Earth Liberation Front
The Earth Liberation Front known as "Elves" or "The Elves", is the collective name for autonomous individuals or covert cells who, according to the ELF Press Office, use "economic sabotage and guerrilla warfare to stop the exploitation and destruction of the environment". The ELF was founded in Brighton in the United Kingdom in 1992 and spread to the rest of Europe by 1994, it is now an international organization with actions reported in 17 countries and is regarded as descending from Animal Liberation Front because of the relationship and cooperation between the two movements. Using the same leaderless resistance model, as well as similar guidelines to the ALF, sympathizers say that it is an eco-defense group dedicated to taking the profit motive out of environmental destruction by causing economic damage to businesses through the use of property damage; the ELF was classified as the top "domestic terror" threat in the United States by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in March 2001, its members classified as eco-terrorists.
On the lack of deaths from ELF attacks, the FBI's deputy assistant director for counterterrorism has said, "I think we're lucky. Once you set one of these fires they can go way out of control." The name came to public prominence when they were featured on the television show 60 Minutes in 2005. The group was further highlighted in the 2011 Academy Award nominated documentary If a Tree Falls: A Story of the Earth Liberation Front. ELF "monkeywrenching" is carried out against facilities and companies involved in logging, genetic engineering, GMO crops, sport utility vehicle sales, urban sprawl, rural cluster and developments with larger homes, energy production and distribution, a wide variety of other activities, all charged by the ELF with exploiting the Earth, its environment and inhabitants; the Earth Liberation Front has no formal leadership, membership or official spokesperson and is decentralized. Individuals are known to work in affinity groups, known as cells, are self-funded. Techniques involve destruction of property, by either using tools to disable or the use of arson to destroy what activists believe is being used to injure animals, people or the environment.
These actions are sometimes called ecotage and there are marked differences between their actions in the United States and the United Kingdom. With many different reasons why ELF activists carry out economic sabotage, a communique to the press claiming the responsibility for an arson against urban sprawl in December 2000, described the reason a cell took an action; as Elves do, they claimed that burning down the house was non-violent, because it was searched for any living creatures. Some of the most common and notable attacks are against the development of multimillion-dollar houses, a frequent target in the ELF campaign. In a communique to the press from the group's "above-ground spokesperson", Craig Rosebraugh, published in The Environmental Magazine, the group said in November 2000: Urban sprawl has undoubtedly served to alter nearly 90 percent of Long Island's habitats, either by physically removing them, paving them, or polluting them with toxic man-made materials, making them either undesirable or unsustainable for most species.
The North American Earth Liberation Front Press Office was relaunched in October 2008, receiving anonymous communiques from activists, for distributing to the press and public, to discuss the motives and history behind such actions. Craig Rosebraugh served as an unofficial spokesperson for the ELF Press Office in North America from 1997 to early September 2001. Doubts have been raised about whether Rosebraugh or other unofficial spokespeople have ties to the cells involved, although the press office claim they do not know the identities of ELF members. Prisoner support networks support ELF prisoners, such as Spirit of Freedom, an English website listing all Earth Liberation prisoners, as well as a variety of other prisoners of conscience. There are ELF support networks in Belgium, North America, Poland, which collectively coordinate the support of prisoners, as well as websites for specific prisoners, such as for; the networks distribute literature written by those in prison, to their supporters and other support groups, sometimes raise funds for those who require financial aid in their cases.
Earth liberationists, are a diverse group of individuals with a variety of different ideologies and theories. These include. Elves argue that direct action is required in order to aid the earth liberation movement referred to as eco-resistance movement, a part of the radical environmental movement; the ELF claim that it would be similar to how the ALF has projected forward the animal liberation movement. There was the intention that in the same way animal liberationists "help out" with legal campaigns, earth liberationists would aid above-ground environmental organisations, notably Earth First!, by acts of ecotage. The Earth Liberation Front was founded in 1992 in Brighton, England by members of the Earth First! environmental movement at the first national meeting. At the time, EF! had become popular, so people's concerns were based on maintaining this popularity and by doing so not associating with overt law breaking. There was no universal agreement over this, but it was accepted amongst the movement that British EF! would instead
Genetically modified crops
Genetically modified crops are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of, modified using genetic engineering methods. In most cases, the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur in the species. Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests, environmental conditions, reduction of spoilage, resistance to chemical treatments, or improving the nutrient profile of the crop. Examples in non-food crops include production of pharmaceutical agents and other industrially useful goods, as well as for bioremediation. Farmers have adopted GM technology. Acreage increased from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 185.1 million hectares in 2016, some 12% of global cropland. As of 2016, major crop traits consist of both. In 2015, 53.6 million ha of GM maize were under cultivation. GM maize outperformed its predecessors: yield was 5.6 to 24.5% higher with less mycotoxins and thricotecens. Non-target organisms were unaffected, except for Braconidae, represented by a parasitoid of European corn borer, the target of Lepidoptera active Bt maize.
