Antigone (Euripides play)
Antigone is a play by the Attic dramatist Euripides, now lost except for a number of fragments. According to Aristophanes of Byzantium, the plot was similar to that of Sophocles' play Antigone, with three differences; the date of the play is uncertain, but there is evidence that it was written late in Euripides' career, between 420 BCE and 406 BCE. Sophocles' Antigone told the story of how Oedipus' daughter Antigone buried the body of her brother Polynices who had led an invasion of Thebes, defying the order of her uncle Creon, ruling Thebes; as a result, Creon condemned her to death, although Creon rescinded the death sentence and her lover Haemon, Creon's son, killed themselves. The extant fragments of Euripides' Antigone do not reveal much of the plot, but Aristophanes of Byzantium has written that Euripides' play differed from Sophocles' in three major ways: Haemon was discovered with Antigone at the burial of Polynices Haemon and Antigone married Haemon and Antigone had a son MaeonModern scholars interpret Aristophanes comment to indicate that Euripides' play developed along similar lines to Sophocles', except that Haemon's participation in, or at least knowledge of, Antigone's burial of Polynices led to the happy resolution of their marriage in Euripides' play instead of their deaths in Sophocles' play.
One extant fragment is a plea to the god Dionysus, suggesting the possibility that Dionysus was the deus ex machina who saved Antigone and Haemon and prophesied the birth of Maeon. Several extant fragments deal with love and marriage, John Homer Huddilston believed that this, hint from other fragments indicate that Antigone and Haemon were married secretly. There are two vase paintings showing scenes from an Antigone play which were attributed to Euripides' play, although modern scholars believe that they depict scenes from an Antigone play by 4th century Attic dramatist Astydamas the Younger. However, the possibility that the vases depict scenes from Euripides has not been definitively closed and if they depict scenes from Astydamas' play they may be relevant since Astydamas may have been influenced by Euripides; the vases suggest that Heracles was the deus ex machina who saved Haemon. A fable by Gaius Julius Hyginus is consistent with these vase paintings and was attributed to Euripides' play, but modern scholars believe that this too relates to Astydamas' play rather than Euripides'.
Per Hyginus, Creon had delegated the task of executing Antigone to his son Haemon, not knowing that they were secretly betrothed. Haemon deceived Creon and spared Antigone, who bore Haemon a son; the son came to Thebes as an adult, Creon recognized him, realizing Haemon's deception. Creon refused Heracles' request to pardon Haemon, who killed Antigone and himself. Huddilston, believing the vases and Hyginus fable to relate to Euripides' play, reconstructed the plot as follows. Maeon is grown and has come to Thebes to participate in games. Creon is enraged that Haemon deceived him years earlier, he orders Antigone to appear before him, she does so along with Haemon. Creon sentences both to death, when Heracles appears to intercede as a deus ex machina. In this reconstruction, the comment by Aristophanes of Byzantium does not apply to the plot of Euripides' play, but only to the background to the play; the date for Antigone has not been definitively established. However, metrical analysis on the extant fragments the incidence of resolutions, by Cropp and Fick indicates that the play was written in the latter part of Euripides' life, between 420 BCE and 406 BCE.
In addition, a scholiast remark indicates that another play of Euripides, was produced after 412. However, metrical analysis of the extant fragments of Antiope indicate a much earlier date; this leaves open the possibility that the scholium erroneously referred to Antiope but meant Antigone, or named Antigone but this became corrupted over time. If so, that would indicate that Antigone was produced between 411 and 406 BCE. Zimmerman has suggested that the theme of the play involving Polynices as a traitor, denied burial mirrored events of the Peloponnesian War in 411 BCE, which may be a further clue to the date of Antigone. Two lines from the prologue survive; these lines talk about Oedipus starting out as a fortunate man becoming wretched
Oedipus Rex known by its Greek title, Oedipus Tyrannus, or Oedipus the King, is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles, first performed around 429 BC. To the ancient Greeks, the title was Oedipus, as it is referred to by Aristotle in the Poetics, it is thought to have been renamed Oedipus Tyrannus to distinguish it from another of Sophocles' plays, Oedipus at Colonus. In antiquity, the term “tyrant” referred to a ruler, but it did not have a negative connotation. Of his three Theban plays that have survived, that deal with the story of Oedipus, Oedipus Rex was the second to be written. However, in terms of the chronology of events that the plays describe, it comes first, followed by Oedipus at Colonus and Antigone. Prior to the start of Oedipus Rex, Oedipus has become the king of Thebes while unwittingly fulfilling a prophecy that he would kill his father and marry his mother, Jocasta; the action of Sophocles' play concerns Oedipus' search for the murderer of Laius in order to end a plague ravaging Thebes, unaware that the killer he is looking for is none other than himself.
