There are Winter and Summer Paralympic Games, which since the 1988 Summer Games in Seoul, South Korea, are held almost immediately following the respective Olympic Games. All Paralympic Games are governed by the International Paralympic Committee, the Paralympics has grown from a small gathering of British World War II veterans in 1948 to become one of the largest international sporting events by the early 21st century. Paralympians strive for equal treatment with non-disabled Olympic athletes, but there is a funding gap between Olympic and Paralympic athletes. Given the wide variety of disabilities that Paralympic athletes have, there are categories in which the athletes compete. The allowable disabilities are broken down into ten eligible impairment types and these categories are further broken down into classifications, which vary from sport to sport. The first athlete to do so was German American gymnast George Eyser in 1904, hungarian Karoly Takacs competed in shooting events in both the 1948 and 1952 Summer Olympics.
He was an amputee and could shoot left-handed. The first organized athletic day for disabled athletes that coincided with the Olympic Games took place on the day of the opening of the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, the first games were called the 1948 International Wheelchair Games, and were intended to coincide with the 1948 Olympics. Dr. Guttmans aim was to create a sports competition for people with disabilities that would be equivalent to the Olympic Games. The games were again at the same location in 1952. These early competitions, known as the Stoke Mandeville Games, have described as the precursors of the Paralympic Games. There have been milestones in the Paralympic movement. The first official Paralympic Games, no longer open solely to war veterans, was held in Rome in 1960,400 athletes from 23 countries competed at the 1960 Games. Since 1960, the Paralympic Games have taken place in the year as the Olympic Games. The Games were initially only to athletes in wheelchairs, at the 1976 Summer Games, athletes with different disabilities were included for the first time at a Summer Paralympics.
With the inclusion of more disability classifications the 1976 Summer Games expanded to 1,600 athletes from 40 countries, the 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul, South Korea, was another milestone for the Paralympic movement. It was in Seoul that the Paralympic Summer Games were held directly after the Olympic Summer Games, in the same host city and this set a precedent that was followed in 1992,1996 and 2000. It was eventually formalized in an agreement between the International Paralympic Committee and the International Olympic Committee in 2001, and was extended through 2020
Glossary of Gaelic games terms
The following is an alphabetical list of terms and jargon used in relation to Gaelic games. g. Often used to start official communications, even in English, the All-Ireland can refer to an already mentioned All-Ireland championship, more generally it can refer to the All-Ireland Senior Football or Hurling Championship. All Star, An annual award, one of which is given to the best player in each of the fifteen positions in Gaelic football, ladies football, Áras, meaning a sports centre, or club Bainisteoir, Irish word meaning manager. Backdoor, Adjective describing a knockout championship in which defeated teams are not immediately eliminated from the competition, such teams are said to re-enter the championship through the back door. Barracks games, nickname for sports from their supposed connection with the British military. Also the barracks as in go to the barracks Bas, The flattened, curved end head of a hurley, Big Alley, the 60x30 foot court, the indigenous handball alley. Black card, Card shown to a player who has committed a cynical foul, each team is allowed to replace the first three players to receive black cards unless the player has previously received a yellow card.
Block, where one player prevents an opponents strike by trapping the ball between his hurley and the opponents swinging hurley Book, See tick, where the referee notes the name of a player by displaying their note book as they would a red or yellow card. Caid, Another name for Gaelic football, usually referring to precodified varieties in the south west of Ireland, camóg, Hurley or stick as used in camogie. A GAA coinage, from the Irish, central Competitions Control Committee, Committee which organises fixtures for competitions above provincial level. Cic Fada, A competition for Gaelic footballers based on accuracy of long kicking, the basic organisational unit of the GAA, at least one of which exists in most parishes throughout Ireland. Clubs are commonly named after either the district, or a saint or national hero associated with that district. If the club teams only in Gaelic football, that name is followed by GFC, for hurling-only clubs it is HC. All clubs are controlled by elected volunteer committees.
Cluiche corr, the one Gaelic game widely adopted outside Ireland, an Coiste Náisiunta, The National Executive. Not to be confused with international rules, corner back, Players who stand on either side of the full back, and who are defenders. County, a region within the GAA, controlled by a County Board. In Ireland, there are 32 GAA counties, corresponding closely to the boundaries of counties currently or formerly used for administrative purposes
Gaelic games are sports played in Ireland under the auspices of the Gaelic Athletic Association. Gaelic football and hurling are the two main games, other games organised by the GAA include Gaelic handball and rounders. Womens versions of hurling and football are played, organised by the Camogie Association of Ireland. While womens versions are not organised by the GAA, they are associated with it. Today, Gaelic games are the most popular games in Ireland in terms of supporter attendances at senior games, despite an economic downturn, attendances in 2009 were up 11% on 2008. Gaelic football is played by teams of 15 on a grass pitch with H-shaped goals at each end. The primary object is to score by driving the ball through the goals, which is known as a goal, or by kicking the ball over the bar, the team with the highest point score at the end of the match wins. The female version of the game is known as ladies Gaelic football and is similar to the game with a few minor rule changes. Hurling is a stick and ball game played by teams of 15 on a grass pitch with H-shaped goals at each end.