Biogeochemical parameters such as lignin content did not vary, while biomass decomposition was higher. A 2014 meta-analysis concluded that GM technology adoption had reduced chemical pesticide use by 37%, increased crop yields by 22%, increased farmer profits by 68%; this reduction in pesticide use has been ecologically beneficial, but benefits may be reduced by overuse. Yield gains and pesticide reductions are larger for insect-resistant crops than for herbicide-tolerant crops. Yield and profit gains are higher in developing countries than in developed countries. There is a scientific consensus that available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction. Nonetheless, members of the public are much less than scientists to perceive GM foods as safe; the legal and regulatory status of GM foods varies by country, with some nations banning or restricting them, others permitting them with differing degrees of regulation.
However, opponents have objected to GM crops on grounds including environmental impacts, food safety, whether GM crops are needed to address food needs, whether they are sufficiently accessible to farmers in developing countries and concerns over subjecting crops to intellectual property law. Safety concerns led 38 countries, including 19 in Europe, to prohibit their cultivation. Multiple natural mechanisms allow gene flow from one species to another; these occur in nature on a large scale – for example, it is one mechanism for the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This is facilitated by transposons, retroviruses and other mobile genetic elements that translocate DNA to new loci in a genome. Movement occurs over an evolutionary time scale. Traditional crop breeders have long introduced foreign germplasm into crops by creating novel crosses. A hybrid cereal grain was created by crossing wheat and rye. Since traits including dwarfing genes and rust resistance have been introduced in that manner.
Plant tissue culture and deliberate mutations have enabled humans to alter the makeup of plant genomes. The term genetic engineering is applied to genetic modifications made using biotechnology; the first plant produced in that way came in an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. The first field trials occurred in France and the USA in 1986, using tobacco plants engineered for herbicide resistance. In 1987, Plant Genetic Systems, founded by Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell, was the first company to genetically engineer insect-resistant plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis; the People's Republic of China was the first country to allow commercialized transgenic plants, introducing a virus-resistant tobacco in 1992, withdrawn in 1997. The first genetically modified crop approved for sale in the U. S. in 1994, was the FlavrSavr tomato. It had a longer shelf life. In 1994, the European Union approved tobacco engineered to tolerate the herbicide bromoxynil, making it the first commercially genetically engineered crop marketed in Europe.
In 1995, Bt Potato was approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency, making it the country's first-pesticide producing crop. In 1995 canola with modified oil composition, Bt maize, bromoxynil-tolerant cotton, Bt cotton, glyphosate-tolerant soybeans, virus-tolerant squash, additional delayed ripening tomatoes were approved; as of mid-1996, 35 approvals had been granted to commercially grow 8 transgenic crops and one flower crop, with 8 different traits in 6 countries plus the EU. In 2000, Vitamin A-enriched golden rice was developed, though as of 2016 it was not yet in commercial production. In 2013 the leaders of the three research teams that first applied genetic engineering to crops, Robert Fraley, Marc Van Montagu and Mary-Dell Chilton, were awarded the World Food Prize for improving the "quality, quantity or availability" of food in the world. In the US, by 2014, 94% of the planted area of soybeans, 96% of cotton and 93% of corn were genetically modified varieties. In developing countries, about 18 million farmers planted 54% of GM crops worldwide by 2013.
