The Fula people or Fulani or Fulɓe, numbering between 38 and 40 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa dispersed across the region. Inhabiting many countries, they live in West Africa and northern parts of Central Africa but in, South Sudan and regions near the Red Sea coast. A significant proportion of the Fula – a third, or an estimated 12 to 13 million – are pastoralists, making them the ethnic group with the largest nomadic pastoral community in the world; the majority of the Fula ethnic group consisted of semi-sedentary people as well as sedentary settled farmers, artisans and nobility. As an ethnic group, they are bound together by their history and their culture. More than 90% of the Fula are Muslims; the Fulas are leaders in many West African countries. These include the president of Muhammadu Buhari, they are leaders in International Institutions such as the Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations, Amina J. Mohammed. There are many names used in other languages to refer to the Fulɓe.
Fulani in English is borrowed from the Hausa term. Fula, from Manding languages, is used in English, sometimes spelled Fulah or Fullah. Fula and Fulani are used in English, including within Africa; the French borrowed the Wolof term Pël, variously spelled: Peul and Peuhl. More the Fulfulde / Pulaar term Fulɓe, a plural noun has been Anglicised as Fulbe, gaining popularity in use. In Portuguese, the terms Fula or Futafula are used; the terms Fallata Fallatah or Fellata are of Kanuri origins, are the ethnonyms by which Fulani people are identified by in parts of Chad and in Sudan. The Fula people are distributed, across the Sahel from the Atlantic coast to the Red Sea in West Africa; the countries where they are present include Mauritania, Senegal, the Gambia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Chad, South Sudan the Central African Republic, as far east as the Red Sea in Sudan and Egypt. With the exception of Guinea, where the Fula make up the largest ethnic group, Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger, Fulas are either a significant or a minority ethnic group in nearly all other countries they live in.
Alongside, many speak other languages of the countries they inhabit, making many Fulani bilingual or trilingual in nature. Such languages include French, Bambara and Arabic. Major concentrations of Fulani people exist in the Fouta Djallon highlands of central Guinea and south into the northernmost reaches of Sierra Leone; this is the area known as the Fombina meaning "The South" in Adamawa Fulfulde, because it represented the most southern and eastern reaches of Fulɓe hegemonic dominance in West Africa. In this area, Fulfulde is the local lingua franca, language of cross cultural communication. Further east of this area, Fulani communities become predominantly nomadic, exist at less organized social systems; these are the areas of the Chari-Baguirmi Region and its river systems, in Chad and the Central African Republic, the Ouaddaï highlands of Eastern Chad, the areas around Kordofan and the Blue Nile, Kassala regions of Sudan, as well as the Red Sea coastal city of Port Sudan. The Fulani on their way to or back from the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, settled in many parts of eastern Sudan, today representing a distinct community of over 2 million people referred to as the Fellata.
While their early settlements in West Africa were in the vicinity of the tri-border point of present-day Mali and Mauritania, they are now, after centuries of gradual migrations and conquests, spread throughout a wide band of West and Central Africa. The Fulani People occupy a vast geographical expanse located in a longitudinal East-West band south of the Sahara, just north of the coastal rain forest and swamps. There are an estimated 20-25 million Fulani people. There are three different types of Fulani based on settlement patterns, viz: the Nomadic/Pastoral or Mbororo, The Semi-Nomadic and the Settled or "Town Fulani"; the pastoral Fulani move around with their cattle throughout the year. They do not stay around, for long stretches; the semi-nomadic Fulani can either be Fulɓe families who happen to settle down temporarily at particular times of the year, or Fulɓe families who do not "browse" around past their immediate surroundings, though they possess livestock, they do not wander away from a fixed or settled homestead not too far away, they are "In-betweeners".
Settled Fulani live in villages and cities permanently and have given u
The glossy ibis is a wading bird in the ibis family Threskiornithidae. The scientific name derives from Ancient Greek plegados and Latin, both meaning "sickle" and referring to the distinctive shape of the bill; this is the most widespread ibis species, breeding in scattered sites in warm regions of Europe, Africa and the Atlantic and Caribbean regions of the Americas. It is thought to have originated in the Old World and spread from Africa to northern South America in the 19th century, from where it spread to North America; the glossy ibis was first found in the New World in 1817. Audubon saw the species just once in Florida in 1832, it expanded its range northwards in the 1940s and to the west in the 1980s. This species is migratory. Birds from other populations may disperse outside the breeding season. While declining in Europe, it has established a breeding colony in southern Spain, there appears to be a growing trend for the Spanish birds to winter in Britain and Ireland, with at least 22 sightings in 2010.