At the end of the play, after the truth comes to light, Jocasta hangs herself while Oedipus, horrified at his patricide and incest, proceeds to gouge out his own eyes in despair. Oedipus Rex is regarded by many scholars as the masterpiece of ancient Greek tragedy. In his Poetics, Aristotle refers several times to the play in order to exemplify aspects of the genre. Many parts or elements of the myth of Oedipus occur before the opening scene of the play, although some are alluded to in the text. Oedipus is the king and queen of Thebes; the misfortunes of his house are the result of a curse laid upon his father for violating the sacred laws of hospitality. In his youth, Laius was the guest of Pelops, the king of Elis, he became the tutor of Chrysippus, the king's youngest son, in chariot racing. Laius seduced or abducted and raped Chrysippus, who according to some versions, killed himself in shame; this murder cast all of his descendants. When his son is born, the king consults an oracle as to his fortune.
To his horror, the oracle reveals that Laius "is doomed to perish by the hand of his own son". Laius binds the infant's feet together with a pin, orders Jocasta to kill him. Unable to kill her own son, Jocasta orders a servant to slay the infant for her; the servant exposes the infant on a mountaintop, where he is found and rescued by a shepherd. The shepherd names the child Oedipus, "swollen feet", as his feet had been bound by Laius; the shepherd brings the infant to Corinth, presents him to the childless king Polybus, who raises Oedipus as his own son. As he grows to manhood, Oedipus hears a rumour that he is not the son of Polybus and his wife, Merope, he asks the Delphic Oracle who his parents are. The Oracle seems to ignore this question, telling him instead that he is destined to "mate with own mother, shed/With own hands the blood of own sire". Desperate to avoid this terrible fate, who still believes that Polybus and Merope are his true parents, leaves Corinth for the city of Thebes. On the road to Thebes, Oedipus encounters Laius and his retainers, the two quarrel over whose chariot has the right of way.
The Theban king moves to strike the insolent youth with his sceptre, but Oedipus, unaware that Laius is his true father, throws the old man down from his chariot, killing him. Thus, Laius is slain by his own son, the prophecy that the king had sought to avoid by exposing Oedipus at birth is fulfilled. Before arriving at Thebes, Oedipus encounters the Sphinx, a legendary beast with the head and breast of a woman, the body of a lioness, the wings of an eagle; the Sphinx was sent to the road approaching Thebes as a punishment from the gods, would strangle any traveler who failed to answer a certain riddle. The precise riddle asked by the Sphinx varied in early traditions, is not stated in Oedipus Rex, as the event precedes the play. Oedipus guesses, "man", who crawls on all fours as an infant, walks upright in maturity, leans on a stick in old age. Bested by the prince, the Sphinx throws herself from a cliff. Oedipus' reward for freeing Thebes from the Sphinx is its kingship, the hand of the dowager queen, Jocasta.
Thus, unknown to all of the characters, the prophecy has been fulfilled. Oedipus, King of Thebes, sends his brother-in-law, Creon, to ask advice of the oracle at Delphi, concerning a plague ravaging Thebes. Creon returns to report that the plague is the result of religious pollution, since the murderer of their former king, has never been caught. Oedipus vows to curses him for causing the plague. Oedipus summons the blind prophet Tiresias for help; when Tiresias arrives he claims to know the answers to Oedipus's questions, but refuses to speak, instead telling him to abandon his search. Oedipus is enraged by Tiresias' refusal, verbally accuses him of complicity in Laius' murder. Outraged, Tiresias tells the king. Oedipus cannot see how this could be, concludes that the prophet must have been paid
Oedipus is a play by the 5th-century BCE Athenian dramatist Euripides. The play is now lost except for some fragments. What survives of the play covers similar ground as Sophocles' acclaimed Oedipus Rex, but scholars and historians have found there are significant differences. In Oedipus Rex, the title character blinds himself upon learning his true parentage, accidentally killing his father and marrying his mother Jocasta. In Euripides' play, however, it appears Oedipus is blinded by a servant of his father Laius, Oedipus' predecessor as king of Thebes. Furthermore, Euripides' play implies Oedipus was blinded before it was known that Laius was his father. While in Sophocles' play Jocasta kills herself, remaining fragments of Euripides' play depict Jocasta as having survived and accompanied Oedipus into exile. A number of fragments of Oedipus and of ancient writings about Oedipus are extant. In one fragment, John Malalas writes that Euripides wrote a drama about Oedipus and the Sphinx. Another fragment gives the beginning of a hypothesis of the play, which states that Laius fathered a child despite the fact that the god Apollo forbade him from doing so.