Genetically engineered crops
Michigan State University College of Law
The Michigan State University College of Law is a private law school located in East Lansing and affiliated with Michigan State University. Established in 1891 as the Detroit College of Law, it was the first law school in the Detroit, Michigan area and the second in the state of Michigan; the current dean of the school is Lawrence Ponoroff. In October 2018, the College of Law gained approval to become integrated into Michigan State University, which will convert the school from a private to a public law school and is expected to take a year and a half to finalize; the college is nationally ranked within the Best Law Schools in U. S. News and World Report, landing in the 88th spot in the 2019 rankings; the Michigan State Law Review is ranked 48 out of 317 by Washington & Lee University School of Law, the leading source for law journal rankings. Notable alumni include Michigan Supreme Court Justice Elizabeth T. Clement, former Michigan Supreme Court Justice and mayor of Detroit Dennis Archer, former Michigan Supreme Court Justice and United States federal judge George Clifton Edwards Jr. politician and current Governor of Michigan Gretchen Whitmer, former Michigan gubernatorial candidate Geoffrey Fieger, former Michigan Senate majority leader and current U.
S. Representative Mike Bishop, current mayor of East Lansing Mark Meadows. Detroit College of Law opened in 1891 with 69 students and was incorporated in 1893. Among the first class of 69 students to graduate were a future circuit judge and an ambassador, it was the oldest continuously operating independent law school in the United States until it was assimilated by MSU in 1997. In 1937, the college broke ground and relocated itself in a new building at 130 East Elizabeth Street in Detroit, where it stayed until 1997; the Building was designed by architect George DeWitt Mason. It had been located at the former Detroit College of Medicine building on St. Antoine Street from 1892 to 1913; the last location of the Detroit College of Law in Downtown Detroit is commemorated by a plaque at Comerica Park, the home stadium of the Detroit Tigers baseball team, which now occupies the site. The college became affiliated with Michigan State University in 1995 to enhance that school's curriculum and reputation.
It relocated to East Lansing in 1997, when its 99-year lease with the Detroit YMCA expired, the original building was demolished to make way for Comerica Park. The newly located college was called "Detroit College of Law at Michigan State University"; the affiliation was celebrated at a function where former President Gerald Ford joined more than 2,500 guests at the Wharton Center for Performing Arts Great Hall. Ford characterized the affiliation between Michigan State University and the Detroit College of Law "a bold new venture" that presents "a singular opportunity to help shape the changing face of American legal education well into the next century." In April 2004, the school changed its name to the MSU College of Law, becoming more aligned academically with MSU. Although it operates as a constituent college of the university, the college of law remains financially independent and receives no state or university funding. Joan Howarth began her deanship at Michigan State University College of Law on July 1, 2008 and was the first female dean in MSU Law’s 117-year history.
Beforehand, she was a professor at the William S. Boyd School of Law at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, since 2001, she retired at the end of the 2015-16 school year. Lawrence Ponoroff became the Dean in the fall of 2016. On October 26, 2018, MSU's governing board, the Board of Trustees, voted to integrate the College of Law into the university, thereby converting it from a private to a public law school. Interim MSU President John Engler said this move could allow the law school to excel in new areas including autonomous vehicles, the food industry, health law, he said the law college should leverage its close geographic connection with the Michigan State Capitol to further impact the state's legislative and judiciary branches of government. Dean Lawrence Ponoroff said, "Since the original affiliation in 1995, the relationship between the university and the law college has grown closer and, at each stage, resounded in benefits to both institutions." The integration is expected to take a half to finalize.
The school currently houses the Center for Legal Services Innovation, introduced in 2015. The program allows the students to take innovative and technology oriented classes, such as Legal Analytics, Entrepreneurial Lawyering, E-Discovery; the goal is that once the students go through the program, they will be better-equipped to find innovative ways to deliver legal services to clients and those in need. This program is a differentiating aspect when comparing Michigan State University College of Law to other law schools. In the short time that it has existed, it has partnered up with Michigan-based intellectual property law firm Brooks Kushman in order to find an innovative way to provide legal services to startups and entrepreneurs. LegalRnD helped to launch a ZeekBeek directory for law students with the objective being more exposure for the law students before graduation; the program has garnered the attention of legal blogger Kevin O'Keefe. Law journals at the law school are nationally ranked and include: Michigan State Law Review, the school's flagship journal ranked 64th among the nearly 1,700 journals worldwide ranked by Washington and Lee.
