The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect the lives and possessions of citizens, to prevent crime and civil disorder. Their powers include the legitimized use of force; the term is most associated with the police forces of a sovereign state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are defined as being separate from the military and other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors. Police forces are public sector services, funded through taxes. Law enforcement is only part of policing activity. Policing has included an array of activities in different situations, but the predominant ones are concerned with the preservation of order. In some societies, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, these developed within the context of maintaining the class system and the protection of private property. Police forces have become ubiquitous in modern societies.
Their role can be controversial, as some are involved to varying degrees in corruption, police brutality and the enforcement of authoritarian rule. A police force may be referred to as a police department, police service, gendarmerie, crime prevention, protective services, law enforcement agency, civil guard or civic guard. Members may be referred to as police officers, sheriffs, rangers, peace officers or civic/civil guards. Ireland differs from other English-speaking countries by using the Irish language terms Garda and Gardaí, for both the national police force and its members; the word police is the most universal and similar terms can be seen in many non-English speaking countries. Numerous slang terms exist for the police. Many slang terms for police officers are centuries old with lost etymology. One of the oldest, "cop", has lost its slang connotations and become a common colloquial term used both by the public and police officers to refer to their profession. First attested in English in the early 15th century in a range of senses encompassing' policy.
This is derived from πόλις, "city". Law enforcement in ancient China was carried out by "prefects" for thousands of years since it developed in both the Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring and Autumn period. In Jin, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period, they were appointed by local magistrates, who reported to higher authorities such as governors, who in turn were appointed by the emperor, they oversaw the civil administration of their "prefecture", or jurisdiction. Under each prefect were "subprefects" who helped collectively with law enforcement in the area; some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives. Prefects could be women; the concept of the "prefecture system" spread to other cultures such as Japan. In ancient Greece, publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police. In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, assisted with dealing with criminals, handling prisoners, making arrests.
Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves. In the Roman empire, the army, rather than a dedicated police organization, provided security. Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security. Magistrates such as procurators fiscal and quaestors investigated crimes. There was no concept of public prosecution, so victims of crime or their families had to organize and manage the prosecution themselves. Under the reign of Augustus, when the capital had grown to one million inhabitants, 14 wards were created, their duties included capturing runaway slaves. The vigiles were supported by the Urban Cohorts who acted as a heavy-duty anti-riot force and the Praetorian Guard if necessary. In medieval Spain, Santa Hermandades, or "holy brotherhoods", peacekeeping associations of armed individuals, were a characteristic of municipal life in Castile; as medieval Spanish kings could not offer adequate protection, protective municipal leagues began to emerge in the twelfth century against banditry and other rural criminals, against the lawless nobility or to support one or another claimant to a crown.
These organizations became a long-standing fixture of Spain. The first recorded case of the formation of an hermandad occurred when the towns and the peasantry of the north united to police the pilgrim road to Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, protect the pilgrims against robber knights. Throughout the Middle Ages such alliances were formed by combinations of towns to protect the roads connecting them, were extended to political purposes. Among the most powerful was the league of North Castilian and Basque ports, the Hermandad de las marismas: Toledo and Villarreal; as one of their first acts after end of the War of the Castilian Succession in 1479, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile established the centrally-organized and efficient Holy
Sturgis Motorcycle Rally
The Sturgis Motorcycle Rally is an American motorcycle rally held annually in Sturgis, South Dakota, for ten days during the first full week of August. In 2015 the city of Sturgis expanded the dates to have the rally start on the Friday before the first full week of August and end on the second Sunday, it was begun in 1938 by a group of Indian Motorcycle riders and was held for stunts and races. Attendance has been around 500,000 people, reaching a high of over 700,000 in 2015; the event generates around $800 million in revenue. The first rally was held by Indian Motorcycle riders on August 14, 1938, by the Jackpine Gypsies motorcycle club; the club still owns and operates the tracks and field areas where the rally is centered. The first event was called the "Black Hills Classic" and consisted of a single race with nine participants and a small audience; the founder is Clarence "Pappy" Hoel. He purchased an Indian motorcycle franchise in Sturgis in 1936 and formed the Jackpine Gypsies that same year.
