St Mary's College, St Andrews
St Mary's College, founded as New College or College of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is the home of the Faculty and School of Divinity within the University of St Andrews, in Fife, Scotland. The college was founded in 1538 by Archbishop James Beaton, uncle of Cardinal David Beaton on the site of the Pedagogy or St John's College. St Mary's College was intended to preserve the teachings of the Roman Catholic church against the heretical teachings of the reformers, it was dedicated to a revival of learning on the Continental trilingual model and from the outset laid emphasis on the knowledge of Latin and Hebrew. In 1579, nineteen years after the Reformation brought fundamental changes to the religious life of the Scottish nation, St Mary's College was reconstituted as the Faculty of Divinity of the university. St Mary's College retains much of its original sixteenth century buildings the north and West ranges; the Quad contains a thorn tree said to have been planted by Mary, Queen of Scots, during her many visits to St. Andrews.
The Quad contains the historic King James Library founded by King James VI & I in 1612. In addition the College has The Roundel, a 16th-century building dedicated for doctoral students studying divinity at the University of St Andrews; the college is one of five approved centres for the training of Church of Scotland ministers. Graduates include the Very Rev Dr Finlay Macdonald, the immediate past Principal Clerk to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland and a former Moderator; as of 01 May 2018, the Principal of St Mary's College was Rev. Dr. Stephen Holmes Head of the School of Divinity, who had replaced Ian Bradley; as of May 2015, the Faculty and School of Divinity forms an academic community of some 131 persons: 16 members of staff. According to The Complete University Guide 2016 the School of Divinity is placed first in the United Kingdom for undergraduate studies ahead of Durham in second place and Cambridge in third. In the 2016 Guardian University Guide it is ranked first in the United Kingdom in religious studies and theology.
The college has four research centres. The Institute for Theology and the Arts was founded within the college by professors Trevor Hart and Jeremy Begbie in 2000, it "aims to advance and enrich an active conversation between Christian theology and the arts – bringing rigorous theological thinking to the arts, bringing the resources of the arts to the enterprise of theology." The current director is Dr Gavin Hopps. The Centre for the Study of Religion and Politics was founded in November 2004 by a group of academics attached to the Schools of Divinity, International Relations, Modern Languages, Philosophical and Anthropological Studies; the need for a centre of learning to consider the role of religion and politics was highlighted by the support garnered from a diverse range of scholars and religious and political figures who endorsed the Centre's establishment. These supporters who have continued as Patrons of the Centre include Gustavo Gutiérrez, Cardinal O'Brien, Bishop Desmond Tutu, Carole Hillenbrand, Ian Linden, Julian Filochowski, J.
D. Y. Peel, Rev Joel Edwards, Professor George P. Smith II and Dr. P. T. W. Baxter; the current director is Professor Mario Aguilar The Institute for Bible, Theology & Hermeneutics was established in 2009 to give formal identity to the long-standing project of research into Scripture and theology, associated with the work at St Mary's School of Divinity. The institute introduces its aims as seeking, "To overcome the sense of fragmentation within the field of Divinity that burdens many within the Academy, promoting intra-disciplinary conversation between Biblical Studies and the various fields of Theology, thus providing a core identity for a more integrated discipline competent to engage in inter-disciplinary research. With the study of general hermeneutical theory and practice at its centre, it will be outward-looking and keen to engage with issues arising from the contemporary world." The current director is Dr Mark Elliott. The Logos Institute for Analytic and Exegetical Theology was founded in 2016 by Professor Alan Torrance and Dr Andrew Torrance.
The Institute "is committed to scholarship. It reflects a radical commitment to interdisciplinary engagement between the fields of philosophy, biblical studies, the sciences, its faculty consists of world-leading scholars in the fields of biblical studies and philosophy." The current director is Professor Alan Torrance. Samuel Rutherford, Professor of Divinity 1638-1661 James Hadow, Principal of the college 1707-1747 Official website ITIA website
St Salvator's Chapel
St Salvator's Chapel is one of two collegiate chapels belonging to the University of St Andrews, the other being St Leonard's Chapel. It was founded in 1450, by Bishop James Kennedy, built in the Late Gothic architectural style, refurbished in the 1680s, 1860s and throughout the 20th century, it is the chapel of the United college as well as being the major university chapel. Students and members of the public attend its numerous services, including morning prayers, weekly Evensong and, most popularly, Sunday services; the Sunday services are followed by the famous pier walk, in which students walk to the pier and back in academic procession. Other services are held to mark graduations and other such occasions, the chapel hosts wedding ceremonies for a large number of the university's alumni; the Chapel has The St Salvator's Chapel Choir, which sings at most services. The name St Salvator is a reference to Jesus Christ and the former college for which the chapel was built founded by Bishop Kennedy.