Michigan State International Law Review, Journal of B
Morrill Land-Grant Acts
The Morrill Land-Grant Acts are United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land-grant colleges in U. S. states using the proceeds of federal land sales. The Morrill Act of 1862 was enacted during the American Civil War and the Morrill Act of 1890 expanded this model. For 20 years prior to the first introduction of the bill in 1857, there was a political movement calling for the creation of agriculture colleges; the movement was led by Professor Jonathan Baldwin Turner of Illinois College. For example, the Michigan Constitution of 1850 called for the creation of an "agricultural school", though it was not until February 12, 1855, that Michigan Governor Kinsley S. Bingham signed a bill establishing the United States' first agriculture college, the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, known today as Michigan State University, which served as a model for the Morrill Act. On February 8, 1853, the Illinois Legislature adopted a resolution, drafted by Turner, calling for the Illinois congressional delegation to work to enact a land-grant bill to fund a system of industrial colleges, one in each state.
Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois believed it was advisable that the bill should be introduced by an eastern congressman, two months Representative Justin Smith Morrill of Vermont introduced his bill. Unlike the Turner Plan, which provided an equal grant to each state, the Morrill bill allocated land based on the number of senators and representatives each state had in Congress; this was more advantageous to the more populous eastern states. The Morrill Act was first proposed in 1857, was passed by Congress in 1859, but it was vetoed by President James Buchanan. In 1861, Morrill resubmitted the act with the amendment that the proposed institutions would teach military tactics as well as engineering and agriculture. Aided by the secession of many states that did not support the plans, this reconfigured Morrill Act was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on July 2, 1862; the previous day Lincoln signed a bill financing the transcontinental railroad with land grants. Less than two months earlier he signed the Homestead Act encouraging western settlement.
Together these actions, taken at a time when the Union Army was poorly performing, did much to define post–Civil War America. The purpose of the land-grant colleges was: without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactic, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life. Under the act, each eligible state received a total of 30,000 acres of federal land, either within or contiguous to its boundaries, for each member of congress the state had as of the census of 1860; this land, or the proceeds from its sale, was to be used toward establishing and funding the educational institutions described above. Under provision six of the Act, "No State while in a condition of rebellion or insurrection against the government of the United States shall be entitled to the benefit of this act," in reference to the recent secession of several Southern states and the contemporaneously raging American Civil War.
After the war, the 1862 Act was extended to the former Confederate states. If the federal land within a state was insufficient to meet that state's land grant, the state was issued scrip which authorized the state to select federal lands in other states to fund its institution. For example, New York selected valuable timber land in Wisconsin to fund Cornell University.p. 9 The resulting management of this scrip by the university yielded one third of the total grant revenues generated by all the states though New York received only one-tenth of the 1862 land grant.p. 10 Overall, the 1862 Morrill Act allocated 17,400,000 acres of land, which when sold yielded a collective endowment of $7.55 million.p. 8On September 12, 1862, the state of Iowa was the first to accept the terms of the Morrill Act which provided the funding boost needed for the fledgling State Agricultural College and Model Farm. The first land-grant institution created under the Act was Kansas State University, established on February 16, 1863, opened on September 2, 1863.
Before the Civil War, American engineers were educated at West Point. While the Congressional debate associated with the Morrill Act was focused on benefits to agriculture, the mechanic arts were included. After the Civil War, as the German University model began to replace the English College, with the encouragement of the Morrill Act, the engineering discipline was defined; because the Morrill Act excluded spending on buildings, engineering specific infrastructure such as textbooks and laboratories were developed. In 1866, there were around 300 American men with engineering degrees and six reputable colleges granting them. By 1911 the United States was graduating 3000 engineers a year, had a total of 38,000 degreed engineers; the Morrill Act coincided with the establishment of engineering in the American university. With a few exceptions, nearly all of the land-grant colleges are public. To mainta
Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine
The Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine is the osteopathic medical school of Michigan State University located in East Lansing, Michigan. The college grants the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree, as well as a DO-PhD combined degree for students interested in training as physician-scientists. MSUCOM operates two satellite campuses in Macomb and Detroit; the college is accredited by the American Osteopathic Association's Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation and by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine was founded at a time when new osteopathic medical schools were not being chartered. Many osteopathic doctors throughout Michigan began working on the creation of a new medical school. In 1964, the Michigan Association of Osteopathic Physicians and Surgeons received a state charter and started to raise money for a new private osteopathic medical college.
