Patlabor known as Mobile Police Patlabor, is an anime and manga franchise created by Headgear, a group consisting of manga artist Masami Yūki, director Mamoru Oshii, screenwriter Kazunori Itō, mecha designer Yutaka Izubuchi, character designer Akemi Takada. The popular franchise includes a manga, a TV series, two OVA series, three feature-length movies, two light novel series, a short film compilation, named Minipato because of its super deformed drawing style; the series has been adapted into licensed products from OST to toys. Patlabor is known for using mecha – designed by Yutaka Izubuchi – not just for police or military purposes, but for industrial and municipal jobs. Animations from Patlabor were used extensively in the music video "Juke Joint Jezebel" by KMFDM; the manga received the 36th Shogakukan Manga Award for shōnen in 1991. The story takes place in what was, at the time of release, the near future of 1998–2002. Robots called; the Tokyo Metropolitan Police has its own fleet of Patrol Labors or Patlabors to combat crimes/terrorism and deal with accidents involving Labors.
The story arcs revolve around Tokyo Metropolitan Police Special Vehicle Section 2, Division 2. Noa Izumi is the main protagonist of the series. Hata and Kusumi are main protagonists of the third Patlabor film; the feature films follow a separate continuity, referred to as the "movie timeline", as opposed to the "TV timeline", with the Early Days OVA following the "movie timeline", the New Files OVA following the "TV timeline". In addition, the manga follows its own continuity; the following releases have been arranged according to their story timelines. Released by Shogakukan over Shonen Sunday magazine from 1988 to 1994, the 22-volume series takes place in a separate timeline. Mobile Police Patlabor Also referred to as The Early Days. Details the origins of the Tokyo MPD's 2nd Special Vehicles Section, otherwise known as SV2. Patlabor: The Movie A series of random labor incidents across the Greater Tokyo Area puts the SV2 on the case; the incidents turn out to be part of a dead programmer's diabolical plot to create a much bigger rampage.
Patlabor 2: The Movie A secret group of terrorists engineer a crisis in Tokyo in the winter of 2001–2002. The members of SV2's Section 2, who have been reassigned to other duties since the events of WXIII, reunite one more time to stop the threat. WXIII: Patlabor the Movie 3 Taking place a year after Patlabor: The Movie, the film features two MPD detectives who investigate the case of missing scientists working on a genetic engineering project that runs amuck in Tokyo Bay. SV2's Section 2 is called in to help rein in the danger; the Next Generation: Patlabor Patlabor: The TV Series Taking place in a different continuity, the series features more adventures of SV2 Section 2, which includes an arc involving their efforts to combat an advanced Schaft Enterprises Labor called the Type J9 Griffon. Patlabor: The New Files Also referred to as Patlabor 2, the series contains episodes that took place at several points between certain episodes in the TV series and after the latter's final episode; the OVA episodes features the conclusion of the Griffon storyarc.
A three-part series of short films known as "Mobile Police Patlabor Minimum: Minipato" were shown before screenings of WXIII in 2002, Minipato uses paper puppets, CGI, claymation to explain the rationale behind the whole concept of the series how the Labors functioned in a realistic hard science fiction setting. At the 2013 Tokyo Anime Fair, Tohokushinsha Film Corporation announced a live-action Patlabor film project to be launched in 2014. On July 4, 2013, Mamoru Oshii announced that he is involved in the project, in an unspecified capacity. Called The Next Generation -Patlabor-, the project is a 12-episode series to be shown in theatrical screenings and capped off with a feature film in 2015; the series is a sequel to the original Patlabor movie timeline, wherein the Babylon Project is finished and Labors are no longer in widespread use. On September 25, 2013, it was announced that Japanese actors Erina Mano will star as pilot Akira Izumino, Seiji Fukushi as Yūma Shiobara, Rina Oota as Ekaterina Krachevna Kankaeva, Shigeru Chiba reprising his anime role as chief Shigeo Shiba and Toshio Kakei as Captain Keiji Gotōda.
All Patlabor video games were released in Japan. Kidō Keisatsu Patlabor Kidō Keisatsu Patlabor Kidō Keisatsu Patlabor: 98-Shiki Kidou Seyo! Kidō Keisatsu Patlabor: Griffon-hen Kidō Keisatsu Patlabor Kidō Keisatsu Patlabor: Game Edition Patlabor: Come Back Mini-Pato City Shrouded in Shadow All of the Patlabor productions have been released in Japan and overseas in some form, except for most of the manga in North America in English. All the movies are available in Region 1, 2 & 4 DVD format; the TV series and OVAs were released in the U. S. by Central Park Media. The first two movies were released by Manga Entertainment, but remastered and re-released in 2006 by Bandai Visual; the third movie was released by Geneon Entertainment. Twelve sections of the manga have been translated and published by Viz Communications as single issues and in two trade pa
Labor is the second album from Brooklyn electropop band MEN. It was self-released on October 22, 2013, with full album streaming made available on Bandcamp as well as the New York Times interactive website; the album takes a subtler, more introspective approach than the band's overtly activist 2011 debut full-length, Talk About Body, although the single "Let Them Out Or Let Me In" supporting the Free Pussy Riot movement is included. After a shuffling of the band’s lineup since their debut, Samson has said she focused more on elements of transition and change for this self-released second album. By turning inward, Labor gives JD MEN greater accessibility; the reality that activist music can only go so far, this album serves to avoid restrictive genre terminology assigned to the band such as “LGBT music”. In addition to the activist single "Let Them Out Or Let Me In", the album contains released songs: all three tracks from Next EP, released in February 2012; the band teamed up with French producer Yuksek on the single "All The Way Thru".
While not getting the same media coverage as the 2011 album Talk About Body, Labor received favorable reviews. Album ReviewSpectrum Culture - "At first blush, it’s easy to miss MEN’s feminist and LGBT politics because, now on their second LP, they’ve become purveyors of throbbing and glistening club-ready electropop that’ll get your body moving before your mind can wrap around the message. It’s only upon repeat listens that the depth of Samson’s songwriting surfaces, making MEN all the more dynamic." All The Way Thru - August 15, 2013 Making Art - November 5, 2013, director: Laura Vitale Club Thang - November 12, 2013, director: Jack Barraclough
Manual labour or manual work is physical work done by people, most in contrast to that done by machines, to that done by working animals. It is most work done with the hands, and, by figurative extension, it is work done with any of the muscles and bones of the body. For most of human prehistory and history, manual labour and its close cousin, animal labour, have been the primary ways that physical work has been accomplished. Mechanisation and automation, which reduce the need for human and animal labour in production, have existed for centuries, but it was only starting in the 18th and 19th centuries that they began to expand and to change human culture. To be implemented, they require that sufficient technology exist and that its capital costs be justified by the amount of future wages that they will obviate. Semi-automation is an alternative to worker displacement that combines human labour and computerization to leverage the advantages of both man and machine. Although nearly any work can have skill and intelligence applied to it, many jobs that comprise manual labour—such as fruit and vegetable picking, manual materials handling, manual digging, or manual assembly of parts—often may be done by unskilled or semiskilled workers.
Thus there is a partial but significant correlation between manual labour and unskilled or semiskilled workers. Based on economic and social conflict of interest, people may distort that partial correlation into an exaggeration that equates manual labour with lack of skill. Throughout human existence the latter has involved a spectrum of variants, from slavery, to caste or caste-like systems, to subtler forms of inequality. Economic competition results in businesses trying to buy labour at the lowest possible cost or to obviate it entirely. For various reasons, there is a strong correlation between manual labour and unskilled or semiskilled workers, despite the fact that nearly any work can have skill and intelligence applied to it, it has always been the case for humans that many workers begin their working lives lacking any special level of skill or experience. It has always been the case that there was a large amount of manual labour to be done; these conditions have assured the correlation's persistence.
Throughout human prehistory and history, wherever social class systems have developed, the social status of manual labourers has, more than not, been low, as most physical tasks were done by peasants, slaves, indentured servants, wage slaves, or domestic servants. For example, legal scholar L. Ali Khan analyses how the Greeks, Hindus and Americans all created sophisticated social structures to outsource manual labour to distinct classes, ethnicities, or races; the phrase "hard labour" has become a legal euphemism for penal labour, a custodial sentence during which the convict is not only confined but put to manual work. Such work may be productive, in a prison kitchen, laundry, or library. There has always been a tendency among people of the higher gradations of social class to oversimplify the correlation between manual labour and lack of skill into one of equivalence, leading to dubious exaggerations such as the notion that anyone who worked physically could be identified by that fact as being unintelligent or unskilled, or that any task requiring physical work must be simplistic and not worthy of analysis.
Given the human cognitive tendency toward rationalisation, it is natural enough that such grey areas have been warped into absolutes by people seeking to justify and perpetuate their social advantage. Throughout human existence, but most since the Age of Enlightenment, there have been logically complementary efforts by intelligent workers to counteract these flawed oversimplifications. For example, the American and French Revolutions rejected notions of inherited social status, the labour movements of the 19th and 20th centuries led to the formation of trade unions who enjoyed substantial collective bargaining power for a time; such counteractive efforts have been all the more difficult because not all social status differences and wealth differences are unfair. Social systems of every ideological pers
Spanish customary units
There are a number of Spanish units of measurement of length or area that are now obsolete. They include the cordel, the league and the labor; the units of area used to express the area of land are still encountered in some transactions in land today. For example, the ` vara' is still used in Costa Rica. A vara is an old Spanish unit of length. Varas are a surveying unit that appear in many deeds in the southern United States, varas were used in many parts of Latin America, it varied in size at various places. In Argentina, the vara measured about 866 mm, typical urban lots are 8.66 m wide. At some time a value of 33 inches was adopted in California. In Texas, a vara was defined as 1 yard = 1.08 vara. The vara and the corresponding unit of area, the square vara, were introduced in the 19th century to measure Spanish land grants. In Texas, Stephen F. Austin's early surveying contracts required that he use the vara as a standard unit; the vara can be seen in many deeds as late as the mid to late 1900s.
1 acre is equivalent to 5,645.376 Texan square varas. A league is equivalent to 5,000 varas squared or 4,428.4 acres. To convert varas to feet, take the varas and divide by 0.36. Standardization of measurement in Texas came with the introduction of varas and leagues. A measure of 100 varas by 100 varas is 7000 square meters, is known traditionally throughout Latin America as a manzana; as well, lumber is still measured in Costa Rica using a system based on 4 vara, or 11 feet, for both round and square wood. With square wood, using inches, the width is multiplied by the depth to get a measurement which they call pulgadas, or inches; the lumber is charged'per inch', a measurement 11/12 of a board foot. A labor is a unit of area, used to express the area of land, equal to 1 million square varas. A labor is equivalent to about 177.1 acres. It was used in the archaic system of old Spanish land grants affecting Texas and parts of adjoining states; the labor is used as an approximate equivalent to a quarter-section.
It is still encountered in modern real estate transactions. A league can be a unit of area, used to express the area of land, equal to 25 million square varas. A league is equivalent to about 4,428.4 acres. It was used in the archaic system of old Spanish land grants affecting Texas and parts of adjoining states and this use of league is used throughout the Texas Constitution. A common Texas land grant size, discussed in James A. Michener's Texas, was a "labor and a league:" a labor of good riparian land and a league of land away from the river; the league is still encountered in modern real estate transactions. The palmo measured the distance between the tip of the thumb and the tip of the pinky finger with all fingers splayed, its standardized value is 20.873 cm. Half of a palmo in Castile was described as six fingers and defined as 10.4365 cm. The ancient Romans had a similar, smaller unit called the palmus, 7.3925 cm. Although some standardisation was achieved with the law of 1801 in defining the league as 6666⅔ varas long, varying measures continued to be used in various cities and regions.
Almud, a unit of volume Arroba, the fourth part of a quintal Caballería, a unit of land measure in Cuba. Celemín, a unit of volume equivalent to 4.625 l. Estado, a unit of length used for measuring depths. Legua, a unit of length Onza, a unit of weight used for chocolate. Pulgada used in Spain. Quintal, a unit of weight Quiñón a unit of land measure in the Philippines. Tahúlla, a unit of land measure in Valencia. Adarme and tomín, units of weight Toesas, unit of length equal to 66.72 inches International System of Units Metrication in Guatemala Portuguese customary units Systems of measurement Units of measurement Vara from the Handbook of Texas Online www.sizes.com, "Vara Conversions in 19th Century Spain" Rowlett's A Dictionary of Units of Measurement Reasonover's Land Measures A Reference to Spanish and French land measures used in North America http://www.sizes.com/units/
Labor Day in the United States of America is a public holiday celebrated on the first Monday in September. It honors the American labor movement and the contributions that workers have made to the strength, prosperity and well-being of the country, it is the Monday of the long weekend known as Labor Day Weekend. It is recognized as a federal holiday. Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labor movements grew, trade unionists proposed that a day be set aside to celebrate labor. "Labor Day" was promoted by the Central Labor Union and the Knights of Labor, which organized the first parade in New York City. In 1887, Oregon was the first state of the United States to make it an official public holiday. By the time it became an official federal holiday in 1894, thirty states in the United States celebrated Labor Day. Canada's Labour Day is celebrated on the first Monday of September. More than 80 countries celebrate International Workers' Day on May 1 – the ancient European holiday of May Day.
Lastly, several countries have chosen neither date for their Labour Day. Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labor movements grew, different groups of trade unionists chose a variety of days on which to celebrate labor. In the United States, a September holiday called. Alternate stories of the event's origination exist. According to one early history of Labor Day, the event originated in connection with a General Assembly of the Knights of Labor convened in New York City in September 1882. In connection with this clandestine Knights assembly, a public parade of various labor organizations was held on September 5 under the auspices of the Central Labor Union of New York. Secretary of the CLU Matthew Maguire is credited for first proposing that a national Labor Day holiday subsequently be held on the first Monday of each September in the aftermath of this successful public demonstration. An alternative thesis maintains that the idea of Labor Day was the brainchild of Peter J. McGuire, a vice president of the American Federation of Labor, who put forward the initial proposal in the spring of 1882.
According to McGuire, on May 8, 1882, he made a proposition to the fledgling Central Labor Union in New York City that a day be set aside for a "general holiday for the laboring classes". According to McGuire he further recommended that the event should begin with a street parade as a public demonstration of organized labor's solidarity and strength, with the march followed by a picnic, to which participating local unions could sell tickets as a fundraiser. According to McGuire he suggested the first Monday in September as an ideal date for such a public celebration, owing to optimum weather and the date's place on the calendar, sitting midway between the Fourth of July and Thanksgiving public holidays. Labor Day picnics and other public gatherings featured speeches by prominent labor leaders. In 1909 the American Federation of Labor convention designated the Sunday preceding Labor Day as "Labor Sunday", to be dedicated to the spiritual and educational aspects of the labor movement; this secondary date failed to gain significant traction in popular culture.
In 1887 Oregon became the first state of the United States to make Labor Day an official public holiday. By the time it became an official federal holiday in 1894, thirty U. S. states celebrated Labor Day. All U. S. states, the District of Columbia, the United States territories have subsequently made Labor Day a statutory holiday. The date of May 1 emerged in 1886 as an alternative holiday for the celebration of labor becoming known as International Workers' Day; the date had its origins at the 1885 convention of the American Federation of Labor, which passed a resolution calling for adoption of the eight-hour day effective May 1, 1886. While negotiation was envisioned for achievement of the shortened work day, use of the strike to enforce this demand was recognized, with May 1 advocated as a date for coordinated strike action; the proximity of the date to the bloody Haymarket affair of May 4, 1886, further accentuated May First's radical reputation. There was disagreement among labor unions at this time about when a holiday celebrating workers should be, with some advocating for continued emphasis of the September march-and-picnic date while others sought the designation of the more politically-charged date of May 1.
Conservative Democratic President Grover Cleveland was one of those concerned that a labor holiday on May 1 would tend to become a commemoration of the Haymarket Affair and would strengthen socialist and anarchist movements that backed the May 1 commemoration around the globe. In 1887, he publicly supported the September Labor Day holiday as a less inflammatory alternative; the date was formally adopted as a United States federal holiday in 1894. Labor Day is called the "unofficial end of summer" because it marks the end of the cultural summer season. Many take their two-week vacations during the two weeks ending Labor Day weekend. Many fall activities, such as school and sports begin about this time. In the United States, many school districts resume classes around the Labor Day holiday weekend. Many begin the week before, making Labor Day weekend the first three-day weekend of the school calendar, while others return the Tuesday following Labor Day, allowing families one final getaway before the school year begins.
Many districts across the Midwest are opting to begin school after Labor Day. In the U. S. state of Virginia, the amusement park industry has succes
Labour Day is an annual holiday to celebrate the achievements of workers. Labour Day has its origins in the labour union movement the eight-hour day movement, which advocated eight hours for work, eight hours for recreation, eight hours for rest. For most countries, Labour Day is synonymous with, or linked with, International Workers' Day, which occurs on 1 May. For other countries, Labour Day is celebrated on a different date one with special significance for the labour movement in that country. Labour Day is a public holiday in many countries. In Canada and the United States, the holiday is celebrated on the first Monday of September and considered the unofficial end of summer, with summer vacations ending and students returning to school around then. For most countries, "Labour Day" is synonymous with, or linked with, International Workers' Day, which occurs on 1 May; some countries vary the actual date of their celebrations so that the holiday occurs on a Monday close to 1 May. Labour Day in Australia is a public holiday on dates which vary between territories.
