Unfinished creative work
An unfinished creative work is a painting, musical composition, or other creative work, that has not been brought to a completed state. Its creator may have chosen not to finish it, or may have been prevented from doing so by circumstances outside of their control, such as death; such pieces are the subject of speculation as to what the finished piece would have been like had the original creator completed the work. Sometimes artworks are released posthumously. Unfinished works have had profound influences on their genres and have inspired others in their own projects; the term can refer to ongoing work which could be finished and is distinguishable from "incomplete work", which can be a work, finished but is no longer in its complete form. There are many reasons for work not being completed. Works are stopped when their creator dies, although some, aware of their failing health, make sure that they set up the project for completion. If the work involves other people, such as a cast of actors or the subject of a portrait, it may be halted because of their unavailability.
Projects that are too grandiose might never have been finished, while others should be feasible but their creator's continual unhappiness with them leads to abandonment. Unfinished works by popular authors and artists may still be made public, sometimes in the state they were in when work was halted. Alternatively, another artist may finish the piece. In some fields work may appear unfinished but are finished, such as Donatello's "non finito" technique in sculpture. Many acclaimed authors have left work incomplete; some such pieces have been published posthumously, either in their incomplete state or after being finished by somebody else. It is the job of literary executors to take charge of the work of a writer after their death, they must decide what to do with incomplete work, using their own judgement if not given explicit instructions. In some cases this can lead to something happening to the work, not intended, such as the release of Franz Kafka's unfinished writings by Max Brod when Kafka had wished for them to be destroyed.
These works have become iconic in Western literature. The posthumous publication of some of Ernest Hemingway's unfinished novels was met with controversy. Several books were published, but it has been suggested that it is not within the jurisdiction of Hemingway's relatives or publishers to determine whether these works should be made available to the public. For example, scholars disapprovingly note that the version of The Garden of Eden published by Charles Scribner's Sons in 1986, though not a revision of Hemingway's original words, nonetheless omits two-thirds of the original manuscript. Novels can remain unfinished; when enough material exists, someone else can compile and combine the work, creating a finished story from several different drafts. Mark Twain's The Mysterious Stranger was written in three different versions over a period of 20 years, none of which were completed. Twain biographer and literary executor Albert Paine combined the stories and published his version six years after Twain's death.
J. R. R. Tolkien continuously rewrote The Silmarillion throughout his lifetime, his son, Christopher Tolkien, invited fantasy fiction writer Guy Gavriel Kay to reconstruct some parts of the book, they published a final version in 1977. In 1980, Christopher Tolkien published another posthumous collection of his father's unfinished work, appropriately entitled Unfinished Tales. Between 1982 and 1996, he published twelve volumes of The History of Middle-earth, a substantial portion of, unfinished and incomplete drafts. In 2007, Christopher Tolkien published another novel from his father entitled The Children of Húrin. Like The Silmarillion, Christopher assembled the novel from various incomplete drafts; the size of a project can be such. Geoffrey Chaucer never completed The Canterbury Tales to the extensive length that he intended. Chaucer had, however written much of the work at the time of his death, the Canterbury Tales are considered to be a seminal work despite the unfinished status. English poet Edmund Spenser intended The Faerie Queene to consist of 12 books.
Honoré de Balzac, the French novelist, completed nearly 100 pieces for his novel sequence La Comédie humaine, but a planned 48 more were never finished. Notes and plot outlines left behind by an author may allow a successor to complete a novel or series of novels. Frank Herbert left behind extensive notes related to his Dune universe, which led to son Brian Herbert and science fiction author Kevin J. Anderson's completing several prequels to the popular series. Mervyn Peake, author of the Gormenghast novels, meant to write a complete biography of the main character, but died after only completing three books in the series; some works are presented as separate sections, each written at different times. This can lead to a piece appearing complete while the author intended for it to continue, or where other authors try to fake their own writing as part of the work; the first four cantos of Lord Byron's narrative poem Don Juan were written in 1818 and 1819, with a further 12 completed and published before his death in 1824.
Numerous "continuations" of the story had been published by various publishing houses between issues of the story, along with several fake co
Codex Boernerianus, designated by Gp or 012, α 1028, is a small New Testament codex, measuring 25 x 18 cm, written in one column per page, 20 lines per page. Dated paleographically to the 9th century; the name of the codex derives from the theology professor Christian Frederick Boerner, to whom it once belonged. The manuscript is lacunose; the manuscript contains the text of the Pauline epistles on 99 vellum leaves. The main text is in Greek with an interlinear Latin translation inserted above the Greek text; the text of the codex contains six lacunae. Quotations from the Old Testament are marked in the left-hand margin by inverted commas, Latin notation identifies a quotation. Capital letters follow regular in stichometric frequency; this means codex G was copied from a manuscript arranged in στίχοι. The codex sometimes uses minuscule letters: α, κ, ρ, it does not use Spiritus asper, Spiritus accents. The Latin text is written in minuscule letters; the shape of Latin letters: r, s. The Codex does not use the phrase ἐν Ῥώμῃ.
In Rom 1:7 this phrase was replaced by ἐν ἀγαπῃ, in 1:15 the phrase is omitted. After the end of Philemon stands the title Προς Λαουδακησας αρχεται επιστολη, but the apocryphal epistle is lost; the Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Western text-type. Aland placed it in Category III; the section 1 Cor 14:34-35 is placed after 1 Cor 14:40, just like other manuscripts of the Western text-type (Claromontanus, Augiensis, 88, itd, g, some manuscripts of Vulgate. The Latin text has some affinity with Liber Comicus. Romans 6:5 αλλα και της αναστασεως ] αμα και της αναστασεως Romans 12:11 κυριω ] καιρω Romans 15:31 διακονια ] δωροφορια — B D Ggr Romans 16:15 Ιουλιαν ] Ιουνιαν — C. Galatians 6:2 αναπληρωσατε ] αναπληρωσετε — B 1962 it vg syrp,pal copsa,bo goth eth Philippians 3:16 τω αυτω στοιχειν ] το αυτο φρονειν, τω αυτω συνστοιχειν — supported by F Philippians 4:7 νοηματα ] σωματα — F GIn Romans 8:1 it reads Ιησου; the Byzantine manuscripts read Ιησου μη κατα σαρκα περιπατουσιν αλλα κατα πνευμα.
It does not contain the ending Romans 16:25-27. In 1 Corinthians 2:1 it reads μαρτυριον along with B D P Ψ 33 81 104 181 326 330 451 614 629 630 1241 1739 1877 1881 1962 1984 2127 2492 2495 Byz Lect it vg syrh copsa arm eth. Other manuscripts read μυστηριον or σωτηριον. In 1 Corinthians 2:4 it reads πειθοις σοφιας along with P 46; the Latin text supports reading πειθοι σοφιας -- Codex Augiensis. In 2 Corinthians 2:10 the Greek text reads τηλικουτου θανατου, along with the codices: א, A, B, C, Dgr, K, P, Ψ, 0121a, 0209, 0243, 33, 81, 88, 104, 181, 326, 330, 436, 451, 614, 1241, 1739, 1877, 1881, 1962, 1984, 1985, 2127, 2492, 2495, Byz. On folio 23 verso at the bottom is written a verse in Old Irish which refers to making a pilgrimage to Rome: Stokes and Strachan's translation: To go to Rome, much labour, little profit: the King whom thou seekest here, unless thou bring him with thee, thou findest him not. Much folly, much frenzy, much loss of sense, much madness, since going to death is certain, to be under the displeasure of Mary's Son.
Bruce M. Metzger in his book Manuscripts of the Greek Bible quotes this poem, which seems to have been written by a disappointed pilgrim; the codex was written by an Irish monk in the Abbey of St. Gall, Switzerland between 850-900 A. D. Ludolph Kuster was the first to recognize the 9th century date of Codex Boernerianus; the evidence for this date includes the style of the script, the smaller uncial letters in Greek, the Latin interlinear written in Anglo-Saxon minuscule, the separation of words. In 1670 it was in the hands of P. Junius at Leiden; the codex got its name from its first German owner, University of Leipzig professor Christian Frederick Boerner, who bought it in the Dutch Republic in the year 1705. It was collated by Kuster, described in the preface to his edition of Mill's Greek New Testament; the manuscript was designated by symbol G in the second part of Wettstein's New Testament. The text of the codex was published by Matthaei, at Meissen, in Saxony, in 1791, supposed by him to have been written between the 8th and 12th centuries.