In 1969, the first class was admitted to the Michigan College of Osteopathic Medicine in Pontiac, becoming the first osteopathic medical school to open since 1916. That same year, the Michigan legislature passed P. A. 162, which stated that “A school of osteopathic medicine is established and shall be located as determined by the state board of education at an existing campus of a state university with an existing school or college of medicine." On September 19, 1969, Michigan State University accepted the legislative mandate and agreed to create a new osteopathic medical school on their campus, making it the first osteopathic medical school based at a public university. In 1971, MCOM was moved to East Lansing and was given its current name of MSUCOM. Myron S. Magan, D. O. was the first dean and served for more than two decades. In the mid-2000s, MSUCOM expanded from its main campus in East Lansing to two satellite campuses in Detroit and Macomb; the expansion was approved by the MSU Board of Trustees in May 2007 and by the Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation in September 2008.
In July 2009, instruction began at these two expansion sites. In 2011, MSUCOM started a program for training Canadian students to become osteopathic physicians, accepting 25 Canadian students each year. In 2010, the partnership between MSU and Sparrow Hospital was strengthened; this agreement was meant to foster research and clinical services, it culminated in the creation of the Center for Innovation and Research in 2012. In December 2017, MSU and McLaren announced they were strengthening their partnership and that a new $450 million hospital would be built near MSU’s East Lansing campus; the college offers the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degree, as well as dual degrees. Applicant selection is made from a competitive applicant pool and depends on many aspects of the applicant such as GPA, MCAT, community service and life experiences. Among admitted students, the average GPA is 3.6 and the average MCAT score is 29-30. MSUCOM's curriculum consists of pre-clerkship years; the first portion consists of introductory basic science, including: anatomy, genetics, etc.
During this time, students learn physical examination, doctor-patient interactions, the principles of osteopathic palpatory diagnosis and manipulative therapy. After learning the biological foundations, the curriculum shifts to a body system focus where the integumentary, neuro-musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, urinary, gastrointestinal and reproductive systems are detailed. Throughout the entire sequence, courses in Patient Care and Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine are incorporated. After the first two years, the students are assigned a base hospital and begin their clerkship years where they rotate through family medicine, internal medicine, OBGYN, general surgery, etc. MSUCOM’s DO-PhD Physician Scientist Training Program, the first of its kind in the nation, was founded by Dr. Veronica Maher and Dr. Justin McCormick in 1979; the eight-year program is not organized in the traditional 2-4-2 MD-PhD arrangement, but starts with the first year of graduate coursework. This arrangement allows for more integration between the graduate research and medical school education.
Most DO-PhD students complete PhDs through the BioMolecular Science program which includes: biochemistry and molecular biology, microbiology, pharmacology & toxicology, physiology. However, there are graduate students in neuroscience, epidemiology and sociology; the alumni of the program have entered many prestigious residency programs and most graduates find careers in medical colleges, universities, or major medical research centers. The College of Osteopathic Medicine conducts pre-clinical training at three sites: East Lansing and Macomb. MSUCOM’s primary campus is in East Lansing on the main Michigan State University campus; the Detroit satellite campus is situated on the campus of the Detroit Medical Center. The Macomb satellite campus, the most recent to be added, is located at Macomb University Center within Macomb Community College. Clinical training for the third- and fourth-year students occurs at hospitals throughout Michigan affiliated with the Statewide Campus System Currently, there are nearly 30 hospital locations affiliated with MSUCOM.
In 2017, MSUCOM’s Statewide Campus System was named as one of the five regional assessment training centers by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. MSUCOM was the only DO medical school included. Beaumont Hospitals- Beaumont Hospital, Farmington Hills and Beaumont Hospital, Southshore Campus Detroit Medical Center- Sinai-Grace Hospital and
Spartan Stadium (East Lansing, Michigan)
Spartan Stadium opened in 1923 in East Lansing, United States. It is used for football, is the home field of the Michigan State University Spartans. After the addition of luxury boxes and club seating in 2004–2005, the capacity of the stadium grew from 72,027 to 75,005—though it has held more than 80,000 fans—making it the Big Ten's sixth largest stadium. In the early 1920s, school officials decided to construct a new stadium to replace Old College Field; the resulting stadium—the lower half of the current stadium—was ready in the fall of 1923 with a capacity of 14,000. Over the years, the stadium grew. In 1935, the seating capacity increased to 26,000 and the facility was dedicated as Macklin Field, it was named in honor of former coach John Macklin, who put Michigan State football on the map with a 29–5 record from 1911 to 1915 with victories over big name programs such as Michigan, Notre Dame, Ohio State, Penn State, Wisconsin. After admittance into the Big Ten in 1948, Michigan State increased stadium capacity to 51,000 and the field was renamed Macklin Stadium.
