Jura is a department of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in the east of France named after the Jura Mountains. Jura belonged to the Free County of Burgundy, known in French as the Franche-Comté. Dole was the capital until the region was conquered by Louis XIV and the capital was moved to Besançon. Dole is now a sub-prefecture, of Jura; as early as the 13th century, inhabitants of the southern two-thirds of Jura spoke a dialect of Arpitan language. It continued to be spoken in rural areas into the 20th century. Jura is one of the original 83 departments, it being the created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from part of the former province of Franche-Comté. The prefecture is Lons-le-Saunier. Jura is one of eight departments of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region and is surrounded by the French departments of Doubs, Haute-Saône, Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Ain, as well as the Swiss canton of Vaud on the east; the Jura mountains are not craggy and rocky like the Alps. Many lakes can be found throughout the Jura - the largest natural lake being Lac de Chalain, measuring 3 km long and 1 km wide.
Lac de Vouglans was formed after the building of a hydro-electric dam. It is one of the largest man-made lakes in France; the President of the General Council is Jean Raquin. The climate of the Jura varies by elevation; the lower valleys are temperate and pleasant, but the high mountain valleys have bitterly cold winters. Jura is a wine-growing region; the Jura wines are distinctive and unusual wines, such as vin jaune, made by a similar process to sherry, developing under a flor of yeast. This is made from the local Savagnin grape variety. Other grape varieties include Poulsard and Chardonnay; the department contains no industrial cities: the few towns function as administrative and commercial centres serving Jura's rural economy. In the absence of large-scale industrial enterprises, small artisanal businesses play an important role; the Jura CFA recorded 752 current apprenticeships in trades such as building, butchery, hair dressing, car repairing and other non-factory based occupations. The Jura mountains provide ample opportunities for hiking and other winter sports.
Cantons of the Jura department Communes of the Jura department Arrondissements of the Jura department Prefecture website General council website Tourism website Tourism Information
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015, hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity, was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity; the hydro station consumes no water, unlike gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt hour. With a dam and reservoir it is a flexible source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be varied up or down rapidly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, in many cases, has a lower output level of greenhouse gases than fossil fuel powered energy plants.
Hydropower has been used since ancient times to perform other tasks. In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics; the growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. In 1878 the world's first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William Armstrong, it was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. 1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30, 1882, in Appleton, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts. By 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone. At the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas.
Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors. By 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law; the Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land and water. As the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for large-scale development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Bonneville Power Administration were created. Additionally, the Bureau of Reclamation which had begun a series of western U. S. irrigation projects in the early 20th century was now constructing large hydroelectric projects such as the 1928 Hoover Dam. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers was involved in hydroelectric development, completing the Bonneville Dam in 1937 and being recognized by the Flood Control Act of 1936 as the premier federal flood control agency.
Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its plenty. Hoover Dam's initial 1,345 MW power station was the world's largest hydroelectric power station in 1936; the Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 in South America as the largest, producing 14,000 MW but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China at 22,500 MW. Hydroelectricity would supply some countries, including Norway, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Brazil, with over 85% of their electricity; the United States has over 2,000 hydroelectric power stations that supply 6.4% of its total electrical production output, 49% of its renewable electricity. The technical potential for hydropower development around the world is much greater than the actual production: the percent of potential hydropower capacity that has not been developed is 71% in Europe, 75% in North America, 79% in South America, 95% in Africa, 95% in the Middle East, 82% in Asia-Pacific.
The political realities of new reservoirs in western countries, economic limitations in the third world and the lack of a transmission system in undeveloped areas result in the possibility of developing 25% of the remaining technically exploitable potential before 2050, with the bulk of that being in the Asia-Pacific area. Some countries have developed their hydropower potential and have little room for growth: Switzerland produces 88% of its potential and Mexico 80%. Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator; the power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. A large pipe delivers water from the reservoir to the turbine; this method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir.
When the demand becomes greater, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. Pumped storag
In hydrology, the inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time, it is contrasted with outflow. All bodies of water have multiple inflows, but one inflow may predominate and be the largest source of water. However, in many cases, no single inflow will predominate and there will be multiple primary inflows. For a lake, the inflow may be a river or stream that flows into the lake. Inflow may be speaking, not flows, but rather precipitation, like rain. Inflow can be used to refer to groundwater recharge; the dictionary definition of inflow at Wiktionary
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone. A monastery includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church, or temple, may serve as an oratory. Monasteries vary in size, comprising a small dwelling accommodating only a hermit, or in the case of communities anything from a single building housing only one senior and two or three junior monks or nuns, to vast complexes and estates housing tens or hundreds. A monastery complex comprises a number of buildings which include a church, cloister, library and infirmary. Depending on the location, the monastic order and the occupation of its inhabitants, the complex may include a wide range of buildings that facilitate self-sufficiency and service to the community; these may include a hospice, a school, a range of agricultural and manufacturing buildings such as a barn, a forge, or a brewery. In English usage, the term monastery is used to denote the buildings of a community of monks.
In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics communities of teaching or nursing religious sisters. A convent denoted a house of friars, now more called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in more specific ways; the word monastery comes from the Greek word μοναστήριον, neut. of μοναστήριος – monasterios from μονάζειν – monazein "to live alone" from the root μόνος – monos "alone". The earliest extant use of the term monastērion is by the 1st century AD Jewish philosopher Philo in On The Contemplative Life, ch. III. In England the word monastery was applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community. Most cathedrals were not monasteries, were served by canons secular, which were communal but not monastic. However, some were run by monasteries orders, such as York Minster. Westminster Abbey was for a short time a cathedral, was a Benedictine monastery until the Reformation, its Chapter preserves elements of the Benedictine tradition.
See the entry cathedral. They are to be distinguished from collegiate churches, such as St George's Chapel, Windsor. In most of this article, the term monastery is used generically to refer to any of a number of types of religious community. In the Roman Catholic religion and to some extent in certain branches of Buddhism, there is a somewhat more specific definition of the term and many related terms. Buddhist monasteries are called vihara. Viharas may be occupied by men or women, in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may be called a nunnery or a convent. However, vihara can refer to a temple. In Tibetan Buddhism, monasteries are called gompa. In Thailand and Cambodia, a monastery is called a wat. In Burma, a monastery is called a kyaung. A Christian monastery may be a priory, or conceivably a hermitage, it may be a community of men or of women. A charterhouse is any monastery belonging to the Carthusian order. In Eastern Christianity, a small monastic community can be called a skete, a large or important monastery can be given the dignity of a lavra.
The great communal life of a Christian monastery is called cenobitic, as opposed to the anchoretic life of an anchorite and the eremitic life of a hermit. There has been under the Osmanli occupation of Greece and Cyprus, an "idiorrhythmic" lifestyle where monks come together but being able to own things individually and not being obliged to work for the common good. In Hinduism monasteries are called matha, koil, or most an ashram. Jains use the Buddhist term vihara. In most religions the life inside monasteries is governed by community rules that stipulate the gender of the inhabitants and require them to remain celibate and own little or no personal property; the degree to which life inside a particular monastery is separate from the surrounding populace can vary widely. Others focus on interacting with the local communities to provide services, such as teaching, medical care, or evangelism; some monastic communities are only occupied seasonally, depending both on the traditions involved and the local weather, people may be part of a monastic community for periods ranging from a few days at a time to an entire lifetime.
The life within the walls of a monastery may be supported in several ways: by manufacturing and selling goods agricultural products, by donations or alms, by rental or investment incomes, by funds from other organizations within the religion, which in the past formed the traditional support of monasteries. There has been a long tradition of Christian monasteries providing hospitable and hospital services. Monasteries have been associated with the provision of education and the encouragement of scholarship and research, which has led to the establishment of schools and colleges and the association with universities. Christian monastic life has adapted to modern society by offering computer services, accounting services and management as well as modern hospital and educational administration. Buddhist monasteries, known as vihāra i
The Ain is a river in eastern France. It gave its name to the Ain department. In the Franco-Provençal language it is known as the En; the river rises at an altitude of some 700 metres, near the village of La Favière, in the Jurassic limestone of the southern end of the Jura mountains and flows into the Rhône about 40 kilometres above Lyon, some 190 kilometres down the Ain. Its source is in the old county of Franche-Comté, it flows south through the combined lengths of the two departments of: Jura, Ain. On the way it passes through the towns of Champagnole. and Pont-d'Ain. The Ain flows into the river Rhône, on the Rhône's right bank, opposite the village of Anthon 40 km east of Lyon; the river flows through two regions. The Jura is, of course, Jurassic but it includes less clay than the Jurassic of England so Upper or Middle Jurassic means limestone of some sort marl; the lower river passes over Holocene deposits from the river's own activity amongst rocks of the Middle or Upper Pleistocene. The Jura consists of limestone strata crushed into ridges between the forces of the spreading rift valley of the Saône and the Alps, the latter raised by a collision of the Italian tectonic plate with Europe.
The highest ridge is the easternmost and the Ain flows southwards in the lowest valley, which lies towards the western side of the Jura. The westernmost ridge is again rather higher as the plain of the Saône valley is subducted below the Jurassic rocks; the whole has been glaciated but there is little till remaining in the Jura. The lower Ain flows on the plain material, much of it glacial till. However, the low scarp between the Pays de Dombes and the river is Miocene; the economy is not such as to provide riches. Neither is it one; the population is therefore dispersed. The exception to this is the town of Oyonnax, in the Ange valley, parallel with the Ain. According to the legend, St Léger gave the monopoly of comb making to Oyonnax in 630; the traditional small products of the region, wood-turning, horn combs and trinkets led to the development of a specialism in the injection moulding, vacuum forming and so on of plastics, beginning with celluloid in 1880. The town's population in 1999 was 24,636 but it is the exception for the river basin.
Timber is the region's most obvious asset. Some was marketed down river and some converted into charcoal which permitted the rise of water-powered forges working iron from smelters in the Saône valley. There is pasture producing cheese specialities. In the 20th century, the water power was diverted to the production of hydro-electricity, a fact which aided the early introduction of the plastics industry at Oyonnax. In this, the Ain is central; this is an area of unusually high rainfall for France. But in the summer season, the weather is kind; the woodland walks, fishing and impressive scenery have permitted the development of the outdoor kind of tourism. The Ain is rich in fish, including trout, in particular Salmo trutta fario. Numerous birds populate the river's banks: duck, swans and snipe. Beavers are present and construct numerous dams while wild boar and roe deer are found in the woods and forests bordering the stream. Otters have once more been seen since 2003, so demonstrating a general improvement in the quality of the waters.
The river's natural surroundings remain wild, are the subject of an environmental scheme by the name of a SDAGE, set up under a French law. Its aim is to conserve and make the best use of the whole hydrological system by viewing it as a unit; that involves reconciling the hydro-electric stations with the boating, fishing and water extraction in view of the tendency to industrial development on the reclaimed delta land at its confluence with the Rhone at its southern end. Lac de Conflans, a lake at the confluence of the Ain and Valouse Rivers Carte géologique de la France à l'échelle du millionième 6th edn, ISBN 2-7159-2158-6 Michelin France Tourist and Motoring Atlas ISBN 2-06-100128-9 Bartholomew, J. G; the Times Survey Atlas of the World Dercourt, J. Géologie et Géodynamique de La France Outre-mer et européenne 3rd edn. ISBN 2-10-006459-2 Encyclopediædia Britannica Fauna paragraph translated from the French Wikipedia article; the Ain at the Sandre database Cartographical details of the source.
In French The dairy component of the economy Plastics valley Small manufacturing Upper Palaeolithic cave art MAYET, L. y PISSOT, J.: Abri sous roche préhistorique de La Colombière près Pocin. Faculté des Sciences de Lyon. Laboratoire de Géologie et Paléontologie. Section d'Anthropologie et Paléontologie, Lyon. 193 pp
Électricité de France
Électricité de France S. A. is a French electric utility company owned by the French state. Headquartered in Paris, with €71.2 billion in revenues in 2016, EDF operates a diverse portfolio of 120+ gigawatts of generation capacity in Europe, South America, North America, the Middle East and Africa. In 2009, EDF was the world's largest producer of electricity. In 2011, it produced 22% of the European Union's electricity from nuclear power: nuclear: 64.3%. Its 58 active nuclear reactors are spread out over 20 sites, they comprise 34 reactors of 900 MWe, 20 reactors of 1300 MWe, 4 reactors of 1450 MWe, all PWRs. In 2017 EDF took over the majority of the reactor business of Areva, in a French government sponsored restructuring following financial and technical problems at Areva. In July 2017, France's Environmental Minister Nicolas Hulot stated that up to 17 of France's nuclear power reactors — all of which are operated by EDF — could be shuttered by 2025 to meet legislative targets for reducing dependence on the power source.
EDF specialises from engineering to distribution. The company's operations include the following: distribution, it is active in such power generation technologies as nuclear power, marine energies, wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy and fossil-fired energy. The electricity network in France is composed of the following: a high and high voltage distribution system; this part of the system is managed by RTE who acts as an independent administrator of infrastructure, although it is a wholly owned subsidiary of EDF. Enedis was spun off from EDF-Gaz de France Distribution in 2008 as part of the process of total separation of the activities of EDF and GDF Suez; the EDF head office is located along Avenue de Wagram in the 8th arrondissement of Paris. The EDF head office is shared between several EDF sites in Greater Paris. Chairman and CEO: Jean-Bernard Levy Customers: 37.6 million worldwide in 2015. 2009 Turnover: €63.34 billion – €41.82 billion in 2002. Profit: €3.96 billion in 2010 – €3.96 billion in 2009.
Net profit: €1 billion in 2010 – €3.92 billion in 2009. Net Debt: €34.4 billion in 2010 – €42.5 billion in 2009. Revenue: €75 billion in 2015. Energy generation: 619.3 TWh in 2015. Employees: 159,112 worldwide. In Europe: United Kingdom: 100% EDF Energy, acquired British Energy Group PLC, which generates about 20 percent of British electricity from 8 nuclear plants, 100% EDF Trading Austria: 100% Vero, 20% Groupe Estag Belgium: 100% Luminus France: 100% of EDF Énergies Nouvelles which in turn owns EDF-RE EnXco in US, 74.86% Électricité de Strasbourg, 67% Dalkia Investments, 51% TIRU, 50% Cerga, 50% Edenkia, 50% Dalkia International, 50% SIIF Énergies, 34% Dalkia Hdg Germany: 100% EDF Ostalbkreis, 100% EDF Weinsberg, 50% RKI Hungary: 95,56% BE Zrt, 100% Démász Italy: Edison S.p. A. 100% EDF Energia Italia which sells directly 2.2 TWh to Italy, 100% EDF Fenice, 40% Finei, 30% ISE The Netherlands: 100% Finelex, 50% Cinergy Holding Poland: 76.63% Rybnik, 66.08% ECK, 49.19% ECW, 35.42% Kogeneracja, 24.61% Zielona Gora Slovakia: 49% SSE Spain: 100% EDF Iberica Sweden: 100% Skandrenkraft, 36.32% Groupe Graninge Switzerland: 50% Chatelot, 50% Emosson, 14.25% Groupe ATEL, 26.26% Motor Columbus In America: United States: 100% EDF Inc. which controls or Unistar Nuclear Energy, EDF-RE EnXco, EDF Trading North America and Constellation Energy Nuclear Group (50% through a joint venture with Exelon Argentina: 25% Edenor, 45% Sodemsa, 22.95% Edemsa Brazil: 100% Lidil, 90% Norte Fluminense In Asia: China: 85% Synergie, 60% Figlec, 35% Datang Sanmenxia Power Company, 19.6% Shandong Zhonghua Power Company Vietnam: 56.25% Meco In Africa: Côte d'Ivoire: 50% Azito O&M, 32.85% Azito Energie EDF was founded on 8 April 1946, as a result of the nationalisation of around 1,700 smaller energy producers and distributors by the Minister of Industrial Production Marcel Paul.
A state-owned EPIC, it became the main electricity generation and distribution company in France, enjoying a monopoly in electricity generation, although some small local distributors were retained by the nationalisation. This monopoly ended in 1999, when EDF was forced by a European Directive to open up 20% of its business to competitors; until 19 November 2004, EDF was a state-owned corporation, but it is now a limited-liability corporation under private law, after its status was changed by statute. The French government floated shares of the company on the Paris Stock Exchange in November 2005, although it retained 85% ownership as of the end of 2008. On 22 November 2016, French competition regulators raided EDF offices, looking for evidence that EDF was abusing its dominant position to manipulate electricity prices and squeeze rivals. Between 2001 and 2003, EDF was forced to reduce its equity capital by €6.4 billion total because of the performance of subsidiaries in South America and Europe.
In 2001, it acquired a number of British energy companies, becoming the UK's biggest electricity supplier. The company remains in debt, its profitability suffered during the recession which began in 2008. It made €3.9 billion in 2009, which fell to €1.02 billion in 2010, with pr