St Salvator's is the only University Chapel in Scotland to boast a full ring of six bells suitable for change ringing. Four new bells were added to Catherine and Elizabeth as part of the University's 600th anniversary celebrations in 2010 marking the 550th anniversary of the Chapel. Alexander Burnet
St Andrews Links
St Andrews Links in the town of St Andrews, Scotland, is regarded as the "Home of Golf". It has one of the oldest courses in the world, where the game has been played since the 15th century. Today there are seven public golf courses; the courses of St Andrews Links are owned by the local authorities and operated by St Andrews Links Trust, a charitable organization. St Andrews is home to the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, one of the most prestigious golf clubs and until 2004 one of the two rulemaking authorities of golf. In general, St Andrews is a popular hub for golf tourism, as there is a high density of links and heathland courses in the area. In addition to the public courses there are two courses at the owned Fairmont Hotel to the south of the town. A few miles further South are the modern links of Kingsbarns and the traditional Balcomie links at Crail. Nearby are the courses at Elie, Leven and Anstruther. Within 45 minutes drive are Monifieth, Downfield and Panmure; the land was acquired by James Cheape, owner of the adjacent Strathtyrum estate, in 1821 and sold by his brother's grandson named James Cheape, to The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews in 1893.
Control of St Andrews Links was regulated by an act of Parliament in 1894 and another in 1974 which resulted in the creation of the St Andrews Links Trust. The Balgove Course, named after the farm on which it was built, is a 1,520 yard, par 30, nine-hole course, it was opened in 1972 and remodeled in 1993. The Castle Course opened in June 2008; the course is set on a rugged-cliff top with extensive views over St Andrews. The course measures 6,759 yards from the back tees; the Eden Course opened in 1914. It was designed by Harry Colt, alterations in 1989 by Donald Steel maintain Colt's standards, it was named after the Eden estuary by which it resides, as the profits from mussels collected there once made up an important part of the St Andrews economy. The Jubilee Course is the third championship golf course at the Home of Golf, it was named after Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebration in 1897. Intended for Victorian dressed ladies, other golf beginners, it has evolved into one of the hardest courses at St Andrews Links.
The course is used to test junior and amateur golfers for the British Mid-Amateur Golf Championship, as well as the St Andrews Links Trophy. A 12-hole course, it was expanded to 18 holes in 1905; the course has seen considerable developments under the management of Willie Auchterlonie, Donald Steel, David Wilson and Graeme Taylor. It now plays at around 6,745 yards, is host to the St Andrews Links Trophy; the Jubilee is one of several courses in Scotland. The Strathtyrum Course, opened in July 1993, became the first new 18 hole layout at St Andrews in nearly 80 years, it was built on land, part of the Strathtyrum estate and sold to the St Andrews Links Trust by Mrs Gladys Cheape in 1986. The Old Course, believed to be the oldest golf course in the world, dates back more than 600 years; the New Course, located adjacent to the Old Course, was paid for and commissioned by The R&A who asked Old Tom Morris to be designer. The New Course opened for play in 1895; the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews Old Course at St Andrews St Andrews Links official site The New Golf Club of St Andrews official site St Andrews Golf Blog - Information on golf in St Andrews and the surrounding area
St Andrews Sarcophagus
The Saint Andrews Sarcophagus is a Pictish monument dating from the second half of the 8th century. The sarcophagus was recovered beginning in 1833 during excavations by St Andrew's Cathedral, but it was not until 1922 that the surviving components were reunited; the sarcophagus is on display at the Cathedral museum in St Andrews, close to the site of its discovery. As constructed the sarcophagus would have comprised two side panels, two end panels, four corner pieces and a roof slab; the roof slab is missing, as are most of one side and one end panel and a corner piece so that the extant sarcophagus is L-shaped. The external dimensions of the sarcophagus are a height of 70 cm; the stone used is a local sandstone. The surviving side panel shows, from right to left, a figure breaking the jaws of a lion, a mounted hunter with his sword raised to strike a leaping lion, hunter on foot, armed with a spear and assisted by a hunting dog, about to attack a wolf. Although it is not certain that the first two figures represent the same person, 19th century illustrations depict them as if they are.
