Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding and handling of text expressed in most of the worlds writing systems. As of June 2016, the most recent version is Unicode 9.0, the standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium. Unicodes success at unifying character sets has led to its widespread, the standard has been implemented in many recent technologies, including modern operating systems, XML, and the. NET Framework. Unicode can be implemented by different character encodings, the most commonly used encodings are UTF-8, UTF-16 and the now-obsolete UCS-2. UTF-8 uses one byte for any ASCII character, all of which have the same values in both UTF-8 and ASCII encoding, and up to four bytes for other characters. UCS-2 uses a 16-bit code unit for each character but cannot encode every character in the current Unicode standard, UTF-16 extends UCS-2, using one 16-bit unit for the characters that were representable in UCS-2 and two 16-bit units to handle each of the additional characters.
Many traditional character encodings share a common problem in that they allow bilingual computer processing, Unicode, in intent, encodes the underlying characters—graphemes and grapheme-like units—rather than the variant glyphs for such characters. In the case of Chinese characters, this leads to controversies over distinguishing the underlying character from its variant glyphs. In text processing, Unicode takes the role of providing a unique code point—a number, in other words, Unicode represents a character in an abstract way and leaves the visual rendering to other software, such as a web browser or word processor. This simple aim becomes complicated, because of concessions made by Unicodes designers in the hope of encouraging a more rapid adoption of Unicode, the first 256 code points were made identical to the content of ISO-8859-1 so as to make it trivial to convert existing western text. For other examples, see duplicate characters in Unicode and he explained that he name Unicode is intended to suggest a unique, universal encoding.
In this document, entitled Unicode 88, Becker outlined a 16-bit character model, Unicode could be roughly described as wide-body ASCII that has been stretched to 16 bits to encompass the characters of all the worlds living languages. In a properly engineered design,16 bits per character are more than sufficient for this purpose, Unicode aims in the first instance at the characters published in modern text, whose number is undoubtedly far below 214 =16,384. By the end of 1990, most of the work on mapping existing character encoding standards had been completed, the Unicode Consortium was incorporated in California on January 3,1991, and in October 1991, the first volume of the Unicode standard was published. The second volume, covering Han ideographs, was published in June 1992, in 1996, a surrogate character mechanism was implemented in Unicode 2.0, so that Unicode was no longer restricted to 16 bits. The Microsoft TrueType specification version 1.0 from 1992 used the name Apple Unicode instead of Unicode for the Platform ID in the naming table, Unicode defines a codespace of 1,114,112 code points in the range 0hex to 10FFFFhex.
Normally a Unicode code point is referred to by writing U+ followed by its hexadecimal number, for code points in the Basic Multilingual Plane, four digits are used, for code points outside the BMP, five or six digits are used, as required. Code points in Planes 1 through 16 are accessed as surrogate pairs in UTF-16, within each plane, characters are allocated within named blocks of related characters
Linguolabials or apicolabials are consonants articulated by placing the tongue tip or blade against the upper lip, which is drawn downward to meet the tongue. They represent one extreme of a coronal articulatory continuum which extends from linguolabial to subapical palatal places of articulation, cross-linguistically, linguolabial consonants are very rare, but they do not represent a particularly exotic combination of articulatory configurations, unlike click consonants or ejectives. They are found in a cluster of languages in Vanuatu, in the Kajoko dialect of Bijago in Guinea-Bissau, and in Umotína and they are relatively common in disordered speech, and the diacritic is specifically provided for in the extensions to the IPA. Place of articulation List of phonetics topics Ladefoged, Maddieson, the Sounds of the Worlds Languages. In VICAL1, Oceanic Languages, Part II, Papers from the Fifth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, New Zealand, January 1988, ed. by R. Harlow & R.
Hooper, Linguistic Society of New Zealand. Olson, Kenneth S. D. William Reiman, Fernando Sabio & Filipe Alberto da Silva, the voiced linguolabial plosive in Kajoko
Ivory Coast or Côte dIvoire, officially the Republic of Côte dIvoire, is a country located in West Africa. Ivory Coasts political capital is Yamoussoukro, and its economic capital and its bordering countries are Guinea and Liberia in the west, Burkina Faso and Mali in the north, and Ghana in the east. The Gulf of Guinea is located south of Ivory Coast, prior to its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, and Baoulé. Two Anyi kingdoms, Indénié and Sanwi, attempted to retain their identity through the French colonial period. Ivory Coast became a protectorate of France in 1843–1844 and was formed into a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. Ivory Coast achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, the country maintained close political and economic association with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close ties to the West, especially France. Since the end of Houphouët-Boignys rule in 1993, Ivory Coast has experienced one coup détat, in 1999, the first took place between 2002 and 2007 and the second during 2010-2011.
