Vosges is an eastern department of France named after the Vosges mountain range. It consists of 17 cantons and 507 communes, of which 234 are rural, including the commune of Domrémy-la-Pucelle, where Joan of Arc was born. Joan of Arc was born in the village of Domrémy in the French part of the duchy of Bar, or Barrois mouvant, located west of the Meuse; the part of the duchy lying east of the Meuse was part of the Holy Roman Empire. The duchy of Bar became part of the province of Lorraine; the village of Domrémy was renamed Domrémy-la-Pucelle in honour of Joan. The Vosges department is one of the original 83 departments of France, created on February 9, 1790 during the French Revolution, it was made of territories, part of the province of Lorraine. In German it is referred to as Vogesen. In 1793 the independent principality of Salm-Salm, enclosed inside the Vosges department, was annexed to France and incorporated into Vosges. In 1795 the area of Schirmeck was detached from the Bas-Rhin department and incorporated into the Vosges department.
The Vosges department had now an area of 6,127 km² which it kept until 1871. In 1794 the Vosges was the site of a major battle between the forces of Revolutionary France and the Allied Coalition. See Battle of Trippstadt; the Place des Vosges in Paris was so renamed in 1799 when the department became the first to pay the new Revolutionary taxes. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, 4% of the Vosges department in the extreme northeast of the department was annexed to the German Empire by the Treaty of Frankfurt on the ground that the people there spoke Germanic dialects; the area annexed on May 18, 1871 corresponded to the canton of Schirmeck and the northern half of the canton of Saales. Schirmeck and Saales had been part of Alsace; these territories, along with the rest of Alsace and the annexed territories of Lorraine, became part of the Reichsland of Elsaß-Lothringen. The area of the Vosges department was thus reduced to its current 5,874 km². In 1919, with the allied victory in the World War I, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France by Germany at the Treaty of Versailles.
However and Saales were not returned to the Vosges department, but instead were incorporated into the recreated Bas-Rhin department. An ill-fated Special Air Service mission called Operation Loyton took place in the Vosges forests in 1944. Various military cemeteries are located in the department the largest of, the Le Quéquement American Cemetery in Dinozé, near Epinal, it was built by the American 45th Infantry Division in September 1944 and completed in 1959. 5,255 soldiers killed in action during fighting in France, the Vosges, the Rhine valley and Germany are interred there. The largest cities/towns are Épinal, Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, Gérardmer, on the lake of the same name, Remiremont. A total population of 378,830 inhabitants was recorded in the 2011 census; the population is split with 30 % living in rural districts. 47% of the department is covered by woodlands and forests, while 38% of land is in agricultural use. The remaining 13% is commercial and residential. While the west part of the Vosges is flat sedimentary land, the east is dominated by the Vosges Mountain range of which the Grand Ballon at 1424m is the highest peak.
The Monts Faucilles traverse the south of the department in a broad curve declining on the north into elevated plateaus, on the south encircling the upper basin of the River Saône. This chain, dividing the basins cf the Rhône and the Rhine, forms part of the European watershed between the basins of the Mediterranean and Atlantic; the Saône rises in the Vosges. The Anger river passes through it; the Roman fortified town of Grand, located 30 km from Toul, has an amphitheatre and a temple to the Cult of Apollo. At La Bure, located a few kilometres from Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, archaeologists have found evidence for human habitation going back to around 2000 BC; as a border area, the Vosges region was a route for possible invasion. As such four important forts were constructed in the department: Bourlémont Fort in Mont-les-Neufchâteau. Cantons of the Vosges department Communes of the Vosges department Arrondissements of the Vosges department Vosges.com Economic information about the Vosges Climbbybike.com: All information on and profiles of the climbs and cols of the Vosges General Council website Prefecture website Vosges vacations Information - Vosges.us Illustrated Article on the Vosges Battlefields in Winter at'Battlefields Europe' "Vosges".
Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921
The Jamagne is a short river of 6.9 kilometres, an emissary of the lac de Gérardmer, its source. It flows into the Vologne as a left tributary at Kichompré; the name Jamagne came from Ja-magna meaning "already big" by analogy with its outlet from the lake. The course of the Jamagne is canalized and rectilinear when it flows through the Gérardmer area, following the construction of Route nationale 417 in 1950; the river suffered from serious domestic pollution until 1998. When the Cleurie river valley was blocked by Würmian moraine in a double vallum 50 metres thick, the waters of the Hohneck massif stopped flowing towards le Tholy and accumulated upstream of the deposit, forming the lac de Gérardmer. With no outlet to the west, the waters left the lake in the opposite direction to their historic one, via the Jamagne, which flows into the Vologne downstream of the hamlet of Kichompré; the flow of the Jamagne was exploited during the 20th century for generating electricity as well as for powering sawmills which were set up on its banks.
