The Eastern Bloc was the group of communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, East Asia and Southeast Asia under the hegemony of the Soviet Union during the Cold War in opposition to the capitalist Western Bloc. In Western Europe the term Eastern Bloc referred to the USSR and its East European satellite states in the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. In the Americas, the communist bloc included the Caribbean Republic of Cuba, since 1961. Soviet control of the Eastern Bloc was tested by the 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état and the Tito–Stalin Split over the direction of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Chinese Communist Revolution and China's participation in the Korean War. After Stalin's death in 1953, the Korean War ceased with the 1954 Geneva Conference. In Europe, anti-Soviet sentiment provoked the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany; the break-up of the Eastern Bloc began in 1956 with Nikita Khrushchev's anti-Stalinist speech On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences.
This speech was a factor in the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. The Sino–Soviet Split gave North Korea and North Vietnam more independence from both and facilitated the Soviet–Albanian split; the Cuban Missile Crisis preserved the Cuban Revolution from rollback by the United States, but Fidel Castro became independent of Soviet influence afterwards, most notably during the 1975 Cuban intervention in Angola. That year, the communist victory in former French Indochina following the end of the Vietnam War gave the Eastern Bloc renewed confidence after it had been frayed by Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev's 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia to suppress the Prague Spring; this led to the Socialist People's Republic of Albania withdrawing from the Warsaw Pact aligning with Mao Zedong's China until the Sino-Albanian split. Under the Brezhnev Doctrine, the Soviet Union reserved the right to intervene in other socialist states. In response, China moved towards the United States following the Sino-Soviet border conflict and reformed and liberalized its economy while the Eastern Bloc saw the Era of Stagnation in comparison with the capitalist First World.
The Soviet–Afghan War nominally expanded the Eastern Bloc, but the war proved unwinnable and too costly for the Soviets, challenged in Eastern Europe by the civil resistanceof Solidarity. In the late 1980s, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev pursued policies of glasnost and perestroika to reform the Eastern Bloc and end the Cold War, which brought forth unrest throughout the bloc. Unlike previous Soviet leaders in 1953, 1956 and 1968, Gorbachev refused to use force to end the 1989 Revolutions against Marxist–Leninist rule in Eastern Europe; the fall of the Berlin Wall and end of the Warsaw Pact spread nationalist and liberal ideals throughout the Soviet Union, which would soon dissolve at the end of 1991. Conservative communist elites launched a 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, which hastened the end of Marxist–Leninist rule in Eastern Europe; the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests in China were violently repressed by the communist government there, which maintained its grip on power. Although the Soviet Union and its rival the United States considered Europe to be the most important front of the Cold War, the term Eastern Bloc was used interchangeably with the term Second World.
This broadest usage of the term would include not only Maoist China and Cambodia, but short-lived Soviet satellites such as the Second East Turkestan Republic, the People's Republic of Azerbaijan and Republic of Mahabad, as well as the Marxist–Leninist states straddling the Second and Third Worlds before the end of the Cold War: the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, the People's Republic of the Congo, the People's Republic of Benin, the People's Republic of Angola and People's Republic of Mozambique from 1975, the People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada from 1979 to 1983, the Derg/People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia from 1974 and the Somali Democratic Republic from 1969 until the Ogaden War in 1977. Many states were accused by the Western Bloc of being in the Eastern Bloc when they were part of the Non-Aligned Movement; the most limited definition of the Eastern Bloc would only include the Warsaw Pact states and the Mongolian People's Republic as former satellite states most dominated by the Soviet Union.