Three fragments describe the Sphinx preparing to pose her riddle to Oedipus in the confrontation in which Oedipus defeats her by answering the riddle correctly. A key fragment is spoken by a servant of Laius; this fragment is translated by Collard and Cropp as "We pressed the son of Polybus to the ground, destroying his eyes and blinding him." An illustration on a 2nd-century BCE Etruscan alabaster urn might depict this scene. The illustration shows Oedipus held down as described in the fragment, watched by a figure holding a scepter his brother-in-law and uncle and eventual successor Creon. However, the illustration shows Jocasta, who would not be at Oedipus' blinding in the play, shows Oedipus' children, whom we do not know were characters in the play at all. Several fragments appear to involve the characters' reactions to the revelations in the play, it is not always clear who the speaker is, but in one fragment Oedipus might be commenting on how much can change in a single day, in another Creon states his view that "a bad man should always be treated badly," and that he would violate sanctuary and risk the wrath of the gods in order to accomplish this.
Several of these fragments have been ascribed to Jocasta. In one of these fragments, she notes. In at least two fragments, Jocasta describes what a sensible wife should do serving and supporting her husband, it is clear from the fragments that Oedipus contained a description of Oedipus' defeating the Sphinx and his blinding by a servant of Laius. The context of the description of the defeat of the Sphinx is not universally agreed upon; some scholars believe that the action of the play began with Oedipus defeating the Sphinx, moved to the revelations that Oedipus killed the previous king Laius and that Laius and Jocasta were Oedipus' biological parents. In "Uberlegungen zum Oedipus des Euripides", Martin Hose suggested a reconstruction of the plot of Oedipus as follows. Oedipus' adoptive mother Periboea arrives in Thebes to tell him. Oedipus is as yet unaware that he is adopted, believes Periboea and Polybus to be his biological parents. Oedipus proudly tells Periboea how he defeated the Sphinx, earning for himself the newly vacant throne of Thebes and marriage to Thebes' newly widowed queen Jocasta.
Periboea arrived in Thebes in a chariot that Oedipus had sent her as a gift, which had belonged to the previous king Laius and which Laius was riding when he was killed. Laius' servants would have recognized the chariot, thus realizing that Oedipus was the killer of Laius, blind him as punishment for the deed. Creon might have been involved in the blinding; as yet, it would not have been revealed that Oedipus was the biological son of Laius, hence the fragment describing the blinding refers to Oedipus as the son of Polybus. The blind Oedipus has a scene with Jocasta and Periboea in which the fact that his biological parents are Laius and Jocasta is revealed. Menoetes, another servant of Laius who had exposed Oedipus when he was born, might have played a role in this recognition scene as well; as a result of this revelation, Creon wants to exile Oedipus as further punishment, generating the fragments. These include Jocasta's support for and sharing of moral responsibility with Oedipus and her accusing Creon of jealousy of Oedipus, which led to the catastrophe.
Most scholars agree. The date for Oedipus has not been definitively established but metrical analysis on the extant fragments the incidence of resolutions by Cropp and Fick, indicates that the play was written in the latter part of Euripides' life, between 419 BCE and 406 BCE, most after 415 BCE
Oedipus was a mythical Greek king of Thebes. A tragic hero in Greek mythology, Oedipus accidentally fulfilled a prophecy that he would end up killing his father and marrying his mother, thereby bringing disaster to his city and family; the story of Oedipus is the subject of Sophocles' tragedy Oedipus Rex, followed by Oedipus at Colonus and Antigone. Together, these plays make up Sophocles' three Theban plays. Oedipus represents two enduring themes of Greek myth and drama: the flawed nature of humanity and an individual's role in the course of destiny in a harsh universe. In the best known version of the myth, Oedipus was born to Queen Jocasta. Laius wished to thwart the prophecy, so he sent a shepherd-servant to leave Oedipus to die on a mountainside. However, the shepherd took pity on the baby and passed him to another shepherd who gave Oedipus to King Polybus and Queen Merope to raise as their own. Oedipus learned from the oracle at Delphi of the prophecy that he would end up killing his father and marrying his mother but, unaware of his true parentage, believed he was fated to murder Polybus and marry Merope, so left for Thebes.
