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Lac is the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of lac insects, of which the most cultivated is Kerria lacca. Cultivation begins when a farmer gets a stick that contains eggs ready to hatch and ties it to the tree to be infested. Thousands of lac insects secrete the resinous pigment; the coated branches of the host trees are harvested as sticklac. The harvested sticklac is sieved to remove impurities; the sieved material is repeatedly washed to remove insect parts and other soluble material. The resulting product is known as seedlac; the prefix seed refers to its pellet shape. Seedlac which still contains 3–5% impurities is processed into shellac by heat treatment or solvent extraction; the leading producer of lac is Jharkhand, followed by the Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Maharashtra states of India. Lac production is found in Bangladesh, Thailand, Vietnam, parts of China, Mexico; the word lac is derived from the Sanskrit word lākshā', which represents the number 100,000. It was used for both the lac insect and the scarlet resinous secretion it produces.

This resin has been used for making traditional and tribal bangles, still used as sealing wax by the India Post. It is used as wood finish, skin cosmetic and dye for wool and silk in ancient India and neighbouring areas. Lac resin was once imported in sizeable quantity into Europe from India along with Eastern woods. Kerria lacca can be cultivated on either cultivated or wild host plants. In India the most common host plants are: Dhak Ber Kusum In Thailand the most common host plants are Rain tree Pigeon pea In China the common host plants include Pigeon pea Hibiscus species In Mexico Barbados nut Estimated yields per tree in India are 6–10 kg for kusum, 1.5–6 kg for ber, 1–4 kg for dhak. The bugs' life cycles can produce two sticklac yields per year, though it may be better to rest for six months to let the host tree recover. Lac is harvested by cutting the tree branches. If dye is being produced, the insects are kept in the sticklac because the dye colour comes from the insects rather than their resin.

They may be killed by exposure to the sun. On the other hand, if seedlac or shellac is being produced, most insects can escape because less coloured pale lac is more desired; the use of lac dye goes back to ancient times. It was used in ancient India and neighbouring areas as wood finish, skin cosmetic and dye for wool and silk. In China it is a traditional dye for leather goods. Lac for dye has been somewhat replaced by the emergence of synthetic dyes, though it remains in use, some juices, carbonated drinks, jam and candy are coloured using it. Lac is used in folk medicine as a anti-obesity drug, it is soluble in alcohol. This type of lac was used in the finishing of 18th-century fowling guns in the United States. India exported significant amounts of sticklac derivatives lac dye, from the 1700s to the late 1800s. Production declined as synthetic dyes emerged, after the late 1940s, production of seedlac and shellac declined due to replacement. In the mid-1950s, India annually produced about 50,000 tons of sticklac and exported about 29,000 tons of lac.

By 1992–93, India's lac exports fell further to 4,500 tons. In the same period, Thailand's production increased somewhat, with annual lac exports of around 7,000 tons in the 1990s of seedlac. China exported only about 500 tons of shellac per year in the 1990s but produced more lac internally: 4,000-5,000 tons of sticklac and 2,000–3,000 tons of shellac in Yunnan province, with additional, smaller production in Fujian province. While India and China are the major lac producers, Myanmar and Sri Lanka play small roles. Usage of Lac/Lah/Laksha is described in ancient hindu literature atharvaveda also. Kand 5 and Sukta 5 is called as Laksha Sukti - Verse related to Lac; this entire verse is dedicated to its usage. It has description of many ancient practices. For example - The second sloka of this verse states "Those who drink you, live long. You give life to human and make them disease free" Kerria lacca – the true lac scale Paratachardina decorella – the rosette lac scale Paratachardina pseudolobata – the lobate lac scale Carmine – Another pigment extracted from an insect.

Lacquer – A product, at one time made from lac, but in modern common usage now refers to a separate product with similar properties. Shellac – A protective coating. Media related to Lac at Wikimedia Commons Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums - IINRG Indian Lac Research Institute - ILRI FAO - Insect dyes - Lac - Summary of Basic Information

Donna J. Stone

Donna J. Stone was an American poet and philanthropist. Several of her poems were published individually, both before and after her death, as well as a book of poetry entitled Wielder of Words: A Collection of Poems. Wielder of Words, edited by Stone's younger son, received a number of honors, was named the American Poetry Society's 1991 Book of the Year. Stone established the Matthew J. Pascal Foundation, a private family foundation named after her firstborn son. Donna Stone and her brother grew up near Bexley, Ohio, an affluent suburb of Columbus, in a strict family of German descent, she suffered two bouts of rheumatic fever as a child, was bedridden for several months at a time. She had private tutors and was known to be a bright child, so illness did not impede her education, she told a biographer that her interest in writing was born during these periods of sickness and isolation. Stone's health improved, she grew into an attractive young lady, she met and married her first husband and aspiring playwright John Pascal, whose works would include the Broadway musical George M!

The couple moved to New York. While her husband began to make a name for himself as a journalist and published author, Donna J. Pascal focused on rearing their son and supporting her husband's career; the Pascals' young son contracted a terrible illness. The child survived, but not unscathed, the marriage ended; these difficult times saw the beginning of a new chapter in Pascal's life. She became a strong supporter of the fledgling Association for Retarded Children, thus beginning a lifelong career as charity supporter and children's advocate. Pascal's involvement went beyond financial or administrative. One such example was her role in exposing the abuse and neglect of mentally challenged children in New York's infamous Willowbrook State School, once described by Senator Robert Kennedy as a "snake pit." As she described in an interview, Pascal gained access to the residential school by posing as a recent social work graduate, spent several days working in the "back wards." She shared her observations with members of the press, as did several others.

After a host of media attention, including the Peabody Award-winning series by Geraldo Rivera, the institution was closed by the state. Her second marriage was to a former pilot with an interest in real estate. Donna J. Stone maintained her charitable activities, expanding her endeavors to include the National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse; the Stones had one son and, due to L. E. Stone's business interests, the family moved from New York to a suburb of Dallas; the Association for Retarded Children moved their headquarters from New York to suburban Dallas, Donna Stone remained a strong supporter. Several years she established the Matthew J. Pascal Foundation, a private family foundation named after her older son, it was in Texas. Although she dabbled in prose, her passion was poetry, her early publications were in small periodicals. Her works appeared in poetry magazines and poetry society journals, some of them receiving honors and small awards. On her mother's 75th birthday, Stone published a poem for her in her local paper.

The poem got picked up by the local's parent company, was printed in dozens of newspapers. "Mother at 75" became Stone's most recognized poem to date. Wielder of Words: A Collection of Poems soon followed. According to the author's acknowledgments, the title was based upon a poem written as a birthday card for Stone by her younger son, who edited the book. Included in the collection were poems such as "Another Autumn", "Remembering", of "Mother at 75." Stone accepted no profits from the book, donated copies to various schools, literacy programs, poetry societies. One school used it as a textbook, the American Poetry Society chose Wielder of Words as their 1991 Book of the Year; the cardiac effects of her severe childhood illness began taking their toll, Stone's health once again declined. Yet she continued to write, during her final years composed some of her best-known poems including "Changing Seasons" and her most famous and most personal, "Of Matt and Me". Donna J. Stone died of heart failure at her home in Texas.

She was 61. In cooperation with American Mothers, Inc. Stone's children founded the Donna J. Stone National Literary Awards in her honor. Several writers and poets, all of them mothers themselves, have benefitted from this program. Many of Stone's poems are still in reproduction. A few have been posted on the Wielder of Words website, available to the public. Donna J. Stone at Find a Grave John R. Pascal at Find a Grave George M! at the Internet Broadway Database George M! on IMDb Internet Book List: Wielder of Words New General Catalog of Old Books and Authors Journalists and Literary-Related Obituaries Today in Poetry History: Famous Birthdays

Coenosia attenuata

Coenosia attenuata called "hunter fly" or It is well known under the name "killer fly", is a predatory fly belonging to the family Muscidae. This species is native to Southern Europe, where it is present in Spain, Italy and Greece, it has now a worldwide distribution and it can be found in the Afrotropical realm, in the Australasian realm, in the East Palearctic ecozone, in the Near East, in the Nearctic realm, in the Neotropical realm, in North Africa and in the Oriental realm. It was first discovered in the United States in 2001 by an Integrated Pest Management scout in a greenhouse in New York State, it has since been found throughout South America. Adults of Coenosia attenuata can reach a length of 2.5–4 millimetres. These tiny killer flies have a pale greyish body, with big reddish eyes. Antennae and legs are yellow in males. Females have brownish frons, with a golden ocellar triangle. Antennae and femora are black and the abdomen shows distinct black bands, that are missing in the males. Coenosia attenuata is a effective generalist predator of insects small flies, but small hymenoptera.

Potential prey are caught only in mid-air with its front legs. The preferred prey in greenhouses is the dark-winged fungus gnat This species is considered an important biological control mechanism against some plant pests, including fruit flies and other common greenhouse pests, it has shown promise as a biological control agent of fungus gnats, shore flies

Nick Kamen

Ivor Neville "Nick" Kamen is an English male model and musician. He is best known for the 1986 single "Each Time You Break My Heart" and for a 1985 Levi advert where he took off his blue jean'501s' and white T-shirt in a launderette. Kamen attended St Marks RC Comprehensive School in Harlow along with his brothers Chester. Kamen was first brought to the public's attention in 1984 when Ray Petri featured him on the front cover of The Face; the cover showed him wearing a ski-hat, orange roll-neck sweater and aviator sunglasses. He is most remembered, in the UK, for his 1985 performance in Levi's "Launderette" television commercial, where he strips down to wash his blue jeans in a 1950s style public laundromat while he waits clad only in his Sunspel boxer shorts, one of a series of Bartle Bogle Hegarty advertisements that increased the popularity of Levi 501s; the commercial, directed by Roger Lyons, was selected for, came fourth in, The 100 Greatest TV Ads in 2000. His first single was the 1986 UK number five hit "Each Time You Break My Heart" from his eponymous début album.

Written and produced by Madonna and Stephen Bray, it cracked both the US dance chart and the Top 50 in Canada. Madonna sang the backing vocals, her original demo remains one of many unreleased Madonna songs. Kamen had a No. 16 follow-up in the UK with the second single, "Loving You Is Sweeter Than Ever", although his singles were less-commercially successful in the UK but more so in the rest of Europe Italy, France and Spain. Kamen's second album Us was produced by Patrick Leonard. Madonna again made an appearance as a backing vocalist on the song "Tell Me", this time without contributing to the songwriting or production; the song became a massive hit in Italy in the summer of 1988, spending a total of nine weeks on the number one position. In 1989 Kamen performed the song "Turn It Up" on the soundtrack to Walt Disney's film, Honey, I Shrunk the Kids. 1990 saw the release of one of his biggest hits. The single "I Promised Myself", from the album Move Until We Fly, reached Number 1 in eight European countries and was the fourth most played record in Europe in 1990.

The song was covered by Dead or Alive, A-Teens and most German punk rockers Maggers United. Nick's 1988 hit in Europe "Bring Me Your Love" has a Cantonese cover version 今夜你是否一人? reached No.1 on the airplay chart in Hong Kong in 1989. Nick Kamen appeared on UK television, singing, on Top of the Pops, This Morning, Night Network and The Tube. In 1992, Nick Kamen released his last album to date, entitled Whatever, Whenever. Nick Kamen on Discogs Unofficial fan website Unofficial Italian fanpage

Manchild (rapper)

Gregory Scott Owens known by his stage name Manchild is a Christian rapper who works within the alternative hip hop genre. He fronts the underground and Christian hip hop group Mars ILL, is part of the Deepspace5 supergroup collective, has collaborated with the likes of Christian rappers KJ-52 and John Reuben. Manchild describes the origin of the name Soulheir in "Manchild Speaks": "I used to know this cat named Soulheir / But I offed him, now I use his name / Manchild is the cat that you wanna be quotin'." In February 2008, Manchild announced on Mars ILL's forum that he was starting up a subscription only site that featured five new songs for $5 every month, with an option to pay for the entire year for $50. In September, the blog was made public, with only the songs themselves sent to members who've signed up for the songs. "After starting up and running an independent label and all it entails, after being signed to a major through Gotee, I knew it was time for a different chapter of releasing new music," Manchild told PerformerMag about why he decided to sell his music this way.

In 2009, Manchild and Sean P released a collaborative album, Move Merchants, a name they adopted for themselves, that includes some tracks that are explicitly Catholic hip hop. The Future Ain't What It Used To Be From The Outside Spit Shine Lord Willing Black Magic Ohgeez Punch Drunk Killing With Kindness Beat The Rap Natural Selection All You Can Eat Geronimo Body Double And It Was Good Where Amazing Happens Deepspace5oul Deepspace 5oul Lip Service remix The Founder Double Dog Dare You Downtown ConnectsUnique Just Like Everyone Else Talk Music Wingspan Mechanical Advantage Truth Be Told Half Hearted One and the Same City Scaping I Don't Make It Brilliant Start Right Here The Last One One for the Road People are people - singleThe Night We Called It a Day The Night We Called It a Day Elementary Stick This in Your Ear Take the Rhythm This Curse I Bear Ziontific World Go Round FWords Thinking By Numbers If Tomorrow Starts Without MeDeepSpace5 EP Create To Devastate Voice of the Guns Hall of Justice Dwell in Possibility If I Laugh Universal Official website MARSILL.



Hjulsbro is a district in southeastern Linköping in Östergötland. Hjulsbro is located at a waterfall in Stångån in the central part of Landeryd parish; the northern part of Hjulsbro called Jakobsdal which, among other things, there is a swimming area at Stångån. South of Jakobsdal lies an area known as Kvinneby. Here is Kvinnebyskolan and at Stångån Hackefors lock is located. Further south is Hjulsbro proper including Hjulsbro School and the Hjulsbro bath; the name Hjulsbro derived from the man's name Giurdh, in the oldest written sources mentioned as Giurdhsbro. It is that Giurdh was involved in the construction of a bridge over the stream. There was a ford at the site before the bridge was built. Through euphemisms and dialectal changes, it has become Hjulsbro. Hjulsbro was the name of a farm with associated mill at the falls. In 1505 the estate was bought by the renowned Linköping Bishop Hans Brask. In the 1860s a sluice was built in the stream associated with the construction of the Kinda Canal.

The old road through Hjulsbro passed through a swing bridge over the lock and a vaulted stone bridge over the rapids. The farm and the mill remained until 1906 when they were demolished and replaced by a factory, Hjulsbro Wire Mill and Nail Factory. Around the factory the modern community of Hjulsbro grew up; when the East Central Railroad Line was built in 1901, Hjulsbro station was built just east of the community. Added during the 1900s were food shops, fire station, cafés, library, a Good Templar house, Hjulsbro Furniture factory and a school. Just south of the community Hjulsbro yard was located, a repair yard for the Kinda Canal ships during the years 1931-1948. Districts adjoining Hjulsbro are Johannelund, Ullstämma and Ekholmen