As a result, in 2000, the adopted a new Constitution. Ivory Coast is a republic with an executive power invested in its President. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was a powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Ivory Coast went through a crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. Changing into the 21st-century Ivorian economy is largely market-based and still heavily on agriculture. The official language is French, with indigenous languages widely used, including Baoulé, Dan, Anyin. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast, popular religions include Islam and various indigenous religions. Originally and French merchant-explorers in the 15th and 16th centuries divided the west coast of Africa, very roughly, there was a Pepper Coast known as the Grain Coast, a Gold Coast, and a Slave Coast. Like those, the name Ivory Coast reflected the major trade occurred on that particular stretch of the coast. One can find the name Cote de Dents regularly used in older works and it was used in Ducketts Dictionnaire and by Nicolas Villault de Bellefond, for examples, although Antoine François Prévost used Côte dIvoire.
In the 19th century, usage switched to Côte dIvoire and it retained the name through French rule and independence in 1960
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel. It is labialization of a vowel, when a rounded vowel is pronounced, the lips form a circular opening, and unrounded vowels are pronounced with the lips relaxed. In most languages, front vowels tend to be unrounded, in the International Phonetic Alphabet vowel chart, rounded vowels are the ones that appear on the right in each pair of vowels. There are diacritics, U+0339 ̹ COMBINING RIGHT HALF RING BELOW and U+031C ̜ COMBINING LEFT HALF RING BELOW, to greater and lesser degrees of rounding. The more and less rounded diacritics are used with consonants to indicate degrees of labialization. There are two types of rounding and compression. In protruded rounding, the corners of the mouth are drawn together, in compressed rounding, the corners of the mouth are drawn together, but the lips are drawn together horizontally and do not protrude, with only their outer surface visible. That is, in protruded vowels the inner surfaces of the form the opening.
Catford observes that back and central rounded vowels, such as German /o/ and /u/, are typically protruded, whereas front rounded vowels such as German /ø/ and /y/ are typically compressed. Back or central compressed vowels and front protruded vowels are uncommon, there are no dedicated IPA diacritics to represent the distinction, but the superscript IPA letter ⟨◌ᵝ⟩ can be used for compression and ⟨◌ʷ⟩, ⟨◌ᶣ⟩ or ⟨◌̫⟩ for protrusion. Compressed vowels may be pronounced either with the corners of the mouth drawn in, by some definitions rounded, or with the spread and, by the same definitions. The distinction may be transcribed ⟨ɨᵝ ɯᵝ⟩ and ⟨ʉᵝ uᵝ⟩, the distinction between protruded and compressed holds for the semivowels and as well as labialization. In Akan, for example, the is compressed, as are labio-palatalized consonants as in Twi Twi and adwuma work, whereas, in Japanese, the /w/ is compressed rather than protruded, paralleling the Japanese /u/. The distinction applies marginally to other consonants, some vowels transcribed with rounded IPA letters may not be rounded at all.
An example is /ɒ/, which in English has very little if any rounding of the lips, the throaty sound of English /ɒ/ is instead accomplished with sulcalization, a furrowing of the back of the tongue found in non-rhotic /ɜː/. It is possible to mimic the effect of rounded vowels by narrowing the cheeks, so-called cheek rounding. The technique is used by ventriloquists to mask the visible rounding of back vowels like and it is not clear if it is used by languages with rounded vowels that do not use visible rounding. Protruded rounding is the equivalent of consonantal labialization
Laurent Gbagbo was the President of Côte dIvoire from 2000 until his arrest in April 2011. Gbagbo founded the Ivorian Popular Front in 1982 and ran unsuccessfully for President against Félix Houphouët-Boigny at the start of multi-party politics in 1990 and he won a seat in the National Assembly of Côte dIvoire in 1990. Gbagbo claimed victory after Robert Guéï, head of a military junta, the Ivorian people took to the streets, toppling Guéï. Gbagbo was installed as President, following the 2010 presidential election, Gbagbo challenged the vote count, alleging fraud. He called for the annulment of results from nine of the countrys regions, Alassane Ouattara was declared the winner and was recognized as such by election observers, the international community, the African Union, and the Economic Community of West African States. After a short period of conflict, Gbagbo was arrested by backers of Alassane Ouattara. In November 2011, he was extradited to the International Criminal Court, Laurent Gbagbo was born on 31 May 1945 in the village of Mama, near Gagnoa in the French West Africa.
