The Paulding Light is a light that appears in a valley outside Paulding, Michigan. Reports of the light have appeared since the 1960s, with popular folklore providing such explanations as ghosts, geologic activity, or swamp gas. In 2010, Syfy Channel's Fact or Faked: Paranormal Files conducted a paranormal investigation and concluded that the Paulding Light was unexplained. Michigan Tech students conducting a scientific investigation of the light in 2010 were able to see automobile headlights and tail lights when viewing the light through a telescope, they recreated the effect of the light by driving a car through a specific stretch of US Highway 45. The light appears in a valley outside of Paulding, Michigan, in the Upper Peninsula, near Watersmeet off US 45 on Robbins Pond Road/Old US 45; the viewing location for the Paulding Light is located at 46°21′08″N 89°10′43.5″W. The first recorded sighting of the Paulding Light was in 1966 when a group of teenagers reported the light to a local sheriff.
Since a number of other individuals have reported seeing the mysterious light, said to appear nearly every night at the site. Although stories related to the light vary, the most popular legend involves the death of a railroad brakeman; the legend states that the valley once contained railroad tracks and the light is the lantern of the brakeman, killed while attempting to stop an oncoming train from colliding with railway cars stopped on the tracks. Another story claims the light is the ghost of a slain mail courier, while another says that it is the ghost of an Indian dancing on the power lines that run through the valley. According to John Carlisle of the Detroit Free Press, one legend is that it is a "grandparent looking for a lost grandchild with a lantern that needs constant relighting, the reason the light seems to come and go". While popular folklore attributes paranormal or supernatural explanations for the light, scientific investigations show that it is due to car headlights on the north–south stretch of US 45 five miles north of the observation area.
In October 1990, a group of investigators using telescopic and travel time analysis identified the Paulding Lights as the head and tail lights of vehicles traveling on US 45 north of the observation site. In 2010, students from the Michigan Tech chapter of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers used a telescope to examine the light, were able to see vehicles and stationary objects on a highway, including a specific Adopt a Highway sign, they were able to recreate the Paulding Light by driving a car through a specific location on US 45. They recreated other observations related to the light, such as multicolored patterns and variations in intensity, they hypothesized that the stability of an inversion layer allowed the lights to be visible from the stretch of highway 4.5 miles away. Paranormal researcher Ben Radford explains that there are many cases of similar light reports across the U. S. but there are many possible sources for the lights so that there is no unifying theory as to what they can be.
Some are unexplained, but others can be "headlights, aircraft, cloud reflections of distant city or vehicle lights, insects and so on... at the end of the day..." Radford explains, "it's more fun to imagine the distant glimmer is a ghostly railroad brakeman's phantom lantern than the headlights of a 2005 Honda Civic". In 2010, the Paulding Light was featured on the SyFy television show Fact or Faked: Paranormal Files; the investigators were depicted trying several experiments in an unsuccessful attempt to recreate the light, including using car headlights from a north-south section of US 45 and a flyover by an airplane with a spotlight. According to SyFy.com, "After conducting an EVP session, they decide that the phenomenon is unexplainable." Hessdalen light Gurdon Light Marfa lights The Spooklight Brown Mountain Lights Light of Saratoga St. Elmo's fire St. Louis Light Will-o'-the-wisp An in depth Paulding Light investigation from The Legend Trippers Journal 10X zoom camcorder footage of Paulding Light
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, therefore are distinct from lagoons, are larger and deeper than ponds, though there are no official or scientific definitions. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are flowing. Most lakes streams. Natural lakes are found in mountainous areas, rift zones, areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for industrial or agricultural use, for hydro-electric power generation or domestic water supply, or for aesthetic, recreational purposes, or other activities.
The word lake comes from Middle English lake, from Old English lacu, from Proto-Germanic *lakō, from the Proto-Indo-European root *leǵ-. Cognates include Dutch laak, Middle Low German lāke as in: de:Wolfslake, de:Butterlake, German Lache, Icelandic lækur. Related are the English words leak and leach. There is considerable uncertainty about defining the difference between lakes and ponds, no current internationally accepted definition of either term across scientific disciplines or political boundaries exists. For example, limnologists have defined lakes as water bodies which are a larger version of a pond, which can have wave action on the shoreline or where wind-induced turbulence plays a major role in mixing the water column. None of these definitions excludes ponds and all are difficult to measure. For this reason, simple size-based definitions are used to separate ponds and lakes. Definitions for lake range in minimum sizes for a body of water from 2 hectares to 8 hectares. Charles Elton, one of the founders of ecology, regarded lakes as waterbodies of 40 hectares or more.
The term lake is used to describe a feature such as Lake Eyre, a dry basin most of the time but may become filled under seasonal conditions of heavy rainfall. In common usage, many lakes bear names ending with the word pond, a lesser number of names ending with lake are in quasi-technical fact, ponds. One textbook illustrates this point with the following: "In Newfoundland, for example every lake is called a pond, whereas in Wisconsin every pond is called a lake."One hydrology book proposes to define the term "lake" as a body of water with the following five characteristics: it or fills one or several basins connected by straits has the same water level in all parts it does not have regular intrusion of seawater a considerable portion of the sediment suspended in the water is captured by the basins the area measured at the mean water level exceeds an arbitrarily chosen threshold With the exception of the seawater intrusion criterion, the others have been accepted or elaborated upon by other hydrology publications.
The majority of lakes on Earth are freshwater, most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. Canada, with a deranged drainage system has an estimated 31,752 lakes larger than 3 square kilometres and an unknown total number of lakes, but is estimated to be at least 2 million. Finland has larger, of which 56,000 are large. Most lakes have at least one natural outflow in the form of a river or stream, which maintain a lake's average level by allowing the drainage of excess water; some lakes do not have a natural outflow and lose water by evaporation or underground seepage or both. They are termed endorheic lakes. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for hydro-electric power generation, aesthetic purposes, recreational purposes, industrial use, agricultural use or domestic water supply. Evidence of extraterrestrial lakes exists. Globally, lakes are outnumbered by ponds: of an estimated 304 million standing water bodies worldwide, 91% are 1 hectare or less in area. Small lakes are much more numerous than large lakes: in terms of area, one-third of the world's standing water is represented by lakes and ponds of 10 hectares or less.
However, large lakes account for much of the area of standing water with 122 large lakes of 1,000 square kilometres or more representing about 29% of the total global area of standing inland water. Hutchinson in 1957 published a monograph, regarded as a landmark discussion and classification of all major lake types, their origin, morphometric characteristics, distribution; as summarized and discussed by these researchers, Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. This
Bond Falls is a waterfall on the middle branch of the Ontonagon River, a few miles east of Paulding in Haight Township in southern Ontonagon County, Michigan. The site is near U. S. Highway 45 in the western portion of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan; the waterfalls are listed by the state of Michigan as the Bond Falls Scenic Site. The total drop of the falls is about 50 feet. Trails lead to and from the falls from a picnic area atop the falls. There is a newer walkway that extends across the river below the base of the falls that allows for perfect viewing; the river drops 875 feet down from Bond Falls Flowage, perched on the highlands of the western Upper Peninsula, to Lake Superior. Bond Falls is the first stage of this drop in elevation. From Bond Falls, the river continues northward to the Agate Falls Scenic Site. A "flowage", in the language of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, is a reservoir. Bond Falls is a natural waterfall, but it has been enhanced by a nearby dam built by the Upper Peninsula Power Company.
There is a rest-area park below the waterfall, from which the falls can be admired. The Ontonagan River and Bond Falls Flowage are separately stocked with brook trout
The Wisconsin River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. At 430 miles long, it is the state's longest river; the river's name, first recorded in 1673 by Jacques Marquette as "Meskousing", is rooted in the Algonquian languages used by the area's American Indian tribes, but its original meaning is obscure. French explorers who followed in the wake of Marquette modified the name to "Ouisconsin", so it appears on Guillaume de L'Isle's map; this was simplified to "Wisconsin" in the early 19th century before being applied to Wisconsin Territory and the state of Wisconsin. The Wisconsin River originates in the forests of the North Woods Lake District of northern Wisconsin, in Lac Vieux Desert near the border of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, it flows south across the glacial plain of central Wisconsin, passing through Wausau, Stevens Point, Wisconsin Rapids. In southern Wisconsin it encounters the terminal moraine formed during the last ice age, where it forms the Dells of the Wisconsin River.
North of Madison at Portage, the river turns to the west, flowing through Wisconsin's hilly Western Upland and joining the Mississippi 3 miles south of Prairie du Chien. The highest waterfall on the river is Grandfather Falls in Lincoln County; the modern Wisconsin River was formed in several stages. The lower, westward-flowing portion of the river is located in the unglaciated Driftless Area, this section of the river's course predates the rest by several million years; the lower reach of the river is narrower than its upstream valley, leading to the suggestion the upper portions of the ancestor of the river flowed east previous to the Pleistocene. The remaining length of the river was formed as glaciers advanced and retreated over Wisconsin; the stretch of river from Stevens Point north to Merrill was a drainage route for meltwater flowing away from the glaciers which covered northern Wisconsin during the Wisconsin Glaciation. As the glaciers retreated further northward, the river grew in that direction.
South from Stevens Point, the meltwater would have flowed into Glacial Lake Wisconsin, a prehistoric proglacial lake that existed in the central part of the state. As temperatures warmed around 15,000 years ago, the ice dam holding the lake in place burst, unleashing a catastrophic flood that carved the Dells of the Wisconsin River and joined the upper stretches of the river with the pre-existing lower river valley that today flows from Portage to Prairie du Chien. In the summer of 1673, French missionary Jacques Marquette, French-Canadian explorer Louis Joliet, their crew of five Metis arrived near the headwaters of the Fox River. From there, they were told to portage their two canoes a distance of less than two miles through marsh and oak plains to the Wisconsin River. "The river on which we embarked is called Meskousing," wrote Marquette. "It is wide. In his only other reference to the river, Marquette says that the Mississippi is "narrow at the place where Miskous empties." After they returned, Joliet used the name "Miskonsing" on a map that he drew in 1674, when the news of their voyage was first published in 1681 the book's author, Melchisedec Thevenot, called it the "Mescousin" River.
The name used today was born when the explorer Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, misread Marquette's initial M, written by hand in cursive script, "Ou" in 1674. This found its way onto printed maps though in a report written in 1682 La Salle tried to correct himself: "On the east one comes first to the river called by the Savages Ouisconsing, or Misconsing, which flows from the east." Over the next two decades the initial M disappeared as writers and mapmakers always called the river by some version that began with a vowel. For the next 150 years the river, by extension our part of the world was known as "Ouisconsin." Sloppy printers sometimes turned this into Ouriconsing and Ouiskonche, but the "Ouis …" spelling was the one most used by both French and English writers until the mid-19th century. As American soldiers and officials traveled through the area for the first time following the War of 1812, they used the French spelling, but when large numbers of lead miners streamed into the country south of the river in the 1820s, the U.
S. government began to refer to it differently in debates and legislation. These legal documents created by the government in Washington sometimes used the French spelling, but they introduced the uniquely American, "Wisconsin." The U. S. House of Representatives Journal was the first to print it, during discussion of "laying out a town at Helena, on the Wisconsin river, in the Territory of Michigan …" In the five years that followed, the modern spelling was used with increasing frequency in government publications as well as in commercially published books and maps. In 1836, when territorial status was authorized on July 4, the name became "Wisconsin". Oddly, the person who did the most to create Wisconsin Territory didn't like the name. James Duane Doty, who first visited the region in 1820, was the principal advocate for the spelling "Wiskonsan", which shows up dozens of times through the early 1840s. "During all this time, Governor Doty and the legislature were in constant hostility," wrote contemporary observer Theodore Rodolf.
"One of the governor's vagaries had to be settled by a joint resolution. The governor had a fondness f
Vilas County, Wisconsin
Vilas County is a county in the state of Wisconsin, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,430, its county seat is Eagle River. The earliest inhabitants of Vilas County were members of the Chippewa band of Native Americans. In the 1850s migrants from New England from Vermont and Connecticut, constructed wagon roads and trails through Vilas County including the Ontonogan Mail Trail and a military road from Fort Howard to Fort Wilkins in Copper Harbor, Michigan. Vilas County was named for William Freeman Vilas. From Vermont, Vilas represented Wisconsin in the United States Senate from 1891 to 1897. Logging began in the late 1850s. Loggers came from Cortland County, New York, Carroll County, New Hampshire, Orange County and Down East Maine in what is now Washington County and Hancock County, Maine. Many dams were built throughout the county to assist loggers as they sent their timber downstream to the lumber and paper mills in the Wisconsin River valley. After the county was founded in 1893 and logging ceased to be the primary industry in the area, migrants seeking other forms of employment settled in the county.
These immigrants came from Germany and Poland though some came from other parts of the United States as well. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,018 square miles, of which 857 square miles is land and 161 square miles is water. There are 1,318 lakes in the county. Much of Vilas County is covered by the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest and the Northern Highland-American Legion State Forest as well as extensive county forest lands. Vilas County waters drain to Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, the Mississippi River; the Wisconsin and Presque Isle Rivers all find their headwaters in Vilas County. Forest County - southeast Iron County - west Oneida County - south Price County - southwest Gogebic County, Michigan - north Iron County, Michigan - northeast U. S. Highway 45 U. S. Highway 51 Highway 17 Highway 32 Highway 47 Highway 70 Highway 155 KARV - Lakeland Airport / Noble F. Lee Memorial Field KEGV - Eagle River Union Airport KLNL - Kings Land O' Lakes Airport D25 - Manitowish Waters Airport Chequamegon National Forest Nicolet National Forest Although these two forests have been administratively combined into the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, it is important to note that the county contains portions of both original forests.
As of the census of 2000, there were 21,033 people, 9,066 households, 6,300 families residing in the county. The population density was 24 people per square mile. There were 22,397 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.69% White, 0.20% Black or African American, 9.08% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, 0.65% from two or more races. 0.86% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 37.8% were of German, 7.9% Polish, 6.6% Irish and 5.3% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.9% spoke English, 1.3% Spanish and 1.2% German as their first language. There were 9,066 households out of which 23.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.40% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.50% were non-families. 26.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.73. In the county, the population was spread out with 20.70% under the age of 18, 5.00% from 18 to 24, 23.10% from 25 to 44, 28.50% from 45 to 64, 22.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females there were 99.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.80 males. The economy in Vilas County is based on tourism centered on its high concentration of lakes and forests. Hunting and sport fishing are the backbones of the fall economy, ice fishing and snowmobiling makes up the bulk of the economy in the wintertime. Logging, forestry and government account for important parts of the local economy. Eagle River Boulder Junction Lac du Flambeau Sayner Screenwriter Winifred Dunn was born in Vilas County. National Register of Historic Places listings in Vilas County, Wisconsin Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Wisconsin Counties of Waupaca, Wood, Lincoln, Vilas and Shawano.
Chicago: J. H. Beers, 1895. Jones, George O.. History of Lincoln and Vilas Counties, Wisconsin. Minneapolis: H. C. Cooper, Jr. 1924. Vilas County government website Vilas County Chamber of Commerce Vilas County map from the Wisconsin Department of Transportation
Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th