha, the Motovilikha, Perm has a continental climate with warm summers and long, cold winters. Perm is located in the old Perman area, which was inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples. Perm was first mentioned as the village of Yagoshikha in 1647, vasily Tatishchev, appointed by the Tsar as a chief manager of Ural factories, founded Perm together with another major center of the Ural region, Yekaterinburg. In 1870, a theater was opened in the city. In 1916, Perm State University—a major educational institution in modern Russia—was opened, after the outbreak of the Russian Civil War, Perm became a prime target for both sides because of its military munitions factories.
On December 25,1918, the Siberian White Army under Anatoly Pepelyayev, on July 1,1919, the city was retaken by the Red Army. In the 1930s, Perm grew as an industrial city with aviation, shipbuilding. During the Great Patriotic War, Perm was a center of artillery production in the Soviet Union. During the cold war, Perm became a closed city, the city is a major administrative, industrial and cultural center