However, North Korea was subordinate before the Korean War and Soviet aid during the Vietnam War enabled Vietnam to dominate Laos and Cambodia until the end of the Cold War. Cuba's defiance of complete Soviet control was noteworthy enough that Cuba was sometimes excluded as a satellite state altogether, as it sometimes intervened in other Third World countries when Moscow opposed this; the only surviving communist states are China, Cuba, North Korea and Laos. Their state socialist experience was more in line with decolonization from the Global North and anti-imperialism towards the West instead of the Red Army occupation of the former Eastern Bloc; the five surviving socialist states all adopted economic reforms to varying degrees. China and Vietnam are described as more state capitalist than the more traditionalist Cuba and Laos and the more Stalinist North Korea. Cambodia and Kazakhstan are still led by the same Eastern Bloc leaders as during the Cold War, though they are not Marxis
Melton Mowbray is a town in Leicestershire, England, 19 miles north-east of Leicester, 20 miles south-east of Nottingham. It lies on the River Eye and the River Wreake and has a population of 25,554; the town is best known for the Melton Mowbray pork pie. In addition, it includes one of the six makers of Stilton cheese. Melton Mowbray is promoted as Britain's "Rural Capital of Food"; the name comes from the early English word Medeltone – meaning "Middletown surrounded by small hamlets". Mowbray is a Norman family name – the name of early Lords of the Manor – namely Robert de Mowbray. In and around Melton, there are 28 scheduled ancient monuments, around 705 buildings listed as having special architectural or historical interest, 16 sites of special scientific interest, several deserted village sites. There is industrial archaeology, including the Grantham Canal and the remains of the Melton Mowbray Navigation. Windmill sites, ironstone working and smelting archaeological evidence suggest that Melton borough was densely populated in Bronze and Iron Ages.
Many small village communities existed and strategic points at Burrough Hill and Belvoir were fortified. There is evidence to suggest that the site of Melton Mowbray in the Wreake Valley was inhabited before Roman occupation. In Roman times, Melton benefited from the proximity of the Fosse Way and other important Roman roads, of military centres at Leicester and Lincoln. Intermediate camps were established, for example, at Six Hills on the Fosse Way. Other Roman trackways in the locality passed north of Melton along the top of the Vale of Belvoir scarp, linking Market Harborough to Belvoir, the Fosse Way to Oakham and Stamford. Evidence of settlement throughout Anglo-Saxon and Danelaw period is reflected in many place names. Along the Wreake Valley, the Danish suffix "-by" is common, as is evident in Asfordby, Frisby, Hoby and Gaddesby. In addition, a cemetery of 50–60 graves, of Pagan Anglo-Saxon origin, has been found in Melton Mowbray. Although most villages and their churches had origins before the Norman Conquest of 1066, stone crosses at Asfordby and Sproxton churches and Anglo-Saxon cemeteries as found at Goadby Marwood and Stapleford pre-date the Conquest.
Melton Mowbray itself had six recorded crosses, whose construction spanned several centuries: Kettleby Cross,. All the original crosses were removed or destroyed during the Reformation and other iconoclastic periods, or to make room for traffic or other development; the effects of the Norman Conquest are recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book. This indicates that settlements at Long Clawson and Bottesford were of noteworthy size, that Melton Mowbray was a thriving market town of some 200 inhabitants, with weekly markets, two water mills and two priests; the water mills, still in use up to the 18th century, are remembered in the present names of Beckmill Court and Mill Street. So Melton Mowbray has been a market town for over 1,000 years. Recorded as Leicestershire's only market in the 1086 Domesday Survey, it is the third oldest market in England. Tuesday has been market day since royal approval was given in 1324; the market was established with tolls before 1077. Legacies from the Medieval period include consolidation of market town patterns.
The latter had a market in medieval times that continued until 1921, an annual fair of horses and cattle. Many buildings in Melton Market Place, Nottingham Street, Church Lane, King Street and Sherrard Street have ancient foundations. Alterations to No. 16 Church Street revealed a medieval circular stone wall subjected to considerable heat. This is the'Manor Oven' mentioned in 13th century documents. Surveys of 5 King Street show it to be part of an early medieval open-halled house, it fortified Manor of the Mowbrays, which existed in the 14th century. King Richard I and King John may have stayed at an earlier castle. In 1549 following the Dissolution of the chantries and religious guilds, church plate was sold and land purchased for the town. Resulting rents were used to maintain Melton School, first recorded in 1347, as one of the oldest educational establishments in Britain. Funds were used to maintain roads, bridges and to repair the church clock. Anne of Cleves House, now a public house, During the English Civil War, Melton was a Roundhead garrison commanded by a Colonel Rossiter.
Two battles were fought in the town: in November 1643, Royalists caught the garrison unaware and carried away prisoners and booty. Around 300 men were said to have been killed. According to legend a hillside where the battle was thought to have been fought was ankle deep in blood, hence the name'Ankle Hill'. However, this name is alre
Trent Bridge (bridge)
Trent Bridge is an iron and stone road bridge across the River Trent in Nottingham, England. It is the principal river crossing for entrance to the city from the south, although the upstream Clifton Bridge is both larger and busier; the first bridge is thought to have been constructed on the site in 920. A second bridge, started in 1156 had more than 20 stone arches and a chapel dedicated to St. James at one end, it was maintained by a religious organisation. On 21 February 1551 the responsibility for repair passed to Nottingham Corporation, through a Royal Charter which created the Bridge Estate, it was known as Heath-beth bridge, or Heck-beck bridge. This bridge was damaged by floods several times, the northern half was washed away in 1683; the repaired bridge had fifteen arches across the river and flood areas, giving openings covering 347 ft in a total length of 538 ft. Although it was repaired, the foundations had become unsafe and a project to replace it was started in the 1860s; the bridge was designed by Marriott Ogle Tarbotton.
Construction was completed in 1871 by Derbyshire iron maker, Andrew Handyside. The general contractor was Woodiwiss of Derby, it was completed for a cost of £30,000. There were three main cast iron arch spans each 100 feet braced by wrought iron girders; the width between the parapets was 40 feet. It is a Grade II listed building; the carving on the bridge was executed by Ingle of Leeds. The new Trent Bridge formed part of a series of works along the banks of the river to improve flood defences by the construction of stepped, stone embankments. Between 1924 and 1926 the bridge was widened to 80 ft by the Cleveland Engineering Company; the Bridge Estate was created by a Royal Charter of King Edward VI on 21 February 1551 with Nottingham Corporation as Trustee. The objective was to provide funds to repair the Bridge. In 1882 the funds exceed the requirement of the objective, three new objectives were agreed: Provide for the efficient maintenance and repair of Trent Bridge and the approaches to it. To set up a contingency fund for the possible construction of such new bridge or bridges over the River Trent as may be found necessary or desirable.
The residue of such income is to be applied as the Trustee thinks best for the improvement of the City of Nottingham and the public benefit of its inhabitants. In 1945 the Bridge Estate was registered as Charity 220716 with the Charity Commissioners. On the northern abutment of the bridge, the high water marks reached by floods since 1852 have been carved into the stonework; this practice was started during the period when the Hethbeth bridge still existed, those earlier marks were transferred onto the new bridge. To enable a comparison to be made with the peak levels, a graduated series of heights in feet above sea level has been added; the highest flood mark is for the October 1875 flood, but the larger 1795 Candlemas flood, has been attributed with a height at the bridge of 24.55 metres. Normal water level, controlled by Holmes Sluices some 4 kilometres downstream, is 20.7 metres. The bridge is one of Nottingham's most famous landmarks and sits at the heart of Nottingham's sporting district.
The bridge lends its name to the nearby Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club Trent Bridge stadium, one of Englands biggest and most famous cricket grounds. Nottingham Forest FC's City Ground stadium and Notts County FC's Meadow Lane stadium are nearby; the bridge has been used in as the backdrop for the regional BBC East Midlands Today and ITV Central News. The Riverbank public house overlooks the bridge in its former tollhouse. In December 2002, the Nottingham Princess river cruise boat crashed into the central column of the bridge when it lost control in strong currents. List of crossings of the River Trent
The A60 is a road linking Loughborough in Leicestershire, with Doncaster in South Yorkshire, via Nottingham. It takes the following route: Loughborough Cotes Hoton Rempstone Costock Bunny Ruddington West Bridgford Nottingham Sherwood Arnold Ravenshead Mansfield Market Warsop Worksop Carlton in Lindrick Tickhill Wadworth Doncaster Media related to A60 road at Wikimedia Commons
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, 128 miles north of London, 45 miles northeast of Birmingham and 56 miles southeast of Manchester, in the East Midlands. Nottingham has links to the legend of Robin Hood and to the lace-making and tobacco industries, it was granted its city charter in 1897 as part of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebrations. Nottingham is a tourist destination. In 2017, Nottingham had an estimated population of 329,200; the population of the city proper, compared to its regional counterparts, has been attributed to its historical and tightly-drawn city boundaries. The wider conurbation, which includes many of the city's suburbs, has a population of 768,638, it is the second-largest in The Midlands. Its Functional Urban Area the largest in the East Midlands, has a population of 912,482; the population of the Nottingham/Derby metropolitan area is estimated to be 1,610,000. Its metropolitan economy is the seventh largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $50.9bn.
The city was the first in the East Midlands to be ranked as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Nottingham has an award-winning public transport system, including the largest publicly owned bus network in England and is served by Nottingham railway station and the modern Nottingham Express Transit tram system, it is a major sporting centre, in October 2015 was named'Home of English Sport'. The National Ice Centre, Holme Pierrepont National Watersports Centre, Trent Bridge international cricket ground are all based in or around the city, the home of two professional league football teams; the city has professional rugby, ice hockey and cricket teams, the Aegon Nottingham Open, an international tennis tournament on the ATP and WTA tours. This accolade came just over a year. On 11 December 2015, Nottingham was named a "City of Literature" by UNESCO, joining Dublin, Edinburgh and Prague as one of only a handful in the world; the title reflects Nottingham's literary heritage, with Lord Byron, D. H. Lawrence and Alan Sillitoe having links to the city, as well as a contemporary literary community, a publishing industry and a poetry scene.
The city has two universities—Nottingham Trent University and the University of Nottingham—both of which are spread over several campuses in the city, with a total university student population of over 61,000. The city predates Anglo-Saxon times and was known in Brythonic as Tigguo Cobauc, meaning Place of Caves. In modern Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog and Irish as Na Tithe Uaimh "The Cavey Dwelling"; when it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as "Snotingaham". Some authors derive "Nottingham" from Snottenga and ham, but "this has nothing to do with the English form". Nottingham Castle was constructed in 1068 on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen; the Anglo-Saxon settlement was confined to the area today known as the Lace Market and was surrounded by a substantial defensive ditch and rampart, which fell out of use following the Norman Conquest and was filled by the time of the Domesday Survey. Following the Norman Conquest the Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall and Law Courts.
A settlement developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle. The space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Square became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later. Defences, consisted of a ditch and bank in the early 12th century; the ditch was widened, in the mid-13th century, a stone wall built around much of the perimeter of the town. A short length of the wall survives, is visible at the northern end of Maid Marian Way, is protected as a Scheduled Monument. On the return of Richard the Lionheart from the Crusades, the castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John, including the Sheriff of Nottingham, it was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the final showdown between the Sheriff and the hero outlaw. By the 15th century Nottingham had established itself as a centre of a thriving export trade in religious sculpture made from Nottingham alabaster.
The town became a county corporate in 1449 giving it effective self-government, in the words of the charter, "for eternity". The Castle and Shire Hall were expressly excluded and remained as detached Parishes of Nottinghamshire. One of those impressed by Nottingham in the late 18th century was the German traveller C. P. Moritz, who wrote in 1782, "Of all the towns I have seen outside London, Nottingham is the loveliest and neatest. Everything had a modern look, a large space in the centre was hardly less handsome than a London square. A charming footpath leads over the fields to the highway. … Nottingham … with its high houses, red roofs and church steeples, looks excellent from a distance."During the Industrial Revolution, much of Nottingham's prosperity was founded on the textile industry.
The River Trent is the third-longest river in the United Kingdom. Its source is in Staffordshire on the southern edge of Biddulph Moor, it flows through and drains most of the metropolitan central and northern Midlands south and east of its source north of Stoke-on-Trent. The river is known for dramatic flooding after storms and spring snowmelt, which in past times caused the river to change course; the river passes through Stoke-on-Trent, Burton upon Trent and Nottingham before joining the River Ouse at Trent Falls to form the Humber Estuary, which empties into the North Sea between Hull in Yorkshire and Immingham in Lincolnshire. The course of the river has been described as the boundary between the Midlands and the north of England; the name "Trent" is from a Celtic word meaning "strongly flooding". More the name may be a contraction of two Celtic words and hynt; this may indeed indicate a river, prone to flooding. However, a more explanation may be that it was considered to be a river that could be crossed principally by means of fords, i.e. the river flowed over major road routes.
This may explain the presence of the Celtic element rid in various place names along the Trent, such as Hill Ridware, as well as the Old English‐derived ford. Another translation is given as "the trespasser". According to Koch at the University of Wales, the name Trent derives from the Romano-British Trisantona, a Romano-British reflex of the combined Proto-Celtic elements *tri-sent-on-ā- ‘great thoroughfare’. A traditional but certainly wrong opinion is that of Izaak Walton, who states in The Compleat Angler that the Trent is "... so called from thirty kind of fishes that are found in it, or for that it receiveth thirty lesser rivers." The Trent rises on the Staffordshire moorlands near the village of Biddulph Moor, from a number of sources including the Trent Head Well. It is joined by other small streams to form the Head of Trent, which flows south, to the only reservoir along its course at Knypersley. Downstream of the reservoir it passes through Stoke-on-Trent and merges with the Lyme and other brooks that drain the'six towns' of the Staffordshire Potteries to become the River Trent.
On the southern fringes of Stoke, it passes through the landscaped parkland of Trentham Gardens. The river continues south through the market town of Stone, after passing the village of Salt, it reaches Great Haywood, where it is spanned by the 16th-century Essex Bridge near Shugborough Hall. At this point the River Sow joins it from Stafford; the Trent now flows south-east past the town of Rugeley until it reaches Kings Bromley where it meets the Blithe. After the confluence with the Swarbourn, it passes Alrewas and reaches Wychnor, where it is crossed by the A38 dual carriageway, which follows the route of the Roman Ryknild Street; the river turns north-east where it is joined by its largest tributary, the Tame and afterwards by the Mease, creating a larger river that now flows through a broad floodplain. The river continues north-east, passing the village of Walton-on-Trent until it reaches the large town of Burton upon Trent; the river in Burton is crossed by a number of bridges including the ornate 19th-century Ferry Bridge that links Stapenhill to the town.
To the north-east of Burton the river is joined by the River Dove at Newton Solney and enters Derbyshire, before passing between the villages of Willington and Repton where it turns directly east to reach Swarkestone Bridge. Shortly afterwards, the river becomes the Derbyshire-Leicestershire border, passing the traditional crossing point of King's Mill, Castle Donington, Weston-on-Trent and Aston-on-Trent. At Shardlow, where the Trent and Mersey Canal begins, the river meets the Derwent at Derwent Mouth. After this confluence, the river turns north-east and is joined by the Soar before reaching the outskirts of Nottingham, where it is joined by the Erewash near the Attenborough nature reserve and enters Nottinghamshire; as it enters the city, it passes the suburbs of Beeston and Wilford. On reaching West Bridgford it flows beneath Trent Bridge near the cricket ground of the same name, beside The City Ground, home of Nottingham Forest, until it reaches Holme Sluices. Downstream of Nottingham it passes Radcliffe on Trent, Stoke Bardolph and Burton Joyce before reaching Gunthorpe with its bridge and weir.
The river now flows north-east below the Toot and Trent Hills before reaching Hazelford Ferry and Farndon. To the north of Farndon, beside the Staythorpe Power Station the river splits, with one arm passing Averham and Kelham, the other arm, navigable, being joined by the Devon before passing through the market town of Newark-on-Trent and beneath the town's castle walls; the two arms recombine at Crankley Point beyond the town, where the river turns due north to pass North Muskham and Holme to reach Cromwell Weir, below which the Trent becomes tidal. The now tidal river meanders across a wide floodplain, at the edge of which are located riverside villages such as Carlton and Sutton on Trent and Girton. After passing the site of High Marnham power station, it becomes the approximate boundary between Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire and reaches the only toll bridge along its course at Dunham on Trent. Downstream of Dunham the river passes Church Laneham and reaches Torksey, where it meets the Foss Dyke navigation which connects the Trent to Lincoln and the River Witham.
Further north at Littleborough is the site of the Roman town of Segelocum, where a Roman road once
Smiley's People is a spy novel by John le Carré, published in 1980. Featuring British master-spy George Smiley, it is the third and final novel of the "Karla Trilogy", following Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy and The Honourable Schoolboy. George Smiley is called out of retirement to investigate the death of one of his old agents: a former Soviet general, the head of an Estonian émigré organisation based in London. Smiley learns the general had discovered information that will lead to a final confrontation with Smiley's nemesis, the Soviet spymaster Karla; the character General Vladimir was modelled on Colonel Alfons Rebane, an Estonian émigré who led the Estonