The Guinness Partnership
The Guinness Partnership is one of the largest providers of affordable housing and care in England. As of 2014, the Partnership owns and manages around 65,500 homes and provides services for more than 135,000 people; the Partnership employs over 3,000 staff. The Guinness Trust was founded in 1890 by Edward Guinness, 1st Earl of Iveagh, a great grandson of the founder of the Guinness Brewery, to help homeless people in London and Dublin, he donated £200,000 to set up the Guinness Trust in London, the equivalent of £25 million in today’s money. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Iveagh Trust based in Dublin took responsibility for Ireland; the Guinness Trust extended its objectives outside London in 1962 operating in all parts of England. It was not related to the brewery company; the history of its first century was published by Peter Malpass in 1998. In 1992, the Guinness Trust Group acquired the Parchment Group, parent company of Hermitage Housing Association; the combined group is now known as The Guinness Partnership.
Northern Counties Housing Association joined the Partnership in 2008. In 2012 the housing properties and operations of The Guinness Trust were combined with those of the other main housing divisions in the Group to form a single charitable company operating nationwide, The Guinness Partnership Limited; the Guinness Partnership and Wulvern Housing Limited merged on 31 January 2017. Guinness Care specialises in services for over 10,000 elderly people and people with a learning disability, providing home care, supported living, care homes and schemes for retired people. Official website The Guinness Partnership 125th anniversary microsite
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. A public company can be unlisted. Public companies are formed within the legal systems of particular nations, therefore have national associations and formal designations which are distinct and separate. For example one of the main public company forms in the United States is called a limited liability company, in France is called a "society of limited responsibility", in Britain a public limited company, in Germany a company with limited liability. While the general idea of a public company may be similar, differences are meaningful, are at the core of international law disputes with regard to industry and trade. In the early modern period, the Dutch developed several financial instruments and helped lay the foundations of modern financial system.
The Dutch East India Company became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was the first publicly traded company, because it was the first company to be actually listed on an official stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fledged capital market: corporate shareholders; as Edward Stringham notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed." The securities of a publicly traded company are owned by many investors while the shares of a held company are owned by few shareholders. A company with many shareholders is not a publicly traded company. In the United States, in some instances, companies with over 500 shareholders may be required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Public companies possess some advantages over held businesses.
Publicly traded companies are able to raise funds and capital through the sale of shares of stock. This is the reason publicly traded corporations are important; the profit on stock is gained in form of capital gain to the holders. The financial media and the public are able to access additional information about the business, since the business is legally bound, motivated, to publicly disseminate information regarding the financial status and future of the company to its many shareholders and the government; because many people have a vested interest in the company's success, the company may be more popular or recognizable than a private company. The initial shareholders of the company are able to share risk by selling shares to the public. If one were to hold a 100% share of the company, he or she would have to pay all of the business's debt; this increases asset liquidity and the company does not need to depend on funding from a bank. For example, in 2013 Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg owned 29.3% of the company's class A shares, which gave him enough voting power to control the business, while allowing Facebook to raise capital from, distribute risk to, the remaining shareholders.
Facebook was a held company prior to its initial public offering in 2012. If some shares are given to managers or other employees, potential conflicts of interest between employees and shareholders will be remitted; as an example, in many tech companies, entry-level software engineers are given stock in the company upon being hired. Therefore, the engineers have a vested interest in the company succeeding financially, are incentivized to work harder and more diligently to ensure that success. Many stock exchanges require that publicly traded companies have their accounts audited by outside auditors, publish the accounts to their shareholders. Besides the cost, this may make useful information available to competitors. Various other annual and quarterly reports are required by law. In the United States, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act imposes additional requirements; the requirement for audited books is not imposed by the exchange known as OTC Pink. The shares may be maliciously held by outside shareholders and the original founders or owners may lose benefits and control.
The principal-agent problem, or the agency problem is a key weakness of public companies. The separation of a company's ownership and control is prevalent in such countries as U. K and U. S. In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission requires that firms whose stock is traded publicly report their major shareholders each year; the reports identify all institutional shareholders, all company officials who own shares in their firm, any individual or institution owning more than 5% of the firm's stock. For many years, newly created companies were held but held initial
New Earswick is a model village and civil parish in the unitary authority of City of York in North Yorkshire, near the River Foss, north of York and south of Haxby. According to the 2001 census the parish had a population of 2,812, reducing to 2,737 at the 2011 Census. Before 1996 it had been part of the Ryedale district; the village of New Earswick was built as a genuine mixed community. There was housing for both workers and managers, in a green setting with gardens for each home with its own 2 fruit trees, it was founded by the York philanthropist, Joseph Rowntree, quoted as saying, "I do not want to establish communities bearing the stamp of charity but rather of rightly ordered and self governing communities". The first 28 houses were built between 1902 and 1904 by the architect Raymond Unwin, after which the Joseph Rowntree Village Trust was established to continue building and manage the new village; the Joseph Rowntree Housing Trust is part of the Joseph Rowntree Foundation. The village had contemporaries such as Bournville, Port Sunlight and others.
This was in sharp contrast to the slums that had developed in York and other cities during the previous century, the deprivation of, revealed in Seebohm Rowntree's report of 1901, entitled Poverty: a study of town life. It revealed appalling statistics of dark and insanitary housing; as a result of the report, Joseph Rowntree's conviction that it must be possible to provide better housing for people on low incomes led him to acquire 150 acres of land near the village of Earswick, two and a half miles to the north of the centre of York. The planner Raymond Unwin and the architect Barry Parker were commissioned to produce an overall plan for a new'garden' village and the detailed designs for its first houses, they designed the garden cities of Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City. The building of New Earswick created a balanced village community where rents were kept low, but still represented a modest commercial return on the capital invested. Houses were open to any working people, not just Rowntree employees.
The village was to be a demonstration of good practice. The Trust Deed of the Joseph Rowntree Village Trust, set up in 1904 to build and manage New Earswick, safeguarded generous open green space. All the grass verges were planted with trees after which all the roads are named; the village was built with bricks. From 1950 the brickyard, which closed down in the 1930s, was developed into a nature reserve. Due to their religious beliefs, The Rowntree family decreed there would not be a public house in the village. There never has been. New Earswick is New Earswick Ward of the City of York Council; as of 2010 it is represented by Keith Hyman, Keith Orrel and Carol Runciman who are all members of the local Liberal Democrat Party. A Parish Council was created in 1934 consisting of a clerk. There is a local community centre, the Folk Hall, which hosts activities such as keep-fit, snooker, a junior youth club. New Earswick has recreational facilities, including a swimming pool, tennis courts and football and cricket pitches at the New Earswick Sports and Social Club.
There were two open access play areas close to the Folk Hall, including a hard surface play area which have been bulldozed for a development of houses. There is a library based in the Integrated Children's Centre at the local primary school, a doctor's surgery and a range of shops, including two general stores, a pet shop and Post Office; as of 2017 the Post Office is situated within the Folk Hall. The village has 36 allotments in Willow Bank and Sleeper Path. In the 1960s, the Folk Hall was a live music venue featuring the likes of Procol Harum and Pink Floyd; the River Foss runs along the eastern boundary of New Earswick with the York to Scarborough Line running to the west. The Nestle factory and grounds mark the southern border with the northern border being the A1237 York Outer Ring Road; the village was built using bricks from the brickworks on the outskirts of the village. From 1950 the brickyard was developed into a nature reserve; the reserve is the home of New Earswick Angling Club, formed in 1948.
Unlike the villages of Port Sunlight and Bournville the village was not designed for the workforce of the nearby Joseph Rowntree Cocoa Works although some do earn their living at the factory, taken over by Swiss firm, Nestle in 1988. Transdev York operate a bus service that stops in the village as part of the Askham Bar to Clifton Moor route. First Group operate two bus services that stop in the village as part of the Wigginton to Acomb and Haxby to York City Centre routes. New Earswick was served by Earswick railway station on the York to Beverley Line between 1847 and 1965. There are both secondary schools in New Earswick. New Earswick Primary School was built in 1912; the primary school is one of eight Integrated Children's Centres in York. Joseph Rowntree School is a secondary school and was built in 1941. In 2006, the Joseph Rowntree School secured £27million for a complete rebuild, completed in late 2009; the catchment area for the secondary school is from the village itself, The Groves and the villages of Haxby and Wigginton.
