Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator. The two common labial articulations are bilabials, articulated using both lips, labiodentals, articulated with the lower lip against the upper teeth, both of which are present in English. A third labial articulation is dentolabials, articulated with the upper lip against the lower teeth only found in pathological speech. Precluded are linguolabials, in which the tip of the tongue contacts the posterior side of the upper lip, making them coronals, though sometimes, they behave as labial consonants; the most common distribution between bilabials and labiodentals is the English one, in which the stops, are bilabial and the fricatives, are labiodental. The voiceless bilabial fricative, voiced bilabial fricative, the bilabial approximant do not exist in English, but they occur in many languages. For example, the Spanish consonant written b or v is pronounced, between vowels, as a voiced bilabial approximant. Lip rounding, or labialization, is a common approximant-like co-articulatory feature.

English /w/ is a voiced labialized velar approximant, far more common than the purely labial approximant. In the languages of the Caucasus, labialized dorsals like /kʷ/ and /qʷ/ are common. Few languages, make a distinction purely between bilabials and labiodentals, making "labial" a sufficient specification of a language's phonemes. One exception is Ewe, which has both kinds of fricatives, but the labiodentals are produced with greater articulatory force. While most languages make use of purely labial phonemes, a few lack them. Examples are Tlingit, Eyak and the Iroquoian languages except Cherokee. Many of these languages are transcribed with /w/ and with labialized consonants. However, it is not always clear. In the Iroquoian languages, for example, /w/ involved little apparent rounding of the lips. See the Tillamook language for an example of a language with "rounded" consonants and vowels that do not have any actual labialization. Labialization Index of phonetics articles Ladefoged, Peter; the Sounds of the World's Languages.

Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4. McDorman, Richard E.. Labial Instability in Sound Change: Explanations for the Loss of /p/. Chicago: Organizational Knowledge Press. ISBN 0-9672537-0-5

The Lorax

The Lorax is a children's book written by Dr. Seuss and first published in 1971, it chronicles the plight of the environment and the Lorax is the titular character, who "speaks for the trees" and confronts the Once-ler, who causes environmental destruction. As in most Dr. Seuss books, the creatures mentioned are unique to the story; the story is recognized as a fable concerning the danger of human destruction of the natural environment, using the literary element of personification to create relateable characters for industry, the environment and activism. The story encourages personal care and involvement in making the situation better: "Unless someone like you cares a whole awful lot, nothing is going to be get better. It's not." It was Dr. Seuss's personal favorite of his books, he was able to create a story addressing industrial/economic and environmental issues without it being dull: "The Lorax came out of me being angry. In The Lorax I was out to attack what I think are evil things and let the chips fall where they might."

A young unnamed boy living in a polluted area visits a strange isolated man called the Once-ler on the Street of the Lifted Lorax. The boy pays the Once-ler fifteen cents, a nail, the shell of a great-great-great grandfather snail to hear the legend of how the Lorax was lifted and taken away; the Once-ler tells the boy of his arrival in a beautiful valley containing a forest of Truffula trees and a range of animals. The Once-ler, having long searched for such a tree as the Truffula, chops one down and uses its silk-like foliage to knit a Thneed, an impossibly versatile garment; the Lorax, who "speaks for the trees," emerges from the stump of the Truffula and voices his disapproval both of the sacrifice of the tree and of the Thneed itself. However, the first other person to happen by purchases the Thneed for $3.98, so the Once-ler is encouraged and starts a business making and selling Thneeds. The Once-ler's small shop soon grows into a factory; the Once-ler's relatives all come to work for him and new vehicles and equipment are brought in to log the Truffula forest and ship out Thneeds.

The Lorax appears again to report that the small bear-like Bar-ba-loots, who eat Truffula fruits, are short of food and must be sent away to find more. The Lorax returns to complain that the factory has polluted the air and the water, forcing the Swomee-Swans and Humming-Fish to migrate as well; the Once-ler is unrepentant and defiantly tells the Lorax that he will keep on "biggering" his business, but at that moment, one of his machines chops down the last Truffula tree. Without raw materials, the factory shuts down and the Once-ler's relatives promptly abandon him in the now-decimated environment; the Lorax says nothing but with one sad backward glance lifts himself into the air "by the seat of his pants" and disappears behind the smoggy clouds. Where he last stood is a small pile of rocks with a single word: "UNLESS"; the Once-ler ponders the message for years, in self-imposed exile. In the present, as his buildings fall apart around him, the Once-ler at last realizes out loud what the Lorax meant: "Unless someone like you cares a whole awful lot, nothing is going to get better.

It's not." He gives the boy the last Truffula seed and urges him to grow a forest from it, saying that, if the trees can be protected from logging the Lorax and all of his friends may come back. It is believed that a Monterey cypress in La Jolla, California was the inspiration for The Lorax. On June 16, 2019, the tree was reported to have toppled. Based on a 2007 online poll, the National Education Association named The Lorax one of its "Teachers' Top 100 Books for Children". In 2012 it was ranked number 33 among the "Top 100 Picture Books" in a survey published by School Library Journal – the second of five Dr. Seuss books on the list. In a retrospective critique written in the journal Nature in 2011 upon the 40th anniversary of the book's publication, Emma Marris described the Lorax character as a "parody of a misanthropic ecologist", she called the book "gloomy" and expressed skepticism that its message would resonate with small children in the manner intended. She praised the book as effective in conveying the consequences of ecological destruction in a way that young children will understand.

In 1988, a small school district in California kept the book on a reading list for second graders, though some in the town claimed the book was unfair to the logging industry. Terri Birkett, a member of a family-owned hardwood flooring factory, authored The Truax, offering a logging-friendly perspective to an anthropomorphic tree known as the Guardbark; this book was published by the National Oak Flooring Manufacturers' Association. Just as in The Lorax, the book consists of a disagreement between two people; the logging industry representative states that they have re-seeding efforts. The Guardbark, a personification of the environmentalist movement much as the Once-ler is for big business, refuses to listen and lashes out, but in the end, he is convinced by the logger's arguments. However, this story was criticized for what were viewed as skewed arguments and clear self-interest a "casual attitude toward endangered species" that answered the Guardbark's concern for them. In addition, the book's approach as a more blatant argument, rather than one worked into a storyline, was noted.

The line "I hear things are just as bad up in Lake Erie" was removed more than fourteen years after the story was published, after two research associates from the Ohio Sea Grant Program wrote to Seuss about the clean-up of Lake Erie. The line remains in the home video releases of the television special, in the audiobook read by Rik Mayall, in the UK ed

Country Dreamer

"Country Dreamer" is the B-side song to the single "Helen Wheels" released by Paul McCartney and Wings on 26 October 1973 in the UK and 12 November 1973 in the US. It was recorded in October 1972, its country ambiance is similar to "Heart of the Country" from Paul McCartney's 1971 album Ram; the song was intended to be on Red Rose Speedway when it was to be a double album and on the 1993 CD release of Band on the Run included in The Paul McCartney Collection. It was included on the 1987 CD reissue of Red Rose Speedway as well as the 2018 remastered version; as well as being included on those releases, it was put on the 2010 remastered version of Band on the Run, along with A-side "Helen Wheels". Paul McCartney - vocals, acoustic guitar, percussion Denny Laine - bass, backing vocals Henry McCullough - slide guitar Denny Seiwell - brushes, drums Linda McCartney - backing vocals