In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel. It is labialization of a vowel, when a rounded vowel is pronounced, the lips form a circular opening, and unrounded vowels are pronounced with the lips relaxed. In most languages, front vowels tend to be unrounded, in the International Phonetic Alphabet vowel chart, rounded vowels are the ones that appear on the right in each pair of vowels. There are diacritics, U+0339 ̹ COMBINING RIGHT HALF RING BELOW and U+031C ̜ COMBINING LEFT HALF RING BELOW, to greater and lesser degrees of rounding. The more and less rounded diacritics are used with consonants to indicate degrees of labialization. There are two types of rounding and compression. In protruded rounding, the corners of the mouth are drawn together, in compressed rounding, the corners of the mouth are drawn together, but the lips are drawn together horizontally and do not protrude, with only their outer surface visible. That is, in protruded vowels the inner surfaces of the form the opening.
Catford observes that back and central rounded vowels, such as German /o/ and /u/, are typically protruded, whereas front rounded vowels such as German /ø/ and /y/ are typically compressed. Back or central compressed vowels and front protruded vowels are uncommon, there are no dedicated IPA diacritics to represent the distinction, but the superscript IPA letter ⟨◌ᵝ⟩ can be used for compression and ⟨◌ʷ⟩, ⟨◌ᶣ⟩ or ⟨◌̫⟩ for protrusion. Compressed vowels may be pronounced either with the corners of the mouth drawn in, by some definitions rounded, or with the spread and, by the same definitions. The distinction may be transcribed ⟨ɨᵝ ɯᵝ⟩ and ⟨ʉᵝ uᵝ⟩, the distinction between protruded and compressed holds for the semivowels and as well as labialization. In Akan, for example, the is compressed, as are labio-palatalized consonants as in Twi Twi and adwuma work, whereas, in Japanese, the /w/ is compressed rather than protruded, paralleling the Japanese /u/. The distinction applies marginally to other consonants, some vowels transcribed with rounded IPA letters may not be rounded at all.
An example is /ɒ/, which in English has very little if any rounding of the lips, the throaty sound of English /ɒ/ is instead accomplished with sulcalization, a furrowing of the back of the tongue found in non-rhotic /ɜː/. It is possible to mimic the effect of rounded vowels by narrowing the cheeks, so-called cheek rounding. The technique is used by ventriloquists to mask the visible rounding of back vowels like and it is not clear if it is used by languages with rounded vowels that do not use visible rounding. Protruded rounding is the equivalent of consonantal labialization
Linguolabials or apicolabials are consonants articulated by placing the tongue tip or blade against the upper lip, which is drawn downward to meet the tongue. They represent one extreme of a coronal articulatory continuum which extends from linguolabial to subapical palatal places of articulation, cross-linguistically, linguolabial consonants are very rare, but they do not represent a particularly exotic combination of articulatory configurations, unlike click consonants or ejectives. They are found in a cluster of languages in Vanuatu, in the Kajoko dialect of Bijago in Guinea-Bissau, and in Umotína and they are relatively common in disordered speech, and the diacritic is specifically provided for in the extensions to the IPA. Place of articulation List of phonetics topics Ladefoged, Maddieson, the Sounds of the Worlds Languages. In VICAL1, Oceanic Languages, Part II, Papers from the Fifth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, New Zealand, January 1988, ed. by R. Harlow & R.
Hooper, Linguistic Society of New Zealand. Olson, Kenneth S. D. William Reiman, Fernando Sabio & Filipe Alberto da Silva, the voiced linguolabial plosive in Kajoko
Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals. Lips are soft and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound, human lips are a tactile sensory organ, and can be an erogenous zone when used in kissing and other acts of intimacy. The upper and lower lips are referred to as the Labium superius oris and Labium inferius oris, the juncture where the lips meet the surrounding skin of the mouth area is the vermilion border, and the typically reddish area within the borders is called the vermilion zone. The vermilion border of the lip is known as the cupids bow. The fleshy protuberance located in the center of the lip is a tubercle known by various terms including the procheilon, the tuberculum labii superioris. The vertical groove extending from the procheilon to the septum is called the philtrum. The skin of the lip, with three to five layers, is very thin compared to typical face skin, which has up to 16 layers. With light skin color, the lip skin contains fewer melanocytes, because of this, the blood vessels appear through the skin of the lips, which leads to their notable red coloring.