It is the first Monday in October in the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and South Australia. In Victoria and Tasmania, it is the second Monday in March. In Western Australia, Labour Day is the first Monday in March. In the Northern Territory and Queensland it occurs on the first Monday in May, it is on the fourth Monday of March in the territory of Christmas Island. The first march for an eight-hour day by the labour movement occurred in Melbourne on 21 April 1856. On this day stonemasons and building workers on building sites around Melbourne stopped work and marched from the University of Melbourne to Parliament House to achieve an eight-hour day, their direct action protest was a success, they are noted as being among the first organised workers in the world to achieve an 8-hour day, with no loss of pay. Bangladesh Garment Sramik Sanghati, an organization working for the welfare of garment workers, has requested that 24 April be declared Labour Safety Day in Bangladesh, in memory of the victims of the Rana Plaza building collapse.
Labour Day is a national holiday in the Bahamas, celebrated on the first Friday in June in order to create a long weekend for workers. The traditional date of Labour Day in the Bahamas, however, is 7 June, in commemoration of a significant workers' strike that began on that day in 1942. Labour Day is meant to honor and celebrate workers and the importance of their contributions to the nation and society. In the capital city, thousands of people come to watch a parade through the streets, which begins at mid-morning. Bands in colorful uniforms, traditional African junkanoo performers, members of various labour unions and political parties are all part of the procession, which ends up at the Southern Recreation Grounds, where government officials make speeches for the occasion. For many residents and visitors to the Bahamas, the afternoon of Labour Day is a time to relax at home or visit the beach. Labour Day has been celebrated in Canada on the first Monday in September since the 1880s; the origins of Labour Day in Canada can be traced back to December 1872 when a parade was staged in support of the Toronto Typographical Union's strike for a 58-hour work-week a full decade before a similar event in New York City by the American Knights of Labor, a late 19th-century U.
S. labor federation, launched the movement towards the American Labor Day holiday. The Toronto Trades Assembly called its 27 unions to demonstrate in support of the Typographical Union, on strike since 25 March. George Brown, Canadian politician and editor of the Toronto Globe hit back at his striking employees, pressing police to charge the Typographical Union with "conspiracy." Although the laws criminalising union activity were outdated and had been abolished in Great Britain, they were still on the books in Canada and police arrested 24 leaders of the Typographical Union. Labour leaders decided to call another similar demonstration on 3 September to protest the arrests. Seven unions marched in Ottawa, prompting a promise by Canadian Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald to repeal the "barbarous" anti-union laws. Parliament passed the Trade Union Act on 14 June the following year, soon all unions were seeking a 54-hour work-week; the Toronto Trades and Labour Council held similar celebrations every spring.
American Peter J. McGuire, co-founder of the American Federation of Labor, was asked to speak at a labour festival in Toronto, Canada on 22 July 1882. Returning to the United States, McGuire and the Knights of Labor organised a similar parade based on the Canadian event on 5 September 1882 in New York City, USA. On 23 July 1894, Canadian Prime Minister John Thompson and his government made Labour Day, to be held in September, an official holiday. In the United States, the New York parade became an annual event that year, in 1894 was adopted by American president Grover Cleveland to compete with International Workers' Day. While Labour Day parades and picnics are organised by unions, many Canadians regard Labour Day as the Monday of the last long weekend of summer. Non-union celebrations include picnics, fireworks displays, water activities, public art events. Since the new school year starts right after Labour Day, families with school-age children take it as the last chance to travel before the end of summer.
An old fashioned tradition in Canada and the United States frowns upon the wearing of white after Labour Day. Explanations for this tradition vary.
Jérémy Labor is a French footballer who plays for L'Entente SSG. He plays as a centre back, but can be utilized on the side. Labor is a France youth international having represented his nation at under-19 level. Labor was a member of the Monaco under-19 team that won the 2010–11 edition of the Coupe Gambardella and made his professional debut on 19 November 2011 in a Coupe de France match against Alès. A week he made his league debut in a 2–0 defeat to Nantes. In July 2013, he joined Belgian side RWDM Brussels along with his teammate Martin Sourzac on a loan deal. On 15 January 2016, Labor signed on the dotted lines of an I-League club DSK Shivajians F. C. for five months. Profile footballdatabase.eu Jérémy Labor – French league stats at LFP Jérémy Labor at L'Équipe Football