On his way he killed him in a quarrel. Continuing on to Thebes, he found that the king of the city had been killed, that the city was at the mercy of the Sphinx. Oedipus answered the monster's riddle defeating it and winning the throne of the dead king – and the hand in marriage of the king's widow, his mother Jocasta. Years to end a plague on Thebes, Oedipus searched to find who had killed Laius, discovered that he himself was responsible. Jocasta, upon realizing that she had married her own son, hanged herself. Oedipus seized two pins from her dress and blinded himself with them; the legend of Oedipus has been retold in many versions, was used by Sigmund Freud to name and give mythic precedent to the Oedipus complex. Variations on the legend of Oedipus are mentioned in fragments by several ancient Greek poets including Homer, Pindar and Euripides. However, the most popular version of the legend comes from the set of Theban plays by Sophocles: Oedipus Rex, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone. Oedipus was the son of Laius and Jocasta and queen of Thebes.
Having been childless for some time, Laius consulted the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. The Oracle prophesied. In an attempt to prevent this prophecy's fulfillment, when Jocasta indeed bore a son, Laius had his ankles pierced and tethered together so that he could not crawl. However, rather than leave the child to die of exposure, as Laius intended, the servant passed the baby on to a shepherd from Corinth and who gave the child to another shepherd; the infant Oedipus came to the house of Polybus, king of Corinth and his queen, who adopted him, as they were without children of their own. Little Oedipus/Oidipous was named after the swelling from the injuries to his ankles; the word "oedema" or "edema" is from this same Greek word for swelling: oedēma. After many years, Oedipus was told by a drunk that he was a "bastard", meaning at that time that he was not their biological son. Oedipus confronted his parents with the news. Oedipus went to the same oracle in Delphi; the oracle informed him that he was destined to marry his mother.
In an attempt to avoid such a fate, he decided not to return home to Corinth, but to travel to Thebes, closer to Delphi. On the way, Oedipus came to Davlia. There he encountered a chariot driven by King Laius, they fought over who had the right to go first and Oedipus killed Laius when the charioteer tried to run him over. The only witness of the king's death was a slave who fled from a caravan of slaves traveling on the road at the time. Continuing his journey to Thebes, Oedipus encountered a Sphinx, who would stop all travelers to Thebes and ask them a riddle. If the travelers were unable to answer her they would be killed and eaten; the riddle was: "What walks on four feet in the morning, two in the afternoon and three at night?". Oedipus answered: "Man: as an infant, he crawls on all fours. Oedipus was the first to answer the riddle and, having heard Oedipus' answer, the Sphinx allowed him to carry on forward. Queen Jocasta's brother, had announced that any man who could rid the city of the Sphinx would be made king of Thebes, given the widowed Queen Jocasta's hand in marriage.
This marriage of Oedipus to Jocasta fulfilled the rest of the prophecy. Oedipus and Jocasta had four children: two sons and Polynices, two daughters and Ismene. Many years after the marriage of Oedipus and Jocasta, a plague of infertility struck the city of Thebes, affecting crops and the people. Oedipus asserted, he sent Creon, to the Oracle at Delphi, seeking guidance. When Creon returned, Oedipus learned that the murderer of the former King Laius must be brought to justice, Oedipus himself cursed the killer of his wife's late husband, saying that he would be exiled. Creon suggested that they try to find the blind prophet, Tiresias, respected. Oedipus sent for Tiresias, who warned him not to seek Laius'
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
In Greek mythology, Antigone is the daughter of Oedipus and his mother Jocasta. The meaning of the name is, as in the case of the masculine equivalent Antigonus, "worthy of one's parents" or "in place of one's parents". Antigone is the subject of a story in which she attempts to secure a respectable burial for her brother Polynices. Oedipus's sons and Polynices, had shared the rule jointly until they quarrelled, Eteocles expelled his brother. In Sophocles' account, the two brothers agreed to alternate rule each year, but Eteocles decided not to share power with his brother after his tenure expired. Polynices left the kingdom, gathered an army and attacked the city of Thebes in a conflict called the Seven Against Thebes. Both brothers were killed in the battle. King Creon, who has ascended to the throne of Thebes after the death of the brothers, decrees that Polynices is not to be buried or mourned, on pain of death by stoning. Antigone, Polynices' sister, is caught. In the oldest version of the story, the burial of Polynices takes place during Oedipus' reign in Thebes, before Oedipus marries his mother, Jocasta.