With darker skin color this effect is less prominent, as in case the skin of the lips contains more melanin. The skin of the lip forms the border between the skin of the face, and the interior mucous membrane of the inside of the mouth. The lip skin is not hairy and does not have sweat glands, therefore, it does not have the usual protection layer of sweat and body oils which keep the skin smooth, inhibit pathogens, and regulate warmth. For these reasons, the lips dry out faster and become chapped more easily, the lower lip is formed from the mandibular prominence, a branch of the first pharyngeal arch. The lower lip covers the body of the mandible. It is lowered by the depressor labii inferioris muscle and the orbicularis oris borders it inferiorly, the upper lip covers the anterior surface of the body of the maxilla. It is raised by the levator labii superioris and is connected to the lip by the thin lining of the lip itself. The skin of the lips is stratified squamous epithelium, the mucous membrane is represented by a large area in the sensory cortex, and is therefore highly sensitive.
The Frenulum Labii Inferioris is the frenulum of the lower lip, the Frenulum Labii Superioris is the frenulum of the upper lip. Trigeminal nerve The infraorbital nerve is a branch of the maxillary branch and it supplies not only the upper lip, but much of the skin of the face between the upper lip and the lower eyelid, except for the bridge of the nose
A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws of many vertebrates and used to break down food. Some animals, particularly carnivores, use teeth for hunting or for defensive purposes, the roots of teeth are covered by gums. Teeth are not made of bone, but rather of tissues of varying density. The cellular tissues that ultimately become teeth originate from the germ layer. The general structure of teeth is similar across the vertebrates, although there is variation in their form. The teeth of mammals have deep roots, and this pattern is found in some fish. In most teleost fish, the teeth are attached to the surface of the bone. In cartilaginous fish, such as sharks, the teeth are attached by tough ligaments to the hoops of cartilage that form the jaw, some animals develop only one set of teeth while others develop many sets. Sharks, for example, grow a new set of every two weeks to replace worn teeth. Rodent incisors grow and wear away continually through gnawing, which helps maintain relatively constant length, the industry of the beaver is due in part to this qualification.
Many rodents such as voles and guinea pigs, but not mice, Teeth are not always attached to the jaw, as they are in mammals. In many reptiles and fish, teeth are attached to the palate or to the floor of the mouth, some teleosts even have teeth in the pharynx. While not true teeth in the sense, the dermal denticles of sharks are almost identical in structure and are likely to have the same evolutionary origin. Though modern teeth-like structures with dentine and enamel have been found in late conodonts, living amphibians typically have small teeth, or none at all, since they commonly feed only on soft foods. In reptiles, teeth are simple and conical in shape. The pattern of incisors, canines and molars is found only in mammals, the numbers of these types of teeth vary greatly between species, zoologists use a standardised dental formula to describe the precise pattern in any given group. The genes governing tooth development in mammals are homologous to these involved in the development of fish scales, Teeth are among the most distinctive features of mammal species.
Paleontologists use teeth to identify species and determine their relationships
In linguistics, tongue shape describes the shape that the tongue assumes when making a sound. Tongue shape is important for the sibilant sounds. Because these sounds have such a high prominence, small changes in tongue shape are easily audible. Usually, only one of these articulations can co-occur with a given sound. In addition, the quality of velarization and pharyngealization is very similar, as a result. The following varieties of tongue shapes are defined for sibilants, from sharpest and highest-pitched to dullest and lowest-pitched and this groove channels a high-velocity jet of air into the teeth, which results in a high-pitched, piercing hissing sound. Because of the prominence of these sounds, they are the most common and they occur in English, where they are denoted with a letter s or z, as in soon or zone. Grooved palatalized, Combination of grooved shape with palatalization, alveolo-palatal, i. e. flat palatalized, with a convex, V-shaped tongue, and highly palatalized. Palato-alveolar, i. e.
domed, with a domed tongue and these sounds occur in English, where they are denoted with letter combinations such as sh, ch, g, j or si, as in shin, chin and vision. Retroflex, with a flat or concave tongue, and no palatalization and these sounds occur in a large number of varieties, some of which go by other names. The subapical palatal or true retroflex sounds are the very dullest and lowest-pitched of all the sibilants, the latter three types of sounds are often known as hushing sounds because of their quality, as opposed to the hissing grooved sounds. Note that palatalization is an inherent part of the definition of the above varieties, and cannot normally be varied independently
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of language, phonemes, intonation. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a letter, or with a letter plus diacritics. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription, thus, /t/ is less specific than, occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed, or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters,52 diacritics and these are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA.
In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, for example, the sound was originally represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, the idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the International Phonetic Association Kiel Convention in 1989, a minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives. The alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap, apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted largely in renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces.
Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990, the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do hard, the IPA does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as selectiveness. These are organized into a chart, the chart displayed here is the chart as posted at the website of the IPA. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet, for this reason, most letters are either Latin or Greek, or modifications thereof. Some letters are neither, for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a question mark