Rettig thought. During World War II, the codex suffered from water damage. Thus, the facsimile, as published in 1909, provides the most legible text; some scholars believe that this codex formed a unit with the Gospel manuscript Codex Sangallensis 48. Boernerianus is housed now in the Saxon State Library, Germany, while Δ is at Saint Gallen, in Switzerland. Codex Augiensis List of New Testament Latin manuscripts List of New Testament uncials Peter Corssen, Epistularum Paulinarum Latine Scriptos Augiensem, Claromontanum, Jever Druck von H. Fiencke 1887-1889. W. H. P. Hatch, On the Relationship of Codex Augiensis and Codex Boernerianus of the Pauline Epistles, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. 60, 1951, pp. 187–199. Alexander Reichardt, Der Codex Boernerianus. Der Briefe des Apostels Paulus, Verlag von Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig 1909. Bruce M. Metzger, Manuscripts of the Greek Bible: An Introduction to Palaeography, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1981, pp. 104–105. INTF. "Codex
The Great Lacuna is a lacuna of eight leaves where there was heroic Old Norse poetry in the Codex Regius. The gap would have contained most of Sigurðarkviða. What remains of the last poem consists of 22 stanzas called Brot af Sigurðarkviðu, but according to Henry Adams Bellows, the original size of Sigurðarkviða should have been more than 250 stanzas; the missing original narrative is preserved in the Völsunga saga in prose form with four stanzas of poetry. The first two stanzas that are preserved through the saga deal with how Sigurd returns to Brynhildr leaping through the flames on Grani after Gunnar had failed: Sigurd had, been given a potion of forgetfulness and so he had forgotten all about Brynhildr before returning to her. Moreover, he arrived to her disguised as Gunnar, so Brynhildr was married to Gunnar instead. After the wedding, Brynhildr argues with her sister-in-law Gudrun, Sigurd's spouse, Gudrun reveals to Brynhildr that it was Sigurd who saved her from her prison. Brynhildr who grasps the extent of the treachery of her in-laws against her and Sigurd, speaks out her heart about Gunnar, in the third preserved stanza: Brynhildr is furious and so Gunnar and Sigurd talk to her trying to calm her down.
Sigurd and Brynhildr have a conversation about the treachery of their mutual in-laws, understanding how deceived he has been, Sigurd leaves Brynhildr with a heavy heart: Brynhild's fury would soon lead to the death of both her and Sigurd and to the end of the Gjukung clan. J. R. R. Tolkien produced the poems Sigurðarkvida en nyja and Guðrunarkviða en nyja, now published as The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún based on the content found in the saga; the Great Lacuna Stanzas from Völsunga saga believed to be from the lacuna, translated by Lee M. Hollander Fragment of a Sigurth Lay Henry Adams Bellows' translation and commentary Fragments of the Lay of Sigurd and Brynhild Benjamin Thorpe's translation
Redaction is a form of editing in which multiple source texts are combined and altered to make a single document. This is a method of collecting a series of writings on a similar theme and creating a definitive and coherent work; the term is used to describe removal of some document content, replacing it with black rectangles which indicate the removal, although this usage was not documented by authorities such as the Oxford English Dictionary as of 2016, though earlier editions gave only this definition. For example classified documents released under freedom of information legislation may have sensitive information redacted in this way; this usage is discussed in the article on an alternative name for sanitization. On occasion, the persons performing the redaction add brief elements of their own; the reasons for doing so are varied and can include the addition of elements to adjust the underlying conclusions of the text to suit the redactor's opinion, adding bridging elements to integrate disparate stories, or the redactor may add a frame story, such as the tale of Scheherazade which frames the collection of folk tales in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights.
Sometimes the source texts are interlaced when discussing related details, things, or people. This is common when source texts contain alternative versions of the same story, slight alterations are made in this circumstance to make the texts appear to agree, thus the resulting redacted text appears to be coherent; such a situation is proposed by the documentary hypothesis, which proposes that multiple redactions occurred during the creation of the Torah combining texts, which have rival political attitudes and aims, together. Redactional processes are documented in numerous disciplines, including ancient literary works and biblical studies. Much has been written on the role of redaction in creating meaning for texts in various formats. Fix-up Redaction criticism Textual criticism
The Völsunga saga is a legendary saga, a late 13th century poetic rendition in the Icelandic language of the origin and decline of the Völsung clan. The saga covers; the saga has given rise to operatic and literary adaptations including Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen, Henrik Ibsen's The Vikings at Helgeland, William Morris's The Story of Sigurd the Volsung and the Fall of the Niblungs, J. R. R. Tolkien's The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún. Two of the main themes of the saga are the male responsibility of rewarding friends and punishing acts of shame, the female responsibility of goading for revenge. Together these create much of the contention in the saga, it is based on epic poetry of the historic Elder Edda. The earliest known pictorial representation of this tradition is the Ramsund carving, created c. 1000 AD. The origins of the material are older, it in part echoes real events in Central Europe during the Migration Period, chiefly the destruction of the Kingdom of the Burgundians by the Huns in the fifth century.