The primary object is to score by driving the ball through the goals or putting the ball over the bar, three points is the equivalent of a goal. The team with the highest score at the end of the match wins and it is over three thousand years old, and is said to be the worlds fastest field game, combining skills from lacrosse, field hockey, and baseball in a hard-hitting, highly skilled game. The female version of the game is known as camogie and is similar to hurling with a few minor rule changes. Gaelic handball is a game in two players use their hands to return a ball against a wall. The game is similar to American handball, there are three codes of handball, 60x30, 40x20 and One Wall. One Wall handball is the most popular version of handball with it being played in over 30 countries. It is hoped that this version of handball will soon become an Olympic sport, the sport of handball is governed by GAA Handball in Ireland. Rounders is a bat and ball game which is played in Ireland, Rounders is the least popular of the GAA Gaelic games and is organised by a subdivision of the GAA known as the Rounders Council of Ireland.
Other Gaelic games such as Gaelic athletics have nearly or completely died out, when founded the GAA organised a number of Gaelic athletics competitions but passed the responsibility to the National Athletic and Cycling Association in 1922
Gaelic football, commonly referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport. It is played two teams of 15 players on a rectangular grass pitch. The objective of the sport is to score by kicking or punching the ball into the teams goals or between two upright posts above the goals and over a crossbar 2.5 metres above the ground. Players advance the football, a leather ball, up the field with a combination of carrying, kicking, hand-passing. In the game, two types of scores are possible and goals, a point is awarded for kicking or hand-passing the ball over the crossbar, signalled by the umpire raising a white flag. A goal is awarded for kicking the ball under the crossbar into the net, positions in Gaelic football are similar to that in other football codes, and comprise one goalkeeper, six backs, two midfielders, and six forwards, with a variable number of substitutes. Gaelic football is one of four sports controlled by the Gaelic Athletic Association, along with hurling and camogie, Gaelic football is one of the few remaining strictly amateur sports in the world, with players and managers prohibited from receiving any form of payment.
Gaelic football is played on the island of Ireland, although units of the Association exist in other areas such as Great Britain, North America. Outside Ireland, football is played among members of the Irish diaspora. Gaelic Park in New York City is the largest purpose-built Gaelic sports venue outside Ireland, the All-Ireland Senior Championship is considered the most prestigious event in Gaelic football. Under the auspices of the GAA, Gaelic football is a sport, however. Gaelic football was first codified in 1887, although it has purported links to varieties of football played in Ireland. Consequently, the name caid is used by people to refer to present day Gaelic football. Dublin is still known as the football field, the Statute of Galway of 1527 allowed the playing of foot balle and archery but banned hokie—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves as well as other sports. By the 17th century, the situation had changed considerably, the games had grown in popularity and were widely played.
This was due to the patronage of the gentry, now instead of opposing the games it was the gentry and the ruling class who were serving as patrons of the games. Games were organised between landlords with each team comprising 20 or more tenants, wagers were commonplace with purses of up to 100 guineas. The earliest record of a precursor to the modern game date from a match in County Meath in 1670
Camogie is an Irish stick-and-ball team sport played by women, it is almost identical to the game of hurling played by men. Camogie is played by 100,000 women in Ireland and worldwide and it is organised by the Dublin-based Camogie Association or An Cumann Camógaíochta. The game consists of two 30 minute halves, matches are contested by two teams of 15 a side, using a field 130m to 145m long and 80m to 90m wide. H-shaped goals are used, a goal is equal to three points and a point is equal to one point. The annual All Ireland Camogie Championship has an attendance of 33,154 while average attendances in recent years are in the region of 15,000 to 18,000. The final is televised live, with a TV audience of over 300,000 being claimed, the rules are almost identical to hurling, with a few exceptions. Goalkeepers wear the colours as outfield players. This is because no special rules apply to the goalkeeper and so there is no need for officials to differentiate between goalkeeper and outfielders, a camogie player can handpass a score Camogie games last 60 minutes, two 30-minute halves.