With Spartan football attracting national attention under Clarence "Biggie" Munn and Hugh "Duffy" Daugherty, 9,000 seats were added in 1956. The following season, the east and west sides were double-decked, boosting the capacity to 76,000; that same season, the stadium received Spartan Stadium. The school plans to install permanent lights in 2017. In 1969, TartanTurf replaced the natural grass field and a modern scoreboard was added in 1973. In 1978, AstroTurf replaced the TartanTurf. A new modern video scoreboard was added before the 1991 season. Renovations improving sight lines, field security, handicap access, club seats in 1994 reduced Spartan Stadium's capacity to 72,027. New turf was installed in the summer of 1994. In 1998, Spartan Stadium's sound system was upgraded, adding a 21' x 27' Mitsubishi Diamond Vision video board to the south end and a message board to the north end. Home to one of the top turfgrass research programs in the nation, Michigan State installed a natural grass field in 2002.
The most recent expansion was completed in August 2005. A new press box, 24 luxury suites, 862 club seats were constructed on the west side of Spartan Stadium; this addition made Spartan Stadium the tallest building in East Lansing. Through the 2012 season until their game against Notre Dame, the Spartans had won 15 straight games in Spartan Stadium—the program's longest home streak since winning 19 straight from 1950-53. Michigan State went undefeated at home in back-to-back seasons including marquee wins over Wisconsin and Notre Dame, marking the first consecutive perfect home seasons since 1955-56. For nine years, the stadium held the world record for the largest ice hockey crowd in history. On October 6, 2001, a rink was constructed at the center of the stadium for Michigan State's season-opening game against archrival Michigan. Dubbed "The Cold War", 74,554 watched No. 1 nationally ranked Michigan State and No. 4 nationally ranked Michigan to a 3–3 tie. Country artist Shannon Brown sang during the second intermission.
The game set off a wave of outdoor ice hockey games in large stadiums. On September 3, 2005, Spartan Stadium unveiled an 8-story, 268,947-square-foot expansion, under construction since 2003. At a total cost of $64 million the project created: 24 luxury suites 800 club seats The "Grand Entrance" featuring high ceilings, glass walls, marble floors and a new home for the original Spartan statue. 18,000-square-foot luxury concourse Office space for the MSU alumni association and Spartan Athletic Office. Modern recruiting lounge Upgraded stadium wide bathroom and concourse renovations An increase of 3,000 seats, bringing the total stadium capacity to 75,005; the Stadium renovation was done under a joint venture of Clark Construction and Barton Malow Construction Company. Video: Inside the new expansion On January 27, 2012, the Michigan State Board of Trustees voted for a Video Board Renovation and Audio Package upgrade; the cost of the renovation was $10 million. Features include: One of a kind LED wall measuring 10'x450' spanning the North End zone Wall.
Two Auxiliary Video Boards in the North End zone to provide 1,654 SF of video area per board. One South End zone Video Board, the largest in the Big Ten Conference with 5,412 SF, surpassing current leader Minnesota. Video board was built and installed by Panasonic Video and content control system installed by Click Effects Video replay room built by Comprehensive Technical Group AtlantaNew Spartan Stadium Scoreboard The new scoreboards were unveiled on August 31, 2012, when the Spartans defeated #24 Boise State 17-13; the game was the 12th night game in the history of Spartan Stadium. Game days at Spartan Stadium provide opportunity for tailgating. Popular locations include the tennis courts, "the rock", around the MSU library area on north campus. Open alcohol is permitted on campus with the exception of Munn field. "The Spartan Walk" – On the morning of each home game, the team completes a 10-minute walk from their hotel at the Kellogg Center, crossing the Red Cedar River, passing the Spartan Statue and into the stadium.