In contrast to other rivers of the Vosges, the Jamagne is unique in flowing from southwest to northeast. The Jamagne's principal tributary is the Basse des Rupts known as the Forgotte; however the lac de Gérardmer is fed by four main streams: The Cheny stream The Chêne stram The Phény stream The Mérelle stream According to the Sandre website, the Mérelle stream is identified as the mother branch of the Jamagne upstream of the lac de Gérardmer. Nonetheless, the path of the Phény stream accumulated with the lower part of the Jamagne amounts to a total length of 9 kilometres, it appears. The flow of the river has been regulated since the beginning of the 20th century by a system of valves located at the outlet of the lac de Gérardmer
Gérardmer is a commune in the Vosges department in Grand Est in northeastern France. Le Locle, Switzerland Tidermène, Mali Waremme, Belgium The Fantastic'Arts festival of horror and fantastic film has been held in Gérardmer each year since 1994. Maximilien Kelsch and politician, born in Gérardmer Paul Cuny and politician, born in Gérardmer Edward Gardère, born in Gérardmer André Gardère, born in Gérardmer Gilberte Cournand and dance critic, gallery owner and bookseller, born in Gérardmer Claude Vanony and humorist, born in Gérardmer Patrick Rémy, cross-country skier, born in Gérardmer Raphaël Dargent, historian and writer, born in Gérardmer Julien Bontemps, learnt to sail in Gérardmer Maxime Laheurte, world nordic combined team champion, born in Gérardmer Émile Duguet, Righteous Among the Nations, concealed Jews at his home in Gérardmer Communes of the Vosges department INSEE Official website
A glacial lake is a body of water with origins from glacier activity. They are formed when a glacier erodes the land, melts, filling the depression created by the glacier. Near the end of the last glacial period 10,000 years ago, glaciers began to retreat. A retreating glacier left behind large deposits of ice in hollows between drumlins or hills; as the ice age ended, these melted to create lakes. This is apparent in the Lake District in Northwestern England where post-glacial sediments are between 4 and 6 metres deep; these lakes are surrounded by drumlins, along with other evidence of the glacier such as moraines and erosional features such as striations and chatter marks. These lakes are visible in aerial photos of landforms in regions that were glaciated during the last ice age; the coastlines near these areas are very irregular, reflecting the same geological process. By contrast, other areas have fewer lakes that appear attached to rivers, their coastlines are smoother. These areas were carved more by water erosion.
The formation and characteristics of glacial lakes vary between location and can be classified into glacial erosion lake, ice-blocked lake, moraine-dammed lake, other glacial lake, supraglacial lake, subglacial lake. Since the deglaciation of the little ice age Earth has lost more than 50% of its glaciers; this along with the current increase in retreating glaciers caused by climate change has created a shift from frozen to liquid water, increasing the extent and volume of glacial lakes around the world. Most glacial lakes present today can be found in Asia and North America; the area which will see the greatest increase in lake formation is the Southern Tibetan Plateau region from debris covered glaciers. This increase in glacial lake formation indicates an increase in occurrence of glacial lake outburst flood events caused by damming and subsequent breaking of moraine and ice; the amount of sediment found in glacial lakes varies from four to six meters in depth, has a general stratigraphic sequence of.
Over time the glacial lake sediments are subjected to change. As seen in the English Lake District, the layers of the sediments at the bottom of the lakes contain evidence of the rate of erosion; the elemental make up of the sediments are not associated with the lakes themselves, but by the migration of the elements within the soil, such as iron and manganese. The distribution of these elements, within the lake bed, are attributed to the condition of the drainage basin and the chemical composition of the water. Sediment deposition can be influenced by animal activity; the amount of halogens and boron found in the sediments accompanies a change in erosional activity. The rate of deposition reflects the amount of boron in the deposited sediments; the scouring action of the glaciers pulverizes minerals in the rock. These pulverized minerals become sediment at the bottom of the lake, some of the rock flour becomes suspended in the water column; these suspended minerals support a large population of algae.
Biodiversity and productivity tend to be lower in glacial lakes as only cold-tolerant and cold-adapted species can withstand their harsh conditions. Glacial rock flour and low nutrient levels create an oligotrophic environment where few species of plankton and benthic organisms reside. Before becoming a lake the first stages of glacial recession melt enough freshwater to form a shallow lagoon. In the case of Iceland's Jökulsárlón glacial lagoon located on the edge of the Atlantic Ocean, tides bring in an array of fish species to the edge of the glacier; these fish attract an abundance of predators from birds to marine mammals, that are searching for food. These predators include fauna such as, arctic terns and arctic skua. Glacial lakes that have been formed for a long period of time have a more diverse ecosystem of fauna originating form neighboring tributaries or other glacial refugia. For example, many native species of the great lakes basin entered via the Mississippi basin refugia within the past 14,000 years.