Ties are resolved by multiple 2×10-minute sudden death extra time periods, in these, dropping the camogie stick to handpass the ball is permitted. A smaller sliotar is used in camogie – commonly known as a size 4 sliotar – whereas hurlers play with a size 5 sliotar. If a defending player hits the sliotar wide, a 45-metre puck is awarded to the opposition After a score, the metal band on the camogie stick must be covered with tape. Two points are awarded for a direct from a sideline cut. Camogie players must wear skirts or skorts rather than shorts, experimental rules were drawn up in 1903 for a female stick-and-ball game by Máire Ní Chinnéide, Seán Ó Ceallaigh, Tadhg Ó Donnchadha and Séamus Ó Braonáin. The Official Launch of Camogie took place with the first public match between Craobh an Chéitinnigh and Cúchulainns on 17 July at a Feis in Navan, the sports governing body, the Camogie Association or An Cumann Camógaíochta was founded in 1905 and re-constituted in 1911,1923 and 1939. Until June 2010 it was known as Cumann Camógaíochta na nGael, although camogie was founded by women, and independently run, there was, from the outset, a small yet powerful male presence within its administrative ranks.
Of all the cultural nationalist organisations for adults that emerged during the fin de siècle, under Séamus Ó Braonáins original 1903 camogie rules both the match and the field were shorter than their hurling equivalents. Matches were 40 minutes, increased to 50 minutes in 1934, in 1999 camogie moved to the GAA field-size and 15-a-side, adopting the standard GAA butterfly formation. The name was invented by Tadhg Ua Donnchadha at meetings in 1903 in advance of the first matches in 1904, men play using a curved stick called in Irish a camán
Hurling, is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic and Irish origin, administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association. The game has prehistoric origins, and has played for 3,000 years. One of Irelands native Gaelic games, it shares a number of features with Gaelic football, such as the field and goals, the number of players, there is a similar game for women called camogie. It shares a common Gaelic root with the sport of shinty, the sliotar can be caught in the hand and carried for not more than four steps, struck in the air, or struck on the ground with the hurley. It can be kicked, or slapped with a hand for short-range passing. A player who wants to carry the ball for more than four steps has to bounce or balance the sliotar on the end of the stick, no protective padding is worn by players. A plastic protective helmet with a faceguard is mandatory for all age groups, including senior level, the game has been described as a bastion of humility, with player names absent from jerseys and a players number decided by his position on the field.
Hurling is played throughout the world, and is popular among members of the Irish diaspora in North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Argentina, in many parts of Ireland, hurling is a fixture of life. It has featured regularly in art such as film, music. A team comprises 15 players, or hurlers, the hurley is generally 24 to 36 inches in length. The ball, known as a sliotar, has a cork centre, the goalkeepers hurley usually has a bas twice the size of other players hurleys to provide some advantage against the fast moving sliotar. A good strike with a hurley can propel the ball over 150 km/h in speed and 110 metres in distance, a ball hit over the bar is worth one point. A ball that is hit under the bar is called a goal and is three points. As of 2010, all players must wear a helmet, a hurling pitch is similar in some respects to a rugby pitch but larger. The grass pitch is rectangular, stretching 130–145 metres long and 80–90 m wide. There are H-shaped goalposts at each end, formed by two posts, which are usually 6–7 metres high, set 6.5 m apart, a net extending behind the goal is attached to the crossbar and lower goal posts.
The same pitch is used for Gaelic football, the GAA, lines are marked at distances of 14 yards,21 yards and 65 yards from each end-line. Shorter pitches and smaller goals are used by youth teams, teams consist of fifteen players, a goalkeeper, three full backs, three half backs, two midfielders, three half forwards and three full forwards
The Irish diaspora refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside Ireland. This is more than the population of Ireland at its peak in the 1840s of 8.5 million. The poorest of them went to Great Britain, especially Liverpool, after 1840, emigration from Ireland became a massive and efficiently managed national enterprise. In 1890 40% of Irish-born people were living abroad, by the 21st century, an estimated 80 million people worldwide claimed some Irish descent, which includes more than 36 million Americans who claim Irish as their primary ethnicity. As recently as the half of the nineteenth century, the majority of Irish emigrants spoke Irish as their first language. This had social and cultural consequences for the cultivation of the language abroad, the language continues to be cultivated abroad by a small minority as a literary and social medium. Joe McHugh is the Republic of Irelands Minister of State for the Diaspora, the term Irish diaspora is open to many interpretations.
It has been argued the idea of an Irish diaspora, as distinct from the old identification of Irishness with Ireland itself, was influenced by the advent of global mobility and modernity. Irishness could now be identified with dispersed individuals and groups of Irish descent, but many of those individuals were the product of complex ethnic intermarriage in America and elsewhere, complicating the idea of a single line of descent. Irishness might rely primarily on identification with an Irish diaspora. The Government of Ireland defines the Irish diaspora as all persons of Irish nationality who habitually reside outside of the island of Ireland and this includes Irish citizens who have emigrated abroad and their children, who are Irish citizens by descent under Irish law. It includes their grandchildren in cases where they were registered as Irish citizens in the Foreign Births Register held in every Irish diplomatic mission, under this legal definition, the Irish diaspora is considerably smaller—some 3 million persons, of whom 1.2 million are Irish-born emigrants.
This is still a large ratio for any country, the usage of Irish diaspora is generally not limited by citizenship status, thus leading to an estimated membership of up to 80 million persons—the second and more emotive definition. The right to register as an Irish citizen terminates at the third generation and this contrasts with citizenship law in Italy, Israel and other countries which practice jus sanguinis or otherwise permit members of the diaspora to register as citizens. There are people of Irish descent abroad who reject inclusion in an Irish diaspora and they may see the diasporic label as something used by the Irish government for its own purposes. The Attacotti, who were recruited into the Roman army. Following the withdrawal of the Roman army, the Irish began increasing their footholds in Britain, in time, the Irish colonies became independent, merged with the Pictish kingdom, and formed the basis of modern Scotland. The traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland are still referred to in the Gaelic language as a Ghàidhealtachd, Irish monks, and the Celtic church, pioneered a wave of Irish emigration into Great Britain, and continental Europe
The sport is similar to American handball, Basque pelota, Pêl-Law and squash. It is one of the four Gaelic games organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association, in 2009, Irish Handball was rebranded as GAA Handball. Handball is played in a court, or alley, originally, an alley measuring 60 feet by 30 feet was used with a front wall of 30 feet, off which the ball must be struck. A smaller alley was introduced, measuring 40 feet by 20 feet with a front wall 20 ft high, the first alley of this size was built in Ireland in 1969. This smaller size is now the standard in the version of the game. The objective of a game is to score a set total of points before your opponent does, points are only scored by the person serving the ball. In other words, if a player wins a rally but did not serve at the start of that rally they only win the right to serve, and thus the chance to score after a subsequent rally. The serving player has two opportunities to hit the ball, from the area, off the front wall. Players take turns at hitting the ball off the front wall before the ball twice on the floor of the court following their opponents previous shot.
Most handball games take place in a court but there are three-walled. Handball-like games have originated in places at different times. Hieroglyphs in the temple of Osiris in Egypt portray priests taking part in a very similar to handball. Mesoamerican civilisations in South and Central America had a form of handball-like game, recent archaeological finds in the Callan and Mooncoin areas of Kilkenny indicate that a game similar to handball was played. In Ireland, the earliest written record of a ball game is contained in the town statutes of Galway in 1527. The first depiction of an Irish form of handball does not appear till 1785, on the west coast of Ireland, Galway had many trading links with Spain, especially the Basque regions, where the similar game of pelota is played. All you have to do is hit the ball with or without gloves, both Scottish and Irish immigrants brought the game to many countries in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. It is still played in the United States, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, Africa, the G. A. A. wrote the first rules for the modern game of handball.
Handball was included in the G. A. A, charter of 1884 as one of the sports to be promoted by the new Association
The term referee originated in association football. Originally the team captains would consult each other in order to resolve any dispute on the pitch. Eventually this role was delegated to an umpire, each team would bring their own partisan umpire allowing the team captains to concentrate on the game. Later, the referee, a neutral official was added. The referee did not take his place on the pitch until 1891, in this case, the role of the linesmen is limited to indicating out of play and cannot decide off side. An umpire is an official in the sport of Australian rules football, games are overseen by one to three field umpires, two to four boundary umpires, and two goal umpires. A game of bandy is officiated by a referee, the authority and enforcer of the rules, the referee may be assisted by one or two assistant referees. On any question, the umpire has the final call. In international basketball and in basketball, the referee is the lead official in a game. In the National Basketball Association, the official is referred to by the term crew chief.
In boxing a referee is the person who enforces the rules during the fight, in cricket, the match referee is an off-field official who makes judgements concerning the reputable conduct of the game and hands out penalties for breaches of the ICC Cricket Code of Conduct. On-field decisions relevant to the play and outcome of the game itself are handled by two umpires, although an off-field third umpire may help with certain decisions. In cue sports, such as billiards and snooker, matches are presided over by a referee, the referee will determine all matters of fact relating to the rules, maintain fair playing conditions, call fouls, and take other action as required by these rules. A commissaire is an official in competitive cycling, a fencing match is presided over by a referee. An umpire in field hockey is a person with the authority to make decisions on a field in accordance with the laws of the game. Each match is controlled by two umpires, where it is typical for umpires to aid one another and correct each other when necessary.
Referees for international events are trained by the International Skating Union, there are two levels of referee, International Referee and ISU Referee, with ISU Referees ranking higher. In Synchronized Ice Skating, there are two Referees, sits with the Judges as with ordinary competition and operates a touch screen computer, inputing deductions and marking the skaters
The Olympic Games are considered the worlds foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are held four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896. The IOC is the body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in changes to the Olympic Games. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic, political, as a result, the Olympics has shifted away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship, World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916,1940, and 1944 Games.
Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games, the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, and organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals, silver, the Games have grown so much that nearly every nation is now represented. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide unknown athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame.
The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to themselves to the world. The Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, competition was among representatives of several city-states and kingdoms of Ancient Greece. These Games featured mainly athletic but combat such as wrestling. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished. This cessation of hostilities was known as the Olympic peace or truce and this idea is a modern myth because the Greeks never suspended their wars. The truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus
Rounders is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams. Rounders is a striking and fielding team game that involves hitting a small, leather-cased ball with a rounded end wooden, the players score by running around the four bases on the field. Played in England since Tudor times, it is referenced in 1744 in the childrens book A Little Pretty Pocket-Book where it was called base-ball, the game is popular among British and Irish school children. Gameplay centres on a number of innings, in which teams alternate at batting and fielding, a maximum of nine players are allowed to field at any time. Points are scored by the team when one of their players completes a circuit past four bases without being put out. The game of rounders has been played in England since Tudor times, the following year, the book was published in Boston, Massachusetts. The first nationally formalised rules were drawn up by the Gaelic Athletic Association in Ireland in 1884, the game is still regulated in Ireland by the GAA, through the GAA Rounders National Council.
In Great Britain it is regulated by Rounders England, which was formed in 1943, while the two associations are distinct, they share similar elements of game play and culture. Competitions are held between teams from both traditions, with games alternating between codes and one version being played in the morning and the other in the afternoon, after the rules of rounders were formalised in Ireland, associations were established in Liverpool and Scotland in 1889. Rounders is linked to British baseball, which is played in Liverpool, Cardiff. Although rounders is assumed to be older than baseball, literary references to early forms of base-ball in England pre-date use of the term rounders, the game is now played up to international level. While Rounders England and GAA codes differ, they share much in common, the bowler, or feeder, bowls the ball with an underarm pendulum action to the batter. According to Rounders England rules, the ball is deemed a good if it passes within reach on the striking side between the batters knees and the top of the head.
Otherwise, it is called a no-ball or bad ball, the ball is regarded as bad if it is thrown into the batters body or wide of the batting box. A batter may try to hit a bad ball but is not required to do so, a player is not out if a no-ball is caught and cannot be called out on first base. When a batter leaves the post, each runner on a base may run to the next, a post runner cannot be declared out when standing at a base. The batter must keep in contact with the base to avoid being declared out, a rounder is scored if one of the batting team completes a circuit without being out. In the United Kingdom, the rules of rounders are regulated by Rounders England, games played under these rules use smaller bats and balls and are played on a smaller pitch compared to GAA games
Ladies' Gaelic Football Association
The Ladies Gaelic Football Association is the organisation which promotes and regulates ladies gaelic football in the Ireland. Many dates are suggested for the foundation of the Association and it is understood that a parish league was in operation in Corr an Chláir as far back as 1926. The first Championship Trophy (the Brendan Martin Cup was contested in Autumn of the year 1974, eight counties — Roscommon, Offaly, Kerry, Cork and Tipperary — participated in the inaugural set of games, and Tipperary won the championship. Gradually, the number of competing counties increased, in 1982 the Association received recognition for the first time as a body independent of the GAA. At the beginning of the 1990s, counties which were not already registered joined the organisation, Ladies Gaelic football is now played in the United Kingdom, Mainland Europe, the United States and Asia, mostly among members of the Irish diaspora. The Association has a structure to the GAA in that there are clubs, provincial councils, county boards.
The organisation has a convention where representatives from all clubs. Representatives of clubs in other countries are in attendance and it is at this convention that the Associations officials are elected every year and where the president is elected every three years. The current president is Marie Hickey