Some of the poems contained in the Elder Edda relate episodes from the Völsung legend. On the other hand, the only manuscript of the saga, Ny kgl. Saml. 1824b 4to, held by the Royal Library of Denmark, dates to about 1400. In this manuscript, the saga leads straight in to Ragnars saga loðbrókar; the saga can be divided into five phases: the preliminary generations. The first chapters tell of the generations which came prior to Sigurd, beginning with Sigi, a man banished from his homeland for murdering his neighbor's thrall. After much adventuring, Sigi settles down to rule over the Huns, his wife's brothers become envious of Sigi's power and wealth and raise an army against him. In the ensuing battle, Sigi is killed and his in-laws take over the kingdom. Sigi's son Rerir avenges his father's death, killing his uncles and regaining his father's throne. After many years, Rerir becomes ill and dies, shortly thereafter his wife gives birth to their son, Volsung. Volsung grows up and marries Hljod, the daughter of a giant.
Volsung and Hljod have eleven children, the two eldest being the boy and girl twins Sigmund and Signy. At Signy's wedding to King Siggeir, Sigmund offends his new brother-in-law; this triggers a series of revenge killings, beginning with Siggeir luring King Volsung and his sons into a trap. Volsung is killed, his sons put in stocks. Over the course of several nights, all of his sons save Sigmund are killed by a she-wolf, he is saved by his sister Signy, who helps Sigmund make a hiding place in the woods. As time goes on, Signy has two sons by Siggeir, she sends her boys to Sigmund to help him avenge the death of the Volsungs. However, both boys fail to pass a test of bravery and are killed by their uncle Sigmund at their mother's insistence, as she deems them unfit for vengeance. Signy tricks her brother Sigmund into sleeping with her, their son Sinfljoti becomes a powerful man raised with only one purpose: to avenge his uncles and grandfather. Sigmund and Sinfljoti manage to kill Siggeir, after this Sigmund returns to his own country, retakes his father's throne, rules there for many years.
As an old man, Sigmund marries the daughter of King Eylimi. The suitor she rejected in Sigmund's favor brings an army against him, Sigmund is mortally wounded in the battle. In the aftermath, Hjordis finds her husband and he entrusts to her the shards of his sword, prophesying that they will be reforged someday for their yet unborn son, he dies, Hjordis is taken in by Alf, son of Hjalprek, king of Denmark. Shortly thereafter she gives birth to Sigurd, her son by Sigmund. Sigurd is fostered in Hjalprek's court by Regin, his tutor, grows to manhood there. Hjordis gives birth to Sigurd, strong and popular, she marries the King's son Alf, Regin, the son of King Hreidmar, educates Sigurd. Sigurd enters the forest looking for a horse and meets Odin, who gives him Grani, descended from Sleipnir, better than any other horse. Regin entices Sigurd to go after the dragon Fafnir. Regin tells Sigurd a story: His father Hreidmar had three sons: himself and Fafnir. Otr was an otter-like fisherman, Fafnir large and fierce, Regin himself was skilled with ironwork.
One day Odin, Loki and Hœnir are fishing and kill Otr in his otter shape and eat him. King Hreidmar demands they fill and cover the skin with gold. Loki goes out and takes the dwarf Andvari’s gold and the ransom is paid; the dwarf curses the ring Andvaranaut. Fafnir kills his father, hides the body, takes all the treasure to his hoard, he turns into an evil dragon, Regin became a smith for the king. Regin makes two swords one after another for Sigurd. Sigurd's mother gives him the pieces of Regin reforges Gram. Sigurd tests it and splits the iron anvil down to its base, promises to kill Fafnir after he avenges his father. First he asks about his fate. Gripir tells him after some hesitation, Sigurd returns to Regin, saying he must avenge his father and other kinsmen before he kills Fafnir. Sigurd sails to Hunding's kingdom and kills many and b
Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles referred to as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament. Acts and the Gospel of Luke make up a two-part work, Luke–Acts, by the same anonymous author dated to around 80–90 AD; the first part, the Gospel of Luke, tells how God fulfilled his plan for the world's salvation through the life and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth, the promised Messiah. Acts continues the story of Christianity in the 1st century, beginning with Jesus's ascension to Heaven; the early chapters, set in Jerusalem, describe the Day of Pentecost and the growth of the church in Jerusalem. The Jews are receptive to the Christian message, but soon they turn against the followers of Jesus. Rejected by the Jews, under the guidance of the Apostle Peter the message is taken to the Gentiles; the chapters tell of Paul's conversion, his mission in Asia Minor and the Aegean, his imprisonment in Rome, where, as the book ends, he awaits trial. Luke–Acts is an attempt to answer a theological problem, namely how the Messiah of the Jews came to have an overwhelmingly non-Jewish church.