The surviving end panel is much simpler a cross with four small panels between the arms. The fragments of the missing end panel are not identical, to the surviving one; the Sarcophagus was discovered within the grounds of The Cathedral near the St Regulus Chapel. The Cathedral had been in use from when it was constructed during the 1100s until it was stripped of all its altars and images, left in ruins and abandoned after 1559 during the Reformation. Much of its remaining stonework was recycled over the years into buildings in the town of St Andrews. In the course of digging a grave in 1833, workmen discovered the remaining large fragments of the sarcophagus at a depth of about 6 to 8 feet. Through the years various casts of the pieces were made but the original pieces were not reassembled until 1922. Historians differ on, to have been interred in the sarcophagus. Although it is presumed that it was commissioned by the Pictish King Óengus, or Onuist, a Christian who died in 761, whether it was used for his corpse, for his predecessor, Nechtan mac Der Ilei, or for a personage is unclear.
Charles Edwards, T. M. "'The Continuation of Bede', s.a. 750: high-kings of Tara and'Bretwaldas'" in Smyth, Seanchas, pp. 137–46. Foster, Sally M; the St Andrews Sarcophagus: A Pictish Masterpiece and its International Connections. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1998. ISBN 1-85182-414-6 Foster Sally M. Expiscation! Disentangling the biography of the St Andrews Sarcpohagus. In: Hunter F, Sheridan A. Ancient Lives: Object and Place in Early Scotland. Essays for David V Clarke on his 70th birthday, Leiden: Sidestone Press, pp. 165-186. Henderson, George & Henderson, The Art of the Picts: Sculpture and Metalwork in Early Medieval Scotland. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004. ISBN 0-500-23807-3 Smyth, Alfred P. Seanchas: Studies in Early Medieval Irish Archaeology and Literature in Honour of Francis J. Byrne. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2000. ISBN 1-85182-489-8
Church of St Mary on the Rock
The Church of St Mary on the Rock or St Mary's Collegiate Church, was a secular college of priests based on the seaward side of St Andrews Cathedral, St Andrews, just beyond the precinct walls. It is known by a variety of other names, such as St Mary of the Culdees and Church of St Mary of Kilrymont. Although not founded as a collegiate church until the 1240s, Scotland's first, it represented a corporate continuation of the association of clergy known as the Culdees or Céli Dé, "vassals of God"; the church lasted for several centuries, but did not long outlast the Scottish Reformation, today little of the original structure has survived. St Mary's Collegiate Church has its origins in Kilrymont monastery and its group of canons called "Culdees" or Céli Dé; these priests served a side altar in the Cathedral throughout the twelfth-century and into the thirteenth-century. The Céli Dé were headed by an abbot; the only abbot whose name is recorded is Gille Críst, the "abbot of the Céli Dé" recorded 1172 x 1178 feuing out lands to the steward of the Bishop of St Andrews, though an unnamed abbot is recorded again in the 1180s.
Until the foundation of the Augustinian priory in 1140, the Céli Dé and the seven clerics known as the personae are the only known clerics of the cathedral. The new Augustinian monastic canons were intended to become the main clergymen of the cathedral, serving its main altar, Pope Eugenius III in 1147 confirmed the rights of the Augustinian canons and their prior to elect the Bishop of St Andrews, it is on a number of grounds that Bishop Robert, an Augustinian himself from Nostell, intended that the Céli Dé would become Augustinians, bringing their property into the new Cathedral Priory. This is not what happened, although another papal bull of 1147 ordered that upon the death of each Céle Dé an Augustinian should take his place, they were still there in 1199 when the priory recognised their holdings to be permanent. Professor G. W. S. Barrow argued that from the episcopates of Roger de Beaumont and William de Malveisin the bishops of St Andrews were promoting the Céli Dé as a second cathedral chapter.
Barrow compared this with the attempts of two archbishops of Canterbury and Hubert Walter, to establish a secular college dedicated to St Thomas which would act as a counter the power of the monks and prior. In 1163 Archbishop Lorcán Ua Tuathail had converted his diocesan canons into the Augustinian Cathedral of the Holy Trinity. John Comyn, the first Anglo-Norman Archbishop of Dublin, created a new collegiate church at St Patricks parish church, a collegiate church his successor Henry de Loundres turned into a second cathedral. In both the Dublin and Canterbury examples, the bishop had to deal with a pre-established monastic cathedral chapter under a prior, in both cases the bishop sought to subvert the prior and chapter's power in his own interest; the Céli Dé are found in close association with, in fact allied to, the bishop, from Beaumont's episcopate onwards, the two occur together in disputes with the prior of St Andrews. For instance, sometime between 1202 and 1216, Bishop William de Malveisin absolved the sentence of excommunication, imposed by the prior, again in 1220 the papal legate "Master James" was commissioned by the Pope Honorius III to resolve a dispute between the Augustinians and their prior with Bishop William and "certain clergy of St Andrews called Céli Dé".