However, in other versions such as Sophocles' tragedies Oedipus at Colonus and Antigone, it occurs in the years after the banishment and death of Oedipus and Antigone's struggles against Creon. Antigone is brought before Creon, admits that she knew of Creon's law forbidding mourning for Polynices but chose to break it, claiming the superiority of divine over human law, she defies Creon's cruelty with courage and determination. Sophocles' Antigone ends in disaster. Creon orders Antigone buried alive in a tomb. Although Creon has a change of heart and tries to release Antigone, he finds. Creon's son Haemon, in love with Antigone commits suicide with a knife, his mother Queen Eurydice kills herself in despair over her son's death, she has been forced to weave throughout the entire story, her death alludes to The Fates. Sophocles' play is a typical Greek tragedy, in which inherent flaws of the acting characters lead to irrevocable disaster. Antigone and Creon are prototypical tragic figures in an Aristotelian sense, as they struggle towards their fore-doomed ends, forsaken by the gods.
The dramatist Euripides wrote a play called Antigone, lost, but some of the text was preserved by writers and in passages in his Phoenissae. In Euripides, the calamity is averted by the intercession of Dionysus and is followed by the marriage of Antigone and Hæmon. Antigone plays a role in Euripides' extant play The Phoenician Women. Different elements of the legend appear in other places. A description of an ancient painting by Philostratus refers to Antigone placing the body of Polynices on the funeral pyre, this is depicted on a sarcophagus in the Villa Doria Pamphili in Rome, and in Hyginus' version of the legend, founded on a tragedy by some follower of Euripides, Antigone, on being handed over by Creon to her lover Hæmon to be slain, is secretly carried off by him and concealed in a shepherd's hut, where she bears him a son, Maeon. When the boy grows up, he attends some funeral games at Thebes, is recognized by the mark of a dragon on his body; this leads to the discovery. The demi-god Heracles intercedes and pleads with Creon to forgive Hæmon, but in vain.
Hæmon kills Antigone and himself. The intercession by Heracles is represented on a painted vase; the story of Antigone has been a popular subject for books and other works, including: Antigone, one of the three extant Theban plays by Sophocles, the most famous adaptation Antigone, a play by Euripides, now lost except for some fragments Antigona, opera by Tommaso Traetta, libretto by Marco Coltellini Antigona, opera by Josef Mysliveček, libretto by Gaetano Roccaforte Antigone, settings of the choruses by Felix Mendelssohn as incidental music for a performance of Johann Jakob Christian Donner's translation of Sophocles Antigone, play by Jean Cocteau Antigone, opera by Arthur Honegger, libretto by Jean Cocteau Antigone, opera by Carl Orff Antigone, play by Jean Anouilh "Antigone-Legend", for soprano and piano, by Frederic Rzewski Αντιγόνη, ballet by Mikis Theodorakis, 1959 Αντιγόνη, opera by Mikis Theodorakis,1995–96 Antigone, opera by Ton de Leeuw Antígona Furiosa, play by Griselda Gambaro Another Antigone, play by A. R. Gurney The Island, play by Athol Fugard La Pasión Según Antígona Pérez, adaptation by Luis Rafael Sánchez, updated to 20th-century Latin America Antígona, play by Salvador Espriu Tegonni, An African Antigone by Femi Osofisan Antigone, adaptation of Sophocles' play by Peruvian poet José Watanabe Antigone, opera by Mark Alburger Antigone, comic book by David Hopkins Antigone, opera by Vassily Lobanov, libretto by Alexey Parin Antigone by Henry Bauchau Antigone's Red, short play by Chiori Miyagawa The Burial at Thebes, by Seamus Heaney, adapted into a 2008 opera with music by Dominique Le Gendre Antigone, play by Mac Wellman Antígona Vélez, adaptation of Sophocles' play by Argentinean writer Leopoldo Marechal Antigonai, opera based on fragments by Sophocles and Hölderlin for three choirs and a women's trio by Argentine composer Carlos Stella Antigone's Song, short post-apocalyptic musical western film based loosely on the myth
Seven Against Thebes
Seven Against Thebes is the third play in an Oedipus-themed trilogy produced by Aeschylus in 467 BC. The trilogy is sometimes referred to as the Oedipodea, it concerns the battle between an Argive army led by Polynices and the army of Thebes led by Eteocles and his supporters. The trilogy won the first prize at the City Dionysia; the trilogy's first two plays and Oedipus, as well as the satyr play Sphinx, are no longer extant. When Oedipus, King of Thebes, realized he had married his own mother and had two sons and two daughters with her, he blinded himself and cursed his sons to divide their inheritance by the sword; the two sons and Polynices, in order to avoid bloodshed, agreed to rule Thebes in alternate years. After the first year, Eteocles refused to step down, leading Polynices to raise an army of Argives to take Thebes by force; this is. Seven Against Thebes features little action. Dialogues show aspects of Eteocles' character. There is a lengthy description of each of the seven captains that lead the Argive army against the seven gates of the city of Thebes as well as the devices on their respective shields.