Luke–Acts can be seen as a defense of the Jesus movement addressed to the Jews: the bulk of the speeches and sermons in Acts are addressed to Jewish audiences, with the Romans serving as external arbiters on disputes concerning Jewish customs and law. On the one hand, Luke portrays the Christians as a sect of the Jews, therefore entitled to legal protection as a recognised religion; the title "Acts of the Apostles" was first used by Irenaeus in the late 2nd century. It is not known whether this was one invented by Irenaeus; the Gospel of Luke and Acts make up a two-volume work. Together they account for 27.5% of the New Testament, the largest contribution attributed to a single author, providing the framework for both the Church's liturgical calendar and the historical outline into which generations have fitted their idea of the story of Jesus and the early church. The author is not named in either volume. According to Church tradition dating from the 2nd century, he was the "Luke" named as a companion of the apostle Paul in three of the letters attributed to Paul himself.
The author "does not share Paul's own view of himself as an apostle. He was educated, a man of means urban, someone who respected manual work, although not a worker himself. While no proposed date for the composition of Acts is universally accepted, the most common scholarly position is to date Luke–Acts to 80-90 AD, on the grounds that it uses Mark as a source, looks back on the destruction of Jerusalem, does not show any awareness of the letters of Paul; the earliest possible date for the composition of Acts is set by the events with which it ends, Paul's imprisonment in Rome c. 63 AD, but such an early dating is a minority position. The last possible date would be set by its first definite citation by another author, but there is no unanimity on this. A minority of scholars in the latter camp, conclude that Acts dates to the 2nd century, believing that it shows awareness of the letters of Paul, the works of Josephus, or the writings of Marcion. There are two major textual variants of the Western text-type and the Alexandrian.
The oldest complete Alexandrian manuscripts date from the 4th century and the oldest Western ones from the 6th, with fragments and citations going back to the 3rd. Western texts of Acts are 6.2–8.4% longer than Alexandrian texts, the additions tending to enhance the Jewish rejection of the Messiah and the role of the Holy Spirit, in ways that are stylistically different from the rest of Acts. The majority of scholars prefer the Alexandrian text-type over the Western as the more authentic, but this same argument would favour the Western over the Alexandrian for the Gospel of Luke, as in that case the Western version is the shorter; the title "Acts of the Apostles" would seem to identify it with the genre telling of the deeds and achievements of great men, but it was not the title given by the author. The anonymous author aligned Luke–Acts to the "narratives" (διήγησ
Codex Regius or GKS 2365 4º is an Icelandic codex in which many Old Norse poems are preserved. Thought to have been written during the 1270s, it is made up of 45 vellum leaves; the work contained a further eight leaves, which are now missing. It is the sole source for most of the poems. In scholarly texts, this manuscript is abbreviated as for Codex Regius, or as for Konungsbók; the codex was discovered in 1643, when it came into the possession of Brynjólfur Sveinsson Bishop of Skálholt, who in 1662 sent it as a gift to King Frederick III of Denmark. It was kept in the Royal Library in Copenhagen until April 21, 1971, when it was brought back to Reykjavík and is now kept in the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies. Since air travel was not to be trusted at the time with such precious cargo, it was transported by ship, accompanied by a military escort. One of the principal manuscripts of Snorri's Edda goes by the name of the Codex Regius, it is made up of 55 vellum pages dating from the early 14th century.
It was part of the same gift from Bishop Brynjólfur to Frederick III. It was returned to Iceland in 1985, where it is now in the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies. Codex Regius is the subject of a thriller by the Icelandic writer Arnaldur Indridason. Werner Herzog reads aloud one poem in his 2016 film Into the Inferno. Finnur Jónsson's Facisimile Edition of 1891. Stafrænt handritasafn CyberSamurai Encyclopedia of Norse Mythology: Lieder-Edda CyberSamurai Encyclopedia of Norse Mythology: Lieder-Edda