The sidewalks are lined with fans applauding and cheering "Go Green, Go White." "Zeke the Wonder Dog" – East Lansing's favorite frisbee-catching dog, debuting in 1977 and reemerging as a tradition in 2001. Tryouts for a replacement are held. "It's a beautiful day for football!" – Just before kickoff, the PA announcer gives the weather forecast and, with the help of the fans, declares that "it's a beautiful day for football!" Thi
Liberty Hyde Bailey
Liberty Hyde Bailey was an American horticulturist and botanist, cofounder of the American Society for Horticultural Science. Bailey is credited with being instrumental in starting agricultural extension services, the 4-H movement, the nature study movement, parcel post and rural electrification, he was considered the father of rural journalism. Born in South Haven, Michigan, as the third son of farmers Liberty Hyde Bailey Sr. and Sarah Harrison Bailey. In 1876 Bailey met Lucy Millington who mentored him. Bailey entered the Michigan Agricultural College in 1878 and graduated in 1882; the next year, he became assistant of Harvard University. This was arranged by a professor at William James Beal. Bailey spent two years with Gray as his herbarium assistant; the same year, he married Annette Smith, the daughter of a Michigan cattle breeder, whom he met at the Michigan Agricultural College. They had two daughters, Sara May, born in 1887, Ethel Zoe, born in 1889. In 1884 Bailey returned to MAC to become professor and chair of the Horticulture and Landscape Gardening Department, establishing the first horticulture department in the country.
In 1888, he moved to Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, where he assumed the chair of Practical and Experimental Horticulture. He was elected an Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1900, he founded the College of Agriculture, in 1904 he was able to secure public funding. He was dean of what was known as New York State College of Agriculture from 1903-1913. In 1908, he was appointed Chairman of The National Commission on Country Life by president Theodore Roosevelt, its 1909 Report called for rebuilding a great agricultural civilization in America. In 1913, he retired to devote more time to social and political issues. In 1917 he was elected a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences, he edited The Cyclopedia of American Agriculture, the Cyclopedia of American Horticulture and the Rural Science, Rural Textbook and Young Folks Library series of manuals. He was the founding editor of the journals Country Life in the Cornell Countryman, he dominated the field of horticultural literature, writing some sixty-five books, which together sold more than a million copies, including scientific works, efforts to explain botany to laypeople, a collection of poetry.
He coined the words "cultivar", "cultigen", "indigen". His most significant and lasting contributions were in the botanical study of cultivated plants. Bailey's publisher was George Platt Sr. of Macmillan Publishers. Bailey was one of the first to recognize the overall importance of Gregor Mendel's work, he cited Mendel's 1865 and 1869 papers in the bibliography that accompanied his 1892 paper, "Cross Breeding and Hybridizing." Mendel is mentioned again in the 1895 edition of Bailey's "Plant Breeding." Bailey represented an agrarianism. He had a vision of suffusing all higher education, including horticulture, with a spirit of public work and integrating "expert knowledge" into a broader context of democratic community action; as a leader of the Country Life Movement, he strove to preserve the American rural civilization, which he thought was a vital and wholesome alternative to the impersonal and corrupting city life. In contrast to other progressive thinkers at the time, he endorsed the family, which, he recognized, played a unique role in socialization.
The family farm had a benign influence as a natural cooperative unit where everybody had real duties and responsibilities. The independence it fostered made farmers "a natural correction against organization men, habitual reformers, extremists", it was necessary to uphold fertility. According to Bailey, the American rural population, was backward and saddled with inadequate institutions; the key to his reform program was guidance by an educated elite toward a new social order. The Extension System was pioneered by Bailey; the grander design of a new rural social structure needed a philosophical vision that could inspire and motivate. For this purpose, he wrote Mother Earth, a "powerful testament to Nature as God and to the farmer as acolyte and collaborator in the process of ongoing creation", it conformed to the Freemason creed that Bailey had been brought up with, it was not explicit in demanding that traditional Christian dogma be discarded. Bailey's real legacy was, according to Allan C. Carlson, the themes and direction that he gave the new agrarian movement, ideas different from previous agrarian thought.
He saw technological innovation as friendly to the family farm and resulting in decentralization. He was scornful of the actual forms of peasant life and wanted to transform it by cutting the farmers loose from "the slavery of old restraints". Parochial and communal social groups should be broken down and replaced by "inter–neighborhood" and "inter–community" groups, while new leaders would be called in "who will promote inclusive rather than exclusive sociability." Bailey and his followers held a quasi–religious faith in education by enlightened experts, which meant suppression of inherited ways and substitution by progressive ways. It was accompanied by a corresponding hostility to traditional religion. Bailey's simultaneous embrace of the rural civiliz