The Céli Dé were claiming the right to participate in episcopal elections from 1239 onwards, when they participated in the election of David de Bernham. In 1253, following the death of Bishop David and after the Augustinian chapter had elected Robert de Stuteville as the new bishop, the Céli Dé and the Archeacon Abel de Gullane protested to the papacy that the election was invalid, owing to the exclusion of the Céli Dé from the process. Gullane was a papal chaplain, Pope Innocent IV quashed the election of Robert de Stuteville, appointing Gullane as the new legal bishop. No judgment, appears to have been offered on the right of the Céli Dé to voted in capitular elections. For some of the above reasons, it was G. W. S. Barrow's contention that the Gaelic-speaking Céli Dé were replaced by the clerks and personal dependents of the early thirteenth-century bishops, most of whom came from France or England. By 1250, these French or English-speaking Céli Dé had moved to the church of St Mary, had been granted the status and rights of a secular college, that is, a collegiate church.
This had happened in either 1248 or 1249, when the Church of St Mary's as a separate institution from the cathedral is mentioned for the first time. This transformation gave St Mary's the honour of being the first collegiate church in the Kingdom of Scotland and the only secular college in the kingdom before the fourteenth-century; the first known provost of the church was Master Adam de Malkarviston, attested on 7 November 1250. There were in addition to six canons; the new status does not appear to have affected use of the name Céli Dé as the church is still called "St Marys of the Céli Dé" in 1344. The Church of St Mary became an official royal chapel as early as 1286 x 1296, remained as such until the erection of the Chapel Royal at Stirling in 1501, it is that the deanery of the Chapel Royal from 1429 until 1501 formed a prebend within the Church of St Mary. A papal privilege dated 26 January 1386, admitted the Provost of St Mary's to the chapter of St Andrews.
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
St Salvator's College, St Andrews
St Salvator's College was a college of the University of St Andrews in St Andrews, Scotland. Founded in 1450, it is the oldest of the University's colleges. In 1747 it merged with St Leonard's College to form United College. St Salvator's College was founded in 1450 by Bishop James Kennedy. King James II of Scotland provided an endowment at the college's foundation and several of the original medieval buildings survive, including the college chapel, tenement building and the Hebdomodar's building. In 1528, the Protestant martyr, Patrick Hamilton, was burned alive outside the college, though Patrick himself was a member of St Leonard's college. A college of Theology and the Arts, St Salvator's was created to revitalize and focus the university after its somewhat disorderly foundation. Due to financial considerations, fall in student numbers and general decline of the university, St Salvator's and St Leonard's Colleges amalgamated into the United College of Saint Salvator and Saint Leonard in 1747.
Shortly after this, the initial site of St Leonard's College was sold, though the university retained ownership of St Leonard's College Chapel. Although the buildings of St Salvator's College were grand by medieval standards, they fell into disrepair. From 1837 the quadrangle was rebuilt and extended into its current form, with a north and a west wing in Jacobean style. To the south is the Chapel, where many university services are held. St Salvator's College was residential until the unification with St Leonard's; the current St Salvator's Hall, which lies east of the college, is one of the halls of residence for students. The chapel and Hebdomadar's Building are all designated as Category A listed buildings by Historic Scotland. Other buildings and structures are listed as Category B; the college chapel is unusual for a collegiate church in that the main entrance faces out into the town, not like those in Oxford or Cambridge, closed into the college itself. It is indeed the only collegiate chapel in Scotland with this arrangement.
The chapel was used as a parish church after the St Leonard's college chapel was unroofed in the 1750s until this arrangement was withdrawn by the university. The 1450 college had cloister buildings to the north of the college chapel - the two doors to the north side of the chapel show the alignment of the cloister. Today, with the university having abandoned the Collegiate system in all but name, the St Salvator’s/United College site houses various lecture theatres, the departments of Spanish and social anthropology, it is referred to as “the quad”, is the setting of Raisin Monday festivities, the finish point of the post-Graduation processions, hosts student events. R. G. Cant The University of St. Andrews, A Short History