In 2014, a pair attempted to breed in Lincolnshire, the first such attempt in Britain A few birds now spend most summers in Ireland, but as yet there is no evidence of breeding there. In New Zealand, a few birds arrive there annually in the month of July a pair bred amongst a colony of Royal Spoonbill. Glossy ibises undertake dispersal movements after breeding and are nomadic; the more northerly populations are migratory and travel on a broad front, for example across the Sahara Desert. Populations in temperate regions breed during the local spring, while tropical populations nest to coincide with the rainy season. Nesting is in mixed-species colonies; when not nesting, flocks of over 100 individuals may occur on migration, during the winter or dry seasons the species is found foraging in small flocks. Glossy ibises roost communally at night in large flocks, with other species in trees which can be some distance from wetland feeding areas. Glossy ibises feed in shallow water and nest in freshwater or brackish wetlands with tall dense stands of emergent vegetation such as reeds, papyrus or rushes) and low trees or bushes.
They show a preference for marshes at the margins of lakes and rivers but can be found at lagoons, flood-plains, wet meadows, reservoirs, sewage ponds and irrigated farmland. It is less found in coastal locations such as estuaries, salt marshes and coastal lagoons. Preferred roosting sites are in large trees which may be distant from the feeding areas; the nest is a platform of twigs and vegetation positioned at least 1 m above water, sometimes up to 7 m in tall, dense stands of emergent vegetation, low trees or bushes. 3 to 4 eggs are laid, are incubated by both male and female birds for between 20 and 23 days. The young can leave the nest after about 7 days, but the parents continue to feed them for another 6 or 7 weeks; the young fledge in about 28 days. The diet of the glossy ibis is variable according to the season and is dependent on what is available. Prey includes adult and larval insects such as aquatic beetles, damselflies, crickets and caddisflies, Annelida including leeches, molluscs and fish, lizards, small snakes and nestling birds.
This species is a mid-sized ibis. It is 48 -- 66 cm long -- 105 cm wingspan; the culmen measures 9.7 to 14.4 cm in length, each wing measures 24.8–30.6 cm, the tail is 9–11.2 cm and the tarsus measures 6.8–11.3 cm. The body mass of this ibis can range from 485 to 970 g. Breeding adults have reddish-brown bodies and shiny bottle-green wings. Non-breeders and juveniles have duller bodies; this species has a brownish bill, dark facial skin bordered above and below in blue-gray to cobalt blue, red-brown legs. Unlike herons, ibises fly with necks outstretched, their flight being graceful and in V formation, it has shiny feathers. Sounds made by this rather quiet ibis include a variety of croaks and grunts, including a hoarse grrrr made when breeding; the glossy ibis is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies. Glossy ibises can be threatened by wetland habitat degradation and loss through drainage, increased salinity, groundwater extraction and invasion by exotic plants.
The common name black curlew may be a reference to the glossy ibis and this name appears in Anglo-Saxon literature. Yalden and Albarella do not mention this species as occurring in medieval England. Cramp, Stanley. M.. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198546795. Field Guide to the Birds of North America. National Geographic Society. BirdLife species factsheet for Plegadis falcinellus Glossy Ibis - The Atlas of Southern African Birds Glossy Ibis Species Account – Cornell Lab of Ornithology "Glossy Ibis media". Internet Bird Collection. Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus - eNature.com Field guide photo page on Flickr Glossy ibis photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Plegadis falcinellus at IUCN Red List maps http://bo.adu.org.za/pdf/BO_2016_07-101.pdf
The lesser flamingo is a species of flamingo occurring in sub-Saharan Africa, with another population in India. Birds are reported from further north, but these are considered vagrants, it was moved from the genus Phoeniconaias to Phoenicoparrus in 2014. The lesser flamingo is the smallest species of flamingo, though it is a tall and large bird by most standards; the species can weigh from 1.2 to 2.7 kg. The standing height is around 80 to 90 cm; the total length and wingspan are from 90 to 105 cm. Most of the plumage is pinkish white; the clearest difference between this species and the greater flamingo, the only other Old World species of flamingo, is the much more extensive black on the bill. Size is less helpful unless the species are together, since the sexes of each species differ in height; the lesser flamingo may be the most numerous species of flamingo, with a population that numbered up to two million individual birds. This species feeds on Spirulina, algae which grow only in alkaline lakes.