In 1914 the Anglican church of St. Andrew's was built on the edge of the parish; the church was extended in 1939 to cater for the new housing in South Huntington just across the River Foss. A Methodist chapel and meeting house for the Society of Friends were added later. St. Andrew's Church is no
Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull abbreviated to Hull, is a port city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It lies upon the River Hull at its confluence with the Humber Estuary, 25 miles inland from the North Sea, with a population of 260,700. Hull lies east southeast of York and northeast of Sheffield; the town of Wyke on Hull was founded late in the 12th century by the monks of Meaux Abbey as a port from which to export their wool. Renamed Kings-town upon Hull in 1299, Hull has been a market town, military supply port, trading hub and whaling centre and industrial metropolis. Hull was an early theatre of battle in the English Civil Wars, its 18th-century Member of Parliament, William Wilberforce, took a prominent part in the abolition of the slave trade in Britain. After suffering heavy damage in the Second World War, Hull weathered a period of post-industrial decline, gaining unfavourable results on measures of social deprivation and policing. In the early 21st century spending boom before the late 2000s recession the city saw large amounts of new retail, commercial and public service construction spending.
Tourist attractions include The Hull People's Memorial, the historic Old Town and Museum Quarter, Hull Marina and The Deep aquarium. Sports teams include Championship League football club Hull City and rugby league clubs Hull F. C. & Hull Kingston Rovers. The University of Hull now enrols more than 16,000 students, it is ranked among the best in the Humber region. Hull was the 2017 UK City of Culture and in the same year the city's Ferens Art Gallery hosted the prestigious Turner Prize. Kingston upon Hull stands on the north bank of the Humber Estuary at the mouth of its tributary, the River Hull; the valley of the River Hull has been inhabited since the early Neolithic period but there is little evidence of a substantial settlement in the area of the present city. The area was attractive to people because it gave access to a prosperous hinterland and navigable rivers but the site was poor, being remote, low-lying and with no fresh water, it was an outlying part of the hamlet of Myton, named Wyke.
The name is thought to originate either from a Scandinavian word Vik meaning inlet or from the Saxon Wic meaning dwelling place or refuge. The River Hull was a good haven for shipping, whose trade included the export of wool from Meaux Abbey, which owned Myton. In 1293 the town of Wyke was acquired from the abbey by King Edward I, who on 1 April 1299 granted it a royal charter that renamed the settlement King's town upon Hull or Kingston upon Hull; the charter is preserved in the archives of the Guildhall. In 1440, a further charter incorporated the town and instituted local government consisting of a mayor, a sheriff and twelve aldermen. In his Guide to Hull, J. C. Craggs provides a colourful background to Edward's naming of the town, he writes that the King and a hunting party started a hare which "led them along the delightful banks of the River Hull to the hamlet of Wyke …, charmed with the scene before him, viewed with delight the advantageous situation of this hitherto neglected and obscure corner.
He foresaw it might become subservient both to render the kingdom more secure against foreign invasion, at the same time to enforce its commerce". Pursuant to these thoughts, Craggs continues, Edward purchased the land from the Abbot of Meaux, had a manor hall built for himself, issued proclamations encouraging development within the town, bestowed upon it the royal appellation, King's Town; the port served as a base for Edward I during the First War of Scottish Independence and developed into the foremost port on the east coast of England. It prospered by exporting wool and woollen cloth, importing wine and timber. Hull established a flourishing commerce with the Baltic ports as part of the Hanseatic League. From its medieval beginnings, Hull's main trading links were with northern Europe. Scandinavia, the Baltic and the Low Countries were all key trading areas for Hull's merchants. In addition, there was trade with France and Portugal; as sail power gave way to steam, Hull's trading links extended throughout the world.
Docks were opened to serve the frozen meat trade of New Zealand and South America. Hull was the centre of a thriving inland and coastal trading network, serving the whole of the United Kingdom. Sir William de la Pole was the town's first mayor. A prosperous merchant, de la Pole founded a family. Another successful son of a Hull trading family was bishop John Alcock, who founded Jesus College and was a patron of the grammar school in Hull; the increase in trade after the discovery of the Americas and the town's maritime connections are thought to have played a part in the introduction of a virulent strain of syphilis through Hull and on into Europe from the New World. The town prospered during the 16th and early 17th centuries, Hull's affluence at this time is preserved in the form of several well-maintained buildings from the period, including Wilberforce House, now a museum documenting the life of William Wilberforce. During the English Civil War, Hull became strategically important because of the large arsenal located there.
Early in the war, on 11 January 1642, the king named the Earl of Newcastle governor of Hull while Parliament nominated Sir John Hotham and asked his son, Captain John Hotham, to secure the town at once. Sir John Hotham and Hull corporation declared support for Parliament and denied Charles I entry into the town. Charles I responded to these events by besieging the town; this siege helped precipitate open conflict between the forces of Parliament a
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Snelston is a village and civil parish three miles south-west of Ashbourne in Derbyshire, England. It includes Anacrehill; the population of the civil parish as of the 2011 census was 202. A tributary of the River Dove flows through its centre; the building in the foreground of the photo above is Lower Lodge which stands at the entrance of Snelston Hall. Beyond the lodge is St Peter's Church, Snelston. Snelston Hall was built in 1827 and was demolished in 1951; the local squire, John Harrison had the village remodelled and a new school built in 1847. The village buildings were designed by the architect Lewis Nockalls Cottingham; this is now a model village. The parish church of St Peter was rebuilt in 1825, it is one of the few churches to have had dances held on the roof. Snelston has a village website with more information at www.snelston.com Michael Sadler, MP, factory reformer, was born here in 1780. He reformed the laws for children working in factories. Hannah Allen, who suffered from religious insanity, was born here in 1638.
Snelston at DerbyshireUK
Selworthy is a small village and civil parish 5 kilometres from Minehead in Somerset, England. It is located in the National Trust's Holnicote Estate on the northern fringes of Exmoor; the parish includes the hamlets of Bossington, Lynch, Brandish Street and Allerford. At 308 metres Selworthy Beacon, rising above the village, is one of the highest points on Exmoor, its height defines as one of the'marilyns" in England. Near the summit are a series of cairns, thought to be the remains of round barrows, the British Iron Age Bury Castle. Bossington is separated from Porlock Bay by a shingle beach, through which flows the River Horner, forming part of the Porlock Ridge and Saltmarsh Site of Special Scientific Interest. In the 1990s rising sea levels created salt marshes, lagoons developed in the area behind the boulder bank; the village is on the South West Coast Path. The name of the village means "enclosure or settlement near sallows or willows". In the Domesday Book it was recorded as Selewrda, it was held by Queen Edith of Wessex in 1066 and, with Luccombe, was awarded to Ralph de Limesy by William the Conqueror.
In 1301 Edward I awarded it to Henry de Pynkeny. It passed down through the family until acquired by marriage by Sir Thomas Dyke Acland in 1802. Selworthy was part of the hundred of Carhampton. Selworthy was rebuilt as a model village, to provide housing for the aged and infirm of the Holnicote estate, in 1828 by Sir Thomas Acland, in a similar style to Blaise Hamlet, built a few years earlier. One of the cottages, known as Periwinkle Cottage, is now an award-winning tea room. Many of the other cottages, whose walls are painted with limewash, tinted creamy yellow with ochre, some of which are now rented out, are still thatched and are listed buildings; the village and the surrounding Holnicote estate was given to the National Trust in 1944 by Sir Richard Acland, having been passed down through the Acland family for nearly 200 years. Few of the buildings preceding 1828 survive, but those that do include the church, the tithe barn and Tithe Barn Cottage. Selworthy shares a grouped parish council with the civil parish of Minehead Without.
The parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council’s operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny. The parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic; the parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning. Conservation matters and environmental issues are the responsibility of the council; the village falls within the Non-metropolitan district of West Somerset, formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, having been part of Williton Rural District. The district council is responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism.
Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, main roads, public transport and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning. As Selworthy falls within the Exmoor National Park some functions administered by district or county councils have, since 1997, fallen under the Exmoor National Park Authority, known as a ‘single purpose’ authority, which aims to "conserve and enhance the natural beauty and cultural heritage of the National Parks" and "promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities of the Parks by the public", including responsibility for the conservation of the historic environment, it is part of the Bridgwater and West Somerset county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election, part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament which elects seven MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.
On the hill above the village is the whitewashed 15th-century Church of All Saints, with a 14th-century tower. The pulpit includes a 17th-century hourglass and the iron-bound parish chest dates from the same time. Within the church is a copy of the Chained Book of 1609 by Bishop John Jewel, entitled Defense of the Apologie of the Church of England, it has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building. In the churchyard is a medieval cross with three octagonal steps, a square socket, an octagonal shaft; the head is missing. The churchyard provides views across the valley to Dunkery Beacon; the liturgical scholar and church historian Francis Carolus Eeles OBE is buried in the churchyard. The thatched Chapel of St Leonard, Tivington was built in the mid 14th century as a chapel of ease, it is a Grade II* listed building. The Lynch Chapel Of Ease at West Lynch dates from around 1530; the population of the parish of Selworthy is 477. It has a predominantly ageing population with 80% being over 45 years old.
Haw, Graham. The Book of Luccombe & Selworthy. Reminiscences of an Old West Country Clergyman by W H Thornton, Ludlow 2010. Thornton lived at Selworthy in the 1840s. 360-degr