The Jackpine Gypsies were inducted to the Motorcycle Hall of Fame in 1997. Hoel was inducted into the AMA Hall of Fame the following year, in 1998; the focus of a motorcycle rally was racing and stunts. In 1961, the rally was expanded to include the Motocross races; this could include half-mile track racing, intentional board wall crashes, ramp jumps and head-on collisions with automobiles. The Sturgis Rally has been held every year, with exceptions during World War II. For instance, in 1942, the event was not held due to gasoline rationing; the Buffalo Chips Campground opened in'81. Its first concert for the Sturgis Rally was Jerry Lee Lewis in'82. In'87 it had Canned Heat.'89-Mitch Ryder,'90-Bachman-Turner Overdrive, Marshall Tucker Band,'90-Joe Walsh, 91-Kentucky Headhunters, 92-Stray Cats, 94-Blues Traveler, 97-The Guess Who, 98-Lynyrd Skynyrd, 99-Def Leppard,'00-Montgomery Gentry, Kenny Wayne Shepherd, Cheap Trick, Styx with REO Speedwagon, Jonny Lang, Cher, 01-Sheryl Crow, Grand Funk Railroad, 02-Smash Mouth, 03-Our Lady Peace, 3 Doors Down, Seether, 04-Heart, Nickelback,'05-Shinedown, Tim McGraw, Steve Miller Band, 06-Keith Urban, Kid Rock, Tom Petty, 07-Buckcherry, Papa Roach, Velvet Revolver, Daughtry, 08-Staind, Puddle of Mudd, Theory of a Deadman, Saving Abel, 09-Hinder, Aerosmith, 10-Bob Dylan, Stone Sour, Jason Aldean, 11-Pop Evil with Alice Cooper, 12-Zac Brown Band, Loverboy, 13-Sublime with Rome, 14-Florida Georgia Line, The Pretty Reckless, Motley Crue, 15-Five Finger Death Punch, 16-Miranda Lambert, Willie Nelson, Weird Al Yankovic,'17-Alter Bridge, Blink-182, Ozzy Osbourne.
In 2018, Buffalo Chips hosted Yelawolf and Eric Church for the Rally. The South Dakota Department of Transportation provides official traffic counts, which sometimes differ from official attendance figures. Attendance is higher on major anniversaries and one or two years prior to the anniversary, falls off the following year or two. For many years the city has been in a licensing agreement with a community non-profit, Sturgis Motorcycle Rally, Inc. and its predecessor-in-interest, the Sturgis Area Chamber of Commerce, that generates millions of dollars in royalties and sponsorship dollars. In 2012 the City Council reaffirmed this relationship through a unanimous proclamation; the City of Sturgis has calculated. The City of Sturgis earned $270,000 in 2011 from selling event guides and sponsorships; the rally makes up 95% of the city's annual revenue. There were 405 individuals jailed at the 2004 rally, $250,000 worth of motorcycles stolen annually. Rally-goers are a mix of white-collar and blue-collar workers and are welcomed as an important source of income for Sturgis and surrounding areas.
The rally turns local roads into "parking lots", draws local law enforcement away from routine patrols. Furthermore, the large numbers of people visiting the town and region served as a model for the state of Oregon in preparation for the solar eclipse of August 21, 2017, given the expected impact on emergency services; the Lakota Indian tribe in coalition with other tribes has protested the large amount of alcohol distributed at the event so close to the sacred Bear Butte, but acknowledged that income from the event was important to the region and benefits some members of the tribes. There has been a number of unsolved deaths at the Rally. Many attendees of the Sturgis Rally have families, bring their children and drive campers towing motorcycle trailers to the rally, ride their motorcycles just the last few miles; the director of the rally estimated in 2005 that less than half the attendees rode there. Shipping companies transport thousands of motorcycles to Sturgis for attendees who arrive via airline.
The Black Hills Run is a route favored by motorcycle riders, across the Black Hills from Deadwood to Custer State Park, South Dakota. It reached the height of its popularity between 1939 and 1941; the popularity of the Sturgis Motorcycle Rally attracted additional attention to the route in recent years. The pine forested mountains of the Black Hills make for a unique scenic motorcycle ride; the Rapid City Journal features daily coverage of the Sturgis Rally. The Seattle Times covered some of the 2008 Sturgis Rally while rock band Judd Hoos was playing at the Loud American Roadhouse. In 1997, the crew from the COPS television series attended the rally, as well as Dennis Rodman. From 1996 to 1999, World Champi
Republic of Texas Biker Rally
The Republic of Texas Biker Rally is the largest motorcycle rally in Texas and the largest turnstile motorcycle rally in the United States. Similar events in Sturgis, South Dakota, Daytona Beach, draw more attendees, but they are not ticketed events. A simple majority of attendees arrive on Harley-Davidson motorcycles, but the rally is open to everyone and all brands of bikes. Many attendees stay on the premises; the four-day event is held on the first, second, or third Thursday-through-Sunday after Memorial Day at the Travis County Exposition Center on the east edge of Austin. The City of Austin blocks off the downtown area for a massive biker street party on Congress Avenue on Friday night; the first R. O. T. Rally was held in 1995, it has been an annual event since, it constitutes one of the largest annual tourist events in Central Texas, with an estimated economic impact of 30-35,000,000 dollars per year. The event has drawn as many as 35,000 paying customers to the event grounds. City officials have estimated that the Friday night street party downtown draws as many as 200,000 spectators thus making it one of the largest motorcycle rallies of any kind in the country.