Presence of flamingo groups near water bodies is indication of sodic alkaline water, not suitable for irrigation use. Although blue-green in colour, the algae contain the photosynthetic pigments that give the birds their pink colour, their deep bill is specialised for filtering tiny food items. Lesser flamingos are prey to a variety of species, including marabou storks, African fish eagles and African golden wolves. In Africa, where they are most numerous, the lesser flamingos breed principally on the caustic Lake Natron in northern Tanzania, their other African breeding sites are at Etosha Pan, Sua Pan, Kamfers Dam. The last confirmed breeding at Aftout es Saheli in coastal Mauritania was in 1965. Breeding occurred at Lake Magadi in Kenya in 1962. In the early 20th century, breeding was observed at Lake Nakuru; the species breeds in southwestern and southern Asia. In 1974, they bred at the Rann of Kutch, but since only at the Zinzuwadia and Purabcheria salt pans in northwestern India; some movement of individuals occurs between India.
Like all flamingos, they lay a single chalky-white egg on a mound. Chicks join creches soon after hatching; the creches are marshalled by a few adult birds that lead them by foot to fresh water, a journey that can reach over 20 mi. Despite being the most numerous species of flamingo, it is classified as near threatened due to its declining population and the low number of breeding sites, some of which are threatened by human activities; the population in the two key east African lakes and Bogoria, have been adversely affected in recent years by suspected heavy metal poisoning, while its primary African breeding area in Lake Natron is under threat by a proposed soda ash plant by Tata Chemicals. The only breeding site in South Africa, situated at Kamfers Dam, is threatened by pollution and encroaching development; the lesser flamingo is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies. Lesser Flamingo from the IUCN/Wetlands International Flamingo Specialist Group Flamingo Resource Centre - a collection of resources and information related to flamingos ARKive - Images and movies of the lesser flamingo Lesser Flamingo - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds.
Save the Flamingo - A site dedicated to the conservation of the South African breeding colony
Richard Toll is a town in northern Senegal, lying on the south bank of the River Senegal, just east of Rosso. A colonial town, it was named for the park of the Chateau de Baron Roger, laid out by botanist Jean Michel Claude Richard. A rice growing scheme was initiated by France's colonial development organisation, FIDES, in 1949 with an initial cultivated area of 6,000 hectares; the town's main industry is sugar. Estimated population 2007: 70,000; until 1817 at the location of Richard Toll there were two villages, Ndiangué and Xhouma, inhabited by the Mbodi people — descendants of Brack and followers of the royal Walo tradition. In 1817 the French government's seniormost representative in the region, created an outpost community on the Senegal River, naming it l’Escale. In 1822, the new governor, Baron Roger, sent a botanist and nurseryman named Jean Michel Claude Richard to work in L’Escale and renamed it Richard’s Toll, with Toll being the word for Farm in Pulaar, a local language. At this time there were 28 residents, 1148 nomadic workers living in Toll.
It grew in 1945 with the creation of the Mission Agricole du Sénégal, which brought other institutions such as a hospital, chapel, a school. There was a rapid demographic growth in 1970 with the implementation of the Compagnie Sucriére Sénégalaise,'Senegal Sugar Company', which brought in around 15,000 inhabitants and brought about two phenomenon: the joining of the local villages, the creation of new neighborhoods. By 1980 Richard Toll had six neighborhoods: Escale, Ndaingué, Khouma Wolof, Khouma Peul, Ndombo Alarba. Since the city has grown and evolved into what it is today, including the addition of neighborhoods such as Campement, Thiaback, GAE2, Taouey; the latest estimate of the population available at the mayors office with was from 2005, at 46,547, however more recent estimates have put it around 90,000. The latest gender, age breakdown the mayors office had was from 2006, which stated 77.79% of inhabitants were between the ages of 0 and 34, 20.71% were between the ages of 35 and 74, 1.19% were over the age of 75.