Eteocles, in turn, announces. The commander of the troops before the seventh gate is revealed to be Polynices, the brother of the king. Eteocles remembers and refers to the curse of their father Oedipus. Eteocles resolves to fight his brother in person before the seventh gate and exits. Following a choral ode, a messenger enters, announcing that the attackers have been repelled but that Eteocles and Polynices have killed each other in battle, their bodies are brought on stage, the chorus mourns them. Due to the popularity of Sophocles' play Antigone, the ending of Seven against Thebes was rewritten about fifty years after Aeschylus' death. While Aeschylus wrote his play to end with somber mourning for the dead brothers, it now contains an ending that serves as a lead-in of sorts to Sophocles' play: a messenger appears, announcing a prohibition against burying Polynices; the seven attackers and defenders in the play are: The mytheme of the "outlandish" and "savage" Seven who threatened the city has traditionally seemed to be based on Bronze Age history in the generation before the Trojan War, when in the Iliad's Catalogue of Ships only the remnant Hypothebai subsists on the ruins of Thebes.
Yet archaeologists have been hard put to locate seven gates in "seven-gated Thebes": In 1891 Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff declared that the seven gates existed only for symmetry with the seven assailants, whose names vary: some have their own identity, like Amphiaraus the seer, "who had his sanctuary and his cult afterwards... Others appear as stock figures to fill out the list," Burkert remarks. "To call one of them Eteoklos, vis-à-vis Eteokles the brother of Polyneikes, appears to be the desperate invention of a faltering poet" Burkert follows a suggestion made by Ernest Howald in 1939 that the Seven are pure myth led by Adrastos on his magic horse, seven demons of the Underworld. The city is saved when the brothers run each other through. Burkert adduces a ninth-century relief from Tell Halaf which would illustrate a text from II Samuel 2: "But each seized his opponent by the forelock and thrust his sword into his side so that all fell together"; the mythic theme passed into Etruscan culture: a fifth-century bronze mirrorback is inscribed with Fulnice and Evtucle running at one another with drawn swords.
A gruesome detail from the battle, in which Tydeus gnawed on the living brain of Melanippos in the course of the siege appears, in a sculpted terracotta relief from a temple at Pyrgi, ca. 470–460 BC. The Seven Against Thebes were Adrastus Amphiaraus Capaneus Hippomedon Parthenopeus Polynices TydeusAllies: Eteoclus and Mecisteus; some sources, state that Eteoclus and Mecisteus were in fact two of the seven, that Tydeus and Polynices were allies. This is because both Polynices were foreigners. However, Polynices was the cause of the entire conflict, Tydeus performed acts of valour far surpassing Eteoclus and Mecisteus. Either way, all nine men were present in the battle; the defenders of Thebes included Melanippus Polyphontes Megareus Hyperbius Actor Lasthenes EteoclesSee Epigoni, the mythic theme of the Second War of Thebes Of the other two plays that made up the trilogy that included Seven Against Thebes and Oedipus, of its satyr play The Sphinx, few fragments have survived. The only fragment definitively assigned to Oedipus is a line translated by Herbert Weir Smyth as "We were coming on our journey to the place from which three highways part in the branching roads, where we crossed the junction of the triple roads at Potniae."
The only two fragments definitively assigned to The Sphinx were translated by Smyth as "For the stranger a garland, an ancient crown, the best of bonds, as Prometheus said," and "The Sphinx, the Watch-dog that presideth over evil days." Translators David Grene and Richmond Lattimore wrote that "the rise of German Romanticism, the consequent resurgence of enthusiasm for Aesc