Musical entertainers who have appeared at the rally include: Willie Nelson, Waylon Jennings, Jerry Jeff Walker, Jerry Lee Lewis, Charlie Daniels, George Thoroughgood, Hank Williams, Jr, Brett Michaels, Ted Nugent, Joan Jett, Grand Funk Railroad, The Guess Who, Edgar Winter, the Georgia Satellites, Joe Ely, David Allan Coe, Ray Wylie Hubbard, Asleep At The Wheel, Mitch Ryder, many more. Additional attractions include motorcycle stunt shows, celebrity bike builders, stage acts, acres of motorcycle related vendors. Official website Shocked at ROT! Round Up the Usual Suspects!, Austin Chronicle, July 18, 2008
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Laconia, New Hampshire
Laconia is a city in Belknap County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 15,951 at the 2010 census, an estimated 16,464 as of 2017, it is the county seat of Belknap County. Laconia, situated between Lake Winnipesaukee and Winnisquam Lake, includes the villages of Lakeport and Weirs Beach; each June for nine days beginning on the Saturday of the weekend before Father's Day and ending on Father's Day, the city hosts Laconia Motorcycle Week more known as'bike week', one of the country's largest rallies, each winter, the Laconia World Championship Sled Dog Derby. The city is the site of the state's annual Pumpkin Festival since 2015, having organized it after its former home of Keene rejected it due to riots in their neighborhoods in 2014; the city includes one of the colleges of the Community College System of New Hampshire. A large Abenaki Indian settlement called Acquadocton Village once existed at the point now known as The Weirs, named by colonists for fishing weirs discovered at the outlet of the Winnipesaukee River.
Early explorers had hoped to follow the Piscataqua River north to Lake Champlain in search of the great lakes and rivers of Canada mentioned in Indian folklore. About 1652, the Endicott surveying party visited the area, an event commemorated by Endicott Rock, a local landmark. A fort would be built at Laconia in 1746, but ongoing hostilities between the English and their respective Native American allies prevented settlement until 1761, after which it remained for many years a part of Meredith and Gilford called Meredith Bridge. Beginning in 1765, lumber and grist mills were established on Mill Street, with taverns built soon thereafter on Parade Street. About 1822, the courthouse was built, which would become county seat at the creation of Belknap County in 1840. In 1823, the Belknap Mill was built to manufacture textiles. Local industry produced lumber, shoes, knitting machinery and needles, but the city's largest employer would be the Laconia Car Company, builder of rail and subway cars. Started in 1848, it lasted until the 1930s.
The railroad entered town in 1849, carrying both freight and an increasing number of summer tourists to popular Weirs Beach. In 1855, Laconia was incorporated as a town from land in Meredith Bridge, Lakeport and part of Gilmanton; the name was derived from the old Laconia Company, formed by Captain John Mason and the Masonian Proprietors to sell parcels of land during the colonial era. The Great Fire of 1860 destroyed most of Main Street from Mill to Water streets, followed by the Great Lakeport Fire of 1903, a blaze so fierce that fire companies were brought by train from as far away as Dover. Laconia was incorporated as a city in 1893. Laconia is located northwest of the geographic center of Belknap County; the city lies at the center of New Hampshire's Lakes Region, all or part of four major bodies of water lie within its limits: Lake Winnipesaukee, Winnisquam Lake, Opechee Bay and Paugus Bay. Laconia contains three main villages. Downtown Laconia, where the Belknap County Courthouse is located, can be found in the southern tip of the city, along the Winnipesaukee River between Opechee Bay to the north and Winnisquam Lake to the southwest.
Lakeport, located between Opeechee Bay and Paugus Bay, is near the geographic center of the city. Weirs Beach, around the channel connecting Paugus Bay with Lake Winnipesaukee, lies at the northern edge of the city. U. S. Route 3 passes through parts of the city, passing through Weirs Beach. New Hampshire Route 11 bypasses the city in a concurrency with US 3; the two highways lead southwest from Laconia to Franklin. New Hampshire Route 11A represents the old routes 11 and 3 through downtown as Court Street and Union Avenue, but turns east on Gilford Avenue to lead to Gilford and West Alton. New Hampshire Route 106 runs north-south through downtown, leading south to Concord and north to Meredith. New Hampshire Route 107 leads southeast from downtown towards Pittsfield. Route 107 turns north in downtown and follows Union Avenue to a junction with US 3 near the north end of the Laconia Bypass. US 3 continues north through Weirs Beach and into Meredith. Route 11 leads east into Alton. New Hampshire Route 11B leads east from Weirs Beach into Gilford.