Women constituted 52.01% of the population, men 47.99%. Richard Toll comprises 12 quartiers: Ndiao, Ndiangué, Richard Toll Escale, Campement et Nourou, Ndombo Alarba, Khouma Gallo Malick, Gae II, Khouma Yakh Sabar, Khouma Mbodiéne/Khouma Thiaréne. There are two markets in Toll, the Richard Toll market, the Xhouma Market; the Richard Toll market is a little larger than the Xhouma market. It is located in the main part of the city, encompasses about 3 square city blocks although it is hard to tell where the market ends, the regular city begins. I would estimate that there are over 50 established stores, stands in the market; the Xhouma market is located on the eastern side of town in a Pulaar area. It is located off the main road, as opposed to the Richard Toll market, in more of a city grid; the main economic activities in Richard Toll are agriculture, animal husbandry, commerce. Less popular economic activities are transportation and artisanal goods. Richard Toll is most known for its sugar refinery, French owned and exports sugar to most of Senegal.
Marie Laforêt has a song about Richard Toll. Yee, Amy. "In a Corner of Senegal, a Victory Over Malaria". New York Times. Retrieved 2018-08-03
Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal. It is located on the Cap-Vert peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city on the African mainland; the city of Dakar proper has a population of 1,030,594, whereas the population of the Dakar metropolitan area is estimated at 2.45 million. The area around Dakar was settled in the 15th century; the Portuguese established a presence on the island of Gorée off the coast of Cap-Vert and used it as a base for the Atlantic slave trade. France took over the island in 1677. Following the abolition of the slave trade and French annexation of the mainland area in the 19th century, Dakar grew into a major regional port and a major city of the French colonial empire. In 1902, Dakar replaced Saint-Louis as the capital of French West Africa. From 1959 to 1960, Dakar was the capital of the short-lived Mali Federation. In 1960, it became the capital of the independent Republic of Senegal. Dakar is home to multiple national and regional banks as well as numerous international organizations.
From 1978 to 2007, it was the traditional finishing point of the Dakar Rally. Dakar will host the 2022 Summer Youth Olympics, making it the first African city to host the Olympics; the Cap-Vert peninsula was settled no than the 15th century, by the Lebou people, an aquacultural ethnic group related to the neighboring Wolof and Serer. The original villages: Ouakam, Ngor and Hann, still constitute distinctively Lebou neighborhoods of the city today. In 1444, the Portuguese reached the Bay of Dakar as slave-raiders. Peaceful contact was opened in 1456 by Diogo Gomes, the bay was subsequently referred to as the "Angra de Bezeguiche"; the bay of "Bezeguiche" would go on to serve as a critical stop for the Portuguese India Armadas of the early 16th century, where large fleets would stop, both on their outward and return journeys from India, to repair, collect fresh water from the rivulets and wells along the Cap-Vert shore and trade for provisions with the local people for their remaining voyage. The Portuguese founded a settlement on the island of Gorée, which by 1536 they began to use as a base for slave exportation.
The mainland of Cap-Vert, was under control of the Jolof Empire, as part of the western province of Cayor which seceded from Jolof in its own right in 1549. A new Lebou village, called Ndakaaru, was established directly across from Gorée in the 17th century to service the European trading factory with food and drinking water. Gorée was captured by the United Netherlands in 1588; the island was to switch hands between the Portuguese and Dutch several more times before falling to the English under Admiral Robert Holmes on January 23, 1664, to the French in 1677. Though under continuous French administration since, métis families, descended from Dutch and French traders and African wives, dominated the slave trade; the infamous "House of Slaves" was built at Gorée in 1776. In 1795, the Lebou of Cape Verde revolted against Cayor rule. A new theocratic state, subsequently called the "Lebou Republic" by the French, was established under the leadership of the Diop, a Muslim clerical family from Koki in Cayor.
The capital of the republic was established at Ndakaaru. In 1857 the French established a military post at Ndakaaru and annexed the Lebou Republic, though its institutions continued to function nominally; the Serigne of Ndakaaru is still recognized as the traditional political authority of the Lebou by the Senegalese State today. The slave trade was abolished by France in February 1794. However, Napoleon reinstated it in May 1802 finally abolished it permanently in March 1815. Despite Napoleon's abolition, a clandestine slave trade continued at Gorée until 1848, when it was abolished throughout all French territories. To replace trade in slaves, the French promoted peanut cultivation on the mainland; as the peanut trade boomed, tiny Gorée Island, whose population had grown to 6,000 residents, proved ineffectual as a port. Traders from Gorée decided to move to the mainland and a "factory" with warehouses was established in Rufisque in 1840. Large public expenditure for infrastructure was allocated by the colonial authorities to Dakar's development.