He became a professor and an opponent of the regime of President Félix Houphouët-Boigny. He was imprisoned from 31 March 1971 to January 1973, in 1979, he obtained his doctorate at Paris Diderot University. In 1980, he became Director of the Institute of History, Art and he participated in a 1982 teachers strike as a member of the National Trade Union of Research and Higher Education. Gbagbo went into exile in France, during the 1982 strike, Gbagbo formed what would become the Ivorian Popular Front. The FPI vowed to restore modernization in the country, by building infrastructure, communication, water and he returned to Côte dIvoire on 13 September 1988 and at the FPIs constitutive congress, held on 19–20 November 1988, he was elected as the partys Secretary-General. Gbagbo said in July 2008 that he had received support from Blaise Compaoré, formerly the President of Burkina Faso. Following the introduction of multiparty politics in 1990, Gbagbo challenged Houphouët-Boigny in the October 1990 presidential election, Gbagbo contended that Houphouët-Boigny, who was either 85 or 90 years old, was not likely to survive a seventh five-year term.
This failed to resonate with voters, and Gbagbo officially received 18. 3% of the vote against Houphouët-Boigny, in 1992 he was sentenced to two years in prison and charged with inciting violence, but was released in the year. The FPI boycotted the 1995 presidential election, in 1996 Gbagbo was re-elected to his seat in the National Assembly from Ouragahio, following a delay in the holding of the election there, and in the same year he was elected as President of the FPI. At the FPIs 3rd Ordinary Congress on 9–11 July 1999, Gbagbo was chosen as the FPIs candidate for the October 2000 presidential election and that election took place after a December 1999 coup in which retired general Robert Guéï took power. Guéï refused to allow his predecessor as president, Henri Konan Bédié, or former prime minister Alassane Ouattara to run, Guéï claimed victory in the election, held on 22 October 2000
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of language, phonemes, intonation. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a letter, or with a letter plus diacritics. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription, thus, /t/ is less specific than, occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed, or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters,52 diacritics and these are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA.
In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, for example, the sound was originally represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, the idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the International Phonetic Association Kiel Convention in 1989, a minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives. The alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap, apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted largely in renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces.
Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990, the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do hard, the IPA does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as selectiveness. These are organized into a chart, the chart displayed here is the chart as posted at the website of the IPA. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet, for this reason, most letters are either Latin or Greek, or modifications thereof. Some letters are neither, for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a question mark
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda. All of the states in the UN subregion of Middle Africa, plus those otherwise commonly reckoned in Central Africa, since its independence in 2011, South Sudan has been commonly included in the region. The Central African Federation, called the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, was made up of what are now the nations of Malawi and these states are now typically considered part of Southern Africa. Archeological finds in Central Africa have been discovered dating back over 100,000 years, according to Zangato and Holl, there is evidence of iron-smelting in the Central African Republic and Cameroon that may date back to 3000 to 2500 BCE. Extensive walled settlements have recently found in Northeast Nigeria, approximately 60 km southwest of Lake Chad dating to the first millennium BCE. Trade and improved agricultural techniques supported more sophisticated societies, leading to the civilizations of Sao, Bornu, Baguirmi.
Around 1000 BCE, Bantu migrants had reached the Great Lakes Region in Central Africa, halfway through the first millennium BCE, the Bantu had settled as far south as what is now Angola. The Sao civilization flourished from ca. the sixth century BCE to as late as the sixteenth century CE in northern Central Africa, the Sao lived by the Chari River south of Lake Chad in territory that became part of Cameroon and Chad. They are the earliest people to have clear traces of their presence in the territory of modern Cameroon. Today, several groups of northern Cameroon and southern Chad. Sao artifacts show that they were skilled workers in bronze, finds include bronze sculptures and terra cotta statues of human and animal figures, funerary urns, household utensils, highly decorated pottery, and spears. The largest Sao archaeological finds have been south of Lake Chad. The Kanem-Bornu Empire was centered in the Chad Basin and it was known as the Kanem Empire from the 9th century CE onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu until 1900.
The history of the Empire is mainly known from the Royal Chronicle or Girgam discovered in 1851 by the German traveller Heinrich Barth, Kanem rose in the 8th century in the region to the north and east of Lake Chad. The Kanem empire went into decline, and in the 14th century was defeated by Bilala invaders from the Lake Fitri region, the Kanuri people led by the Sayfuwa migrated to the west and south of the lake, where they established the Bornu Empire. By the late 16th century the Bornu empire had expanded and recaptured the parts of Kanem that had been conquered by the Bulala, satellite states of Bornu included the Damagaram in the west and Baguirmi to the southeast of Lake Chad. The Shilluk Kingdom was centered in South Sudan from the 15th century from along a strip of land along the bank of White Nile. The capital and royal residence was in the town of Fashoda, the kingdom was founded during the mid-fifteenth century CE by its first ruler, Nyikang
Specials (Unicode block)
Specials is a short Unicode block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 codepoints, five are assigned as of Unicode 9, U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the sense. They can be used to guess a texts encoding scheme, since any text containing these is by not a correctly encoded Unicode text. The replacement character � is a found in the Unicode standard at codepoint U+FFFD in the Specials table. It is used to indicate problems when a system is unable to render a stream of data to a correct symbol and it is usually seen when the data is invalid and does not match any character, Consider a text file containing the German word für in the ISO-8859-1 encoding. This file is now opened with an editor that assumes the input is UTF-8. The first and last byte are valid UTF-8 encodings of ASCII, therefore, a text editor could replace this byte with the replacement character symbol to produce a valid string of Unicode code points.
The whole string now displays like this, f�r, a poorly implemented text editor might save the replacement in UTF-8 form, the text file data will look like this, 0x66 0xEF 0xBF 0xBD 0x72, which will be displayed in ISO-8859-1 as fï¿½r. Since the replacement is the same for all errors this makes it impossible to recover the original character, a better design is to preserve the original bytes, including the error, and only convert to the replacement when displaying the text. This will allow the text editor to save the original byte sequence and it has become increasingly common for software to interpret invalid UTF-8 by guessing the bytes are in another byte-based encoding such as ISO-8859-1. This allows correct display of both valid and invalid UTF-8 pasted together, Unicode control characters UTF-8 Mojibake Unicodes Specials table Decodeunicodes entry for the replacement character
West Africa, called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost subregion of Africa. Early human settlers from northern Holocene societies arrived in West Africa around 12,000 B. C, sedentary farming began in, or around the fifth millennium B. C, as well as the domestication of cattle. By 1500 B. C, ironworking technology allowed an expansion of productivity. Northern tribes developed walled settlements and non-walled settlements that numbered at 400, in the forest region, Iron Age cultures began to flourish, and an inter-region trade began to appear. The desertification of the Sahara and the change of the coast cause trade with upper Mediterranean peoples to be seen. Local leather and gold contributed to the abundance of prosperity for many of the following empires. Also, based on the archaeology of city of Kumbi Saleh in modern-day Mauritania, three great kingdoms were identified in Bilad al-Sudan by the ninth century. They included Ghana and Kanem, the Sosso Empire sought to fill the void, but was defeated by the Mandinka forces of Sundiata Keita, founder of the new Mali Empire.
In the 15th century, the Songhai would form a new dominant state based on Gao, in the Songhai Empire, under the leadership of Sonni Ali, further east, Oyo arose as the dominant Yoruba state and the Aro Confederacy as a dominant Igbo state in modern-day Nigeria. The Kingdom of Nri was a West African medieval state in the present-day southeastern Nigeria, the Kingdom of Nri was unusual in the history of world government in that its leader exercised no military power over his subjects. The kingdom existed as a sphere of religious and political influence over a third of Igboland, the Eze Nri managed trade and diplomacy on behalf of the Nri people, and possessed divine authority in religious matters. The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Western, established in the 15th century, the Oyo Empire grew to become one of the largest West African states. It rose through the organizational skills of the Yoruba, wealth gained from trade. The Benin Empire was an empire located in what is now southern Nigeria.
Its capital was Edo, now known as Benin City, Edo and it should not be confused with the modern-day country called Benin, formerly called Dahomey. The Benin Empire was one of the oldest and most highly developed states in the hinterland of West Africa. Olfert Dapper, a Dutch writer, describing Benin in his book Description of Africa and its craft was the most adored and treasured bronze casting in the history of Africa. It was annexed by the British Empire in 1897 during the invasion, in the early 19th century, a series of Fulani reformist jihads swept across Western Africa
In linguistics, tongue shape describes the shape that the tongue assumes when making a sound. Tongue shape is important for the sibilant sounds. Because these sounds have such a high prominence, small changes in tongue shape are easily audible. Usually, only one of these articulations can co-occur with a given sound. In addition, the quality of velarization and pharyngealization is very similar, as a result. The following varieties of tongue shapes are defined for sibilants, from sharpest and highest-pitched to dullest and lowest-pitched and this groove channels a high-velocity jet of air into the teeth, which results in a high-pitched, piercing hissing sound. Because of the prominence of these sounds, they are the most common and they occur in English, where they are denoted with a letter s or z, as in soon or zone. Grooved palatalized, Combination of grooved shape with palatalization, alveolo-palatal, i. e. flat palatalized, with a convex, V-shaped tongue, and highly palatalized. Palato-alveolar, i. e.
domed, with a domed tongue and these sounds occur in English, where they are denoted with letter combinations such as sh, ch, g, j or si, as in shin, chin and vision. Retroflex, with a flat or concave tongue, and no palatalization and these sounds occur in a large number of varieties, some of which go by other names. The subapical palatal or true retroflex sounds are the very dullest and lowest-pitched of all the sibilants, the latter three types of sounds are often known as hushing sounds because of their quality, as opposed to the hissing grooved sounds. Note that palatalization is an inherent part of the definition of the above varieties, and cannot normally be varied independently
The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics. In studying articulation, phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of different physiological structures, articulatory phonetics is concerned with the transformation of aerodynamic energy into acoustic energy. Aerodynamic energy refers to the airflow through the vocal tract and its potential form is air pressure, its kinetic form is the actual dynamic airflow. Acoustic energy is variation in the air pressure that can be represented as sound waves, the main air cavities present in the articulatory system are the supraglottal cavity and the subglottal cavity. They are so-named because the glottis, the space between the vocal folds internal to the larynx, separates the two cavities. The supraglottal cavity or the orinasal cavity is divided into an oral subcavity, the subglottal cavity consists of the trachea and the lungs. The atmosphere external to the stem may be considered an air cavity whose potential connecting points with respect to the body are the nostrils.
The term initiator refers to the fact that they are used to initiate a change in the volumes of air cavities, and, by Boyles Law, the term initiation refers to the change. Since changes in air pressures between connected cavities lead to airflow between the cavities, initiation is referred to as an airstream mechanism. The three pistons present in the system are the larynx, the tongue body, and the physiological structures used to manipulate lung volume. The lung pistons are used to initiate a pulmonic airstream, the larynx is used to initiate the glottalic airstream mechanism by changing the volume of the supraglottal and subglottal cavities via vertical movement of the larynx. Ejectives and implosives are made with this airstream mechanism, the tongue body creates a velaric airsteam by changing the pressure within the oral cavity, the tongue body changes the mouth subcavity. Click consonants use the velaric airstream mechanism, pistons are controlled by various muscles. Airflow occurs when an air valve is open and there is a difference between the connecting cavities.
When an air valve is closed, there is no airflow, like the pistons, the air valves are controlled by various muscles. To produce any kind of sound, there must be movement of air. To produce sounds that people today can interpret as words, the movement of air must pass through the chords, up through the throat and. Different sounds are formed by different positions of the mouth—or, as linguists call it, sounds of all languages fall under two categories and Vowels
Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals. Lips are soft and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound, human lips are a tactile sensory organ, and can be an erogenous zone when used in kissing and other acts of intimacy. The upper and lower lips are referred to as the Labium superius oris and Labium inferius oris, the juncture where the lips meet the surrounding skin of the mouth area is the vermilion border, and the typically reddish area within the borders is called the vermilion zone. The vermilion border of the lip is known as the cupids bow. The fleshy protuberance located in the center of the lip is a tubercle known by various terms including the procheilon, the tuberculum labii superioris. The vertical groove extending from the procheilon to the septum is called the philtrum. The skin of the lip, with three to five layers, is very thin compared to typical face skin, which has up to 16 layers. With light skin color, the lip skin contains fewer melanocytes, because of this, the blood vessels appear through the skin of the lips, which leads to their notable red coloring.
With darker skin color this effect is less prominent, as in case the skin of the lips contains more melanin. The skin of the lip forms the border between the skin of the face, and the interior mucous membrane of the inside of the mouth. The lip skin is not hairy and does not have sweat glands, therefore, it does not have the usual protection layer of sweat and body oils which keep the skin smooth, inhibit pathogens, and regulate warmth. For these reasons, the lips dry out faster and become chapped more easily, the lower lip is formed from the mandibular prominence, a branch of the first pharyngeal arch. The lower lip covers the body of the mandible. It is lowered by the depressor labii inferioris muscle and the orbicularis oris borders it inferiorly, the upper lip covers the anterior surface of the body of the maxilla. It is raised by the levator labii superioris and is connected to the lip by the thin lining of the lip itself. The skin of the lips is stratified squamous epithelium, the mucous membrane is represented by a large area in the sensory cortex, and is therefore highly sensitive.
The Frenulum Labii Inferioris is the frenulum of the lower lip, the Frenulum Labii Superioris is the frenulum of the upper lip. Trigeminal nerve The infraorbital nerve is a branch of the maxillary branch and it supplies not only the upper lip, but much of the skin of the face between the upper lip and the lower eyelid, except for the bridge of the nose