Laconia Municipal Airport is located just east of the city limits in Gilford. A walking trail called the W. O. W. Trail links several parts of the city, following the railroad tracks from Winnisquam Lake, skirting the downtown area, running to Lakeport. Plans to extend the trail to Weirs Beach have been contested by residents in private communities abutting the railway. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 26.6 square miles, of which 20.0 square miles are land and 6.5 square miles are water, comprising 24.54% of the city. Laconia is drained by the Winnipesaukee River, it is bounded in the southwest by Winnisquam Lake, by Lake Winnipesaukee in the northeast. Laconia lies within the Merrimack River watershed; the highest point in Laconia is a 960-foot hill in the northern part of the city, west of Paugus Bay's Pickerel Cove and just east of Route 106. As of the census of 2000, there were 16,411 people, 6,724 households, 4,168 families residing in the city; the population density was 809.3 people per square mile.
There were 8,554
Westerville is a city in Delaware and Franklin counties in the U. S. state of Ohio. It is a northeastern suburb of Columbus; the population was 36,120 at the 2010 census. Westerville is the home of Otterbein University. Westerville was once known as "The Dry Capital of the World" for its strict laws prohibiting sales of alcohol; the land, today Westerville was first settled by Europeans around 1810. In 1818, Matthew and William Westervelt, settlers of Dutch extraction, migrated to the area from New York. Matthew Westervelt donated land for the construction of a Methodist church in 1836, the settlement was subsequently named in the family's honor. In 1839, the Blendon Young Men's Seminary was chartered in Westerville; the Church of the United Brethren in Christ bought the seminary in 1846, the next year the seminary was reformed, renamed Otterbein College after the church's founder Philip William Otterbein. It continues today in Westerville as the private Otterbein University. Westerville was platted by 1856, incorporated in August 1858.
The town's population in that year was 275. Throughout the Antebellum era, several homes in Westerville were stations on the Underground Railroad. Among these is the Hanby House, located one block from the college. Benjamin Russell Hanby had moved to Westerville in 1849, at the age of sixteen, to enroll at Otterbein University. Hanby went on to write many familiar hymns and songs, among them "Darling Nelly Gray", "Who is He in Yonder Stall?", the Christmas favorite "Up On The Housetop". His home in Westerville, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, was dedicated as a museum in 1937 and is now owned by the Ohio Historical Society and managed locally by the Westerville Historical Society, it is the only state memorial to a composer in the state of Ohio. An 1859 town ordinance prohibited sales of alcohol in Westerville. By the 1870s, a burgeoning conflict between pro- and anti-temperance forces boiled over into the so-called "Westerville Whiskey Wars". Twice, in 1875 and 1879, businessman Henry Corbin opened a saloon in Westerville, each time the townspeople blew up his establishment with gunpowder.
Westerville's reputation for temperance was so significant that in 1909 the Anti-Saloon League moved its national headquarters from Washington, D. C. to Westerville. The League, at the forefront of the Prohibition movement, gained its greatest triumph when the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1919; the League printed so many leaflets in support of temperance and prohibition—over 40 tons of mail per month—that Westerville, by known as "The Dry Capital of the World", was the smallest town in the nation to have a first class post office. The League's Westerville headquarters was given to the Westerville Public Library in 1973 and now serves as a museum attached to the library. After Prohibition ended, Westerville remained dry for most of the twentieth century. In 1916, Westerville became the first village in Ohio to adopt a council-manager form of government, in which a city council makes policy but the town's administrative and many of its executive governmental functions are vested in an appointed, professional manager.
Westerville retains the council-manager system to the present day. The city elects seven council members at large for four-year terms. Under the City Charter, the mayor is only "the ceremonial head of the government" of the city; the council additionally selects the city manager. In 2007, David Collinsworth replaced David Lindimore as city manager after the latter's tenure of twenty-two years. In 1995 the city annexed 941 non-dry acres of land to its north, which included several alcohol-selling businesses. Subsequently, voters have approved alcohol sales in old Westerville at a number of establishments through site-specific local options. In 2006 Michael's Pizza served the first beer in Uptown Westerville in over 70 years. Westerville is located at 40°7′25″N 82°55′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.61 square miles, of which 12.47 square miles is land and 0.14 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 36,120 people, 13,859 households, 9,800 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,896.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 14,467 housing units at an average density of 1,160.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.6% White, 6.4% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population. There were 13,859 households, of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.7% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 29.3% were non-families. 24.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the city was 41.2 years. 22.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.0% male and 53.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 35,318 people, 12,663 households, 9,547 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,851.1 people per square mi