The port facilities were improved with jetties, a telegraph line was established along the coast to Saint-Louis and the Dakar-Saint-Louis railway was completed in 1885, at which point the city became an important base for the conquest of the western Sudan. Gorée, including Dakar, was recognised as a French commune in 1872. Dakar itself was split off from Gorée as a separate commune in 1887; the citizens of the city elected their own mayor and municipal council and helped send an elected representative to the National Assembly in Paris. Dakar replaced Saint-Louis as the capital of French West Africa in 1902. A second major railroad, the Dakar-Niger built from 1906–1923, linked Dakar to Bamako and consolidated the city's position at the head of France's West African empire. In 1929, the commune of Gorée Island, now with only a few hundred inhabitants, was merged into Dakar. Urbanization during the colonial period was marked by forms of racial and social segregation—often expressed in terms of health and hygiene—which continue to structure the city today.
Following a plague epidemic in 1914, the authorities forced most of the African population out of old neighborhoods, o
Walo was a kingdom on the lower Senegal River in West Africa, in what are now Senegal and Mauritania. It included extending to the Atlantic Ocean. To the north were Moorish emirates. Waalo had a complicated political and social system, which has a continuing influence on Wolof culture in Senegal today its formalized and rigid caste system; the kingdom was indirectly hereditary, ruled by three matrilineal families: the Logar, the Tedyek and the Joos, all from different ethnic backgrounds. The Joos were of Serer origin; this Serer matriclan was established in Waalo by Lingeer Ndoye Demba of Sine. Her grandmother Lingeer Fatim Beye is the early ancestor of this dynasty; these matrilineal families engaged in constant dynastic struggles to become "Brak" or king of Waalo, as well as warring with Waalo's neighbors. The royal title "Lingeer" means royal princess, used by the Serer and Wolof. Waalo was founded in 1287; the semi-legendary figure NDiadiane Ndiaye, was from this kingdom. The mysterious figure went on to rule the Jolof Empire.
Under NDdiadian, Jolof made Waalo a vassal. The royal capital of Waalo was first Ndiourbel on the north bank of the Senegal River Ndiangué on the south bank of the river the capital was moved to Nder on the west shore of the Lac de Guiers. Waalo was subject to constant raids for slaves not only from the Moors but in the internecine wars; the Brak ruled with a kind of legislature, the Seb Ak Baor, over a complicated hierarchy of officials and dignitaries. Women figure prominently in the political and military history. Waalo had lucrative treaties with the French, who had established their base at the island of Saint-Louis near the mouth of the river. Waalo was paid fees for every boatload of gum arabic or slaves, shipped on the river, in return for its "protection" of the trade; this protection became ineffective. Vassals of Waalo, like Beetyo split off. In all, Waalo had 52 kings since its founding. Waalo had its own traditional African religion; the ruling class was slow to accept Islam. Translation from German Wikipedia: de:Waalo WORLD STATESMEN.org Senegal Traditional States Présentation du pays at the website of the national office of statistics, La République Islamique de Mauritanie: www.ons.mr.
Ndete Yalla, dernière reine du Walo. Extrait du portrait de cette reine sénégalaise du 19e siècle que nous dresse Sylvia Serbin dans son ouvrage « Reines d’Afrique et héroïnes de la diaspora noire » Par Sylvia Serbin. NDIOURBEL: Première capital du Waalo in Sites et Monuments historiques du Senegal, Center of Resources for the Emergence of Social Participation, Senegal. Barry, Boubacar. Le Royaume du Waalo Le Sénégal avant la Conquête" François Maspéro. 393 pages. Paris 1972. Barry, Boubacar. ’The Subodination of Power and Mercantile Economy: The Kingdom of Waalo 1600-1831 "in The Political Economy of Under-Development, Dependence in Senegal by Rita Cruise O’brien Sage Series on African Mod. and Dev. Vol. 3. California. Pp. 39–63
The Senegal River is a 1,086 km long river in West Africa that forms the border between Senegal and Mauritania. The Senegal's headwaters are the Bafing rivers which both originate in Guinea. From there, the Senegal river flows west and north through Talari Gorges near Galougo and over the Gouina Falls flows more past Kayes, where it receives the Kolimbiné. After flowing together with the Karakoro, it prolongs the former's course along the Mali-Mauritanian border for some tens of kilometers till Bakel where it flows together with the Falémé River, which has its source in Guinea, subsequently runs along a small part of the Guinea-Mali frontier to trace most of the Senegal-Mali border up to Bakel; the Senegal further flows through semi-arid land in the north of Senegal, forming the border with Mauritania and into the Atlantic. In Kaedi it accepts the Gorgol from Mauritania. Flowing through Bogué it reaches Richard Toll where it is joined by the Ferlo coming from inland Senegal's Lac de Guiers, it passes through Rosso and, approaching its mouth, around the Senegalese island on which the city of Saint-Louis is located, to turn south.
It is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by a thin strip of sand called the Langue de Barbarie before it pours into the ocean itself. The river has two large dams along its course, the multi-purpose Manantali Dam in Mali and the Maka-Diama Dam downstream on the Mauritania-Senegal border, near the outlet to the sea, preventing access of salt water upstream. In between Manantali and Maka-Diama is the Félou Hydroelectric Plant, completed in 1927 and uses a weir; the power station was replaced in 2014. In 2013, construction of the Gouina Hydroelectric Plant upstream of Felou at Gouina Falls began; the Senegal River has a drainage basin of 270,000 km2, a mean flow of 680 m3/s and an annual discharge of 21.5 km3. Important tributaries are the Falémé River, Karakoro River, the Gorgol River. Downstream of Kaédi the river divides into two branches; the left branch called. After 200 km the two branches rejoin a few kilometres downstream of Pondor; the long strip of land between the two branches is called the Île á Morfil.
In 1972 Mali and Senegal founded the Organisation pour la mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal to manage the river basin. Guinea joined in 2005. At the present time, only limited use is made of the river for the transport of goods and passengers; the OMVS have looked at the feasibility of creating a navigable channel 55 m in width between the small town of Ambidédi in Mali and Saint-Louis, a distance of 905 km. It would give landlocked Mali a direct route to the Atlantic Ocean; the aquatic fauna in the Senegal River basin is associated with that of the Gambia River basin, the two are combined under a single ecoregion known as the Senegal-Gambia Catchments. Although the species richness is moderately high, only three species of frogs and one fish are endemic to this ecoregion; the existence of the Senegal River was known to the early Mediterranean civilizations. It or some other river was called Bambotus by Pliny the Nias by Claudius Ptolemy, it was visited by Hanno the Carthaginian around 450 BCE at his navigation from Carthage through the pillars of Herakles to Theon Ochema in the Gulf of Guinea.
There was trade from here to the Mediterranean World, until the destruction of Carthage and its west African trade net in 146 BCE. In the Early Middle Ages, the Senegal River restored contact with the Mediterranean world with the establishment of the Trans-Saharan trade route between Morocco and the Ghana Empire. Arab geographers, like al-Masudi of Baghdad, al-Bakri of Spain and al-Idrisi of Sicily, provided some of the earliest descriptions of the Senegal River. Early Arab geographers believed the upper Senegal River and the upper Niger River were connected to each other, formed a single river flowing from east to west, which they called the "Western Nile", it was believed to be either a western branch of the Egyptian Nile River or drawn from the same source. Arab geographers Abd al-Hassan Ali ibn Omar, Ibn Said al-Maghribi and Abulfeda, label the Senegal as the "Nile of Ghana"; as the Senegal River reached into the heart of the gold-producing Ghana Empire and the Mali Empire, Trans-Saharan traders gave the Senegal its famous nickname as the "River of Gold".
The Trans-Saharan stories about the "River of Gold" reached the ears of Sub-Alpine European merchants that frequented the ports of Morocco and the lure proved irresistible. Arab historians report at least three separate Arab maritime expeditions - the last one organized by a group of eight mughrarin of Lisbon - that tried to sail down the Atlantic coast in an effort find the mouth of the Senegal. Drawing from Classical legend and Arab sources, the "River of Gold" found its way into European maps in the 14th century. In the Hereford Mappa Mundi, there is a river labelled "Nilus Fluvius" drawn parallel to the coast of Africa, albeit without communication with Atlantic, it depicts some giant ants digging up gold dust from its sands, with the note "Hic grandes formice auream serican arenas" ("Here great ants gua