Glacial lakes act as fresh water storage for the replenishing of a regions water supply and serve as potential electricity producers from hydropower. Glacial lakes aesthetic nature stimulates economic activity through the attraction of the tourism industry. Thousands of tourists visit the Jökulsárlón glacial lagoon in Iceland annually to take part in commercial boat tours and every two to four years thousands visit the Argentino glacial lake in Argentina to witness the collapse of the cyclically formed arch of ice from the Perito Moreno glacier, making it one of the largest travel destinations in Patagonia. Great Lakes of North America Glacial history of Minnesota Proglacial lake Moraine-dammed lake Subglacial lake Zungenbecken
The Vosges are a range of low mountains in eastern France, near its border with Germany. Together with the Palatine Forest to the north on the German side of the border, they form a single geomorphological unit and low mountain range of around 8,000 km2 in area, it runs in a north-northeast direction from the Burgundian Gate to the Börrstadt Basin, forms the western boundary of the Upper Rhine Plain. The Grand Ballon is the highest peak at 1,424 m, followed by the Storkenkopf, the Hohneck. Geographically, the Vosges Mountains are wholly in France, far above the Col de Saverne separating them from the Palatinate Forest in Germany; the latter area logically continues the same Vosges geologic structure but traditionally receives this different name for historical and political reasons. From 1871 to 1918 the Vosges marked for the most part the border between Germany and France, due to the Franco-Prussian War; the elongated massif is divided south to north into three sections: The Higher Vosges or High Vosges, extending in the southern part of the range from Belfort to the river valley of the Bruche.
The rounded summits of the Hautes Vosges are called ballons in French "balloons". The sandstone Vosges or Middle Vosges, between the Permian Basin of Saint-Die including the Devonian-Dinantian volcanic massif of Schirmeck-Moyenmoutier and the Col de Saverne The Lower Vosges or Low Vosges, a sandstone plateau ranging from 1,000 feet to 1,850 feet high, between the Col de Saverne and the source of the Lauter. In addition, the term "Central Vosges" is used to designate the various lines of summits those above 1,000 m in elevation; the French department of Vosges is named after the range. From a geological point of view, a graben at the beginning of the Paleogene period caused the formation of Alsace and the uplift of the plates of the Vosges, in eastern France, those in the Black Forest, in Germany. From a scientific view, the Vosges Mountains are not mountains as such, but rather the western edge of the unfinished Alsatian graben, stretching continuously as part of the larger Tertiary formations.
Erosive glacial action was the primary catalyst for development of the representative highland massif feature. The Vosges in their southern and central parts are called the Hautes Vosges; these consist of a large Carboniferous mountain eroded just before the Permian Period with gneiss, porphyritic masses or other volcanic intrusions. In the north and west, there are places less eroded by glaciers, here Vosges Triassic and Permian red sandstone remains are found in large beds; the grès vosgien are embedded sometimes up to more than 500 m in thickness. The Lower Vosges in the north are dislocated plates of various sandstones, ranging from 300 to 600 m high; the Vosges is similar to the corresponding range of the Black Forest on the other side of the Rhine: both lie within the same degrees of latitude, have similar geological formations, are characterized by forests on their lower slopes, above which are open pastures and rounded summits of a rather uniform altitude. Both areas exhibit steeper slopes towards the Rhine River and a more gradual descent on the other side.
This occurs because both the Vosges and the Black Forest were formed by isostatic uplift, in a response to the opening of the Rhine Graben. The Rhine Graben is a major extensional basin; when such basins form, the thinning of the crust causes uplift adjacent to the basin. The amount of uplift decreases with distance from the basin, causing the highest range of peaks to be adjacent to the basin, the lower mountains to stretch away from the basin; the highest points are in the Hautes Vosges: the Grand Ballon, in ancient times called Ballon de Guebwiller or Ballon de Murbach, rises to 1,424 m. The Col de Saales, between the Higher and Central Vosges, reaches nearly 579 m, both lower and narrower than the Higher Vosges, with Mont Donon at 1,008 m being the highest point of this Nordic section; the highest mountains and peaks of the Vosges are: Grand Ballon 1,424 m Storkenkopf 1,366 m Hohneck 1,363 m Kastelberg 1,350 m Klintzkopf 1,330 m Rothenbachkopf 1,316 m Lauchenkopf 1,314 m Batteriekopf 1,311 m Haut de Falimont 1,306 m Gazon du Faing 1,306 m Rainkopf 1,305 m Gazon du Faîte 1,303 m Ringbuhl 1,302 m Soultzereneck 1,302 m Le Tanet 1,292 m Petit Ballon 1,272 m Ballon d'Alsace 1,247 m Brézouard 1,229 m Ballon de Servance 1,216 m Drumont 1,200 m Planche des Belles Filles 1,148 m Molkenrain 1,123 m Champ du Feu 1,099 m Baerenkopf 1,074 m Rocher de Mutzig 1,010 m Donon 1,009 m Taennchel 992 m Climont 965 m Hartmannswillerkopf 956 m Chatte Pendue 902 m Ungersberg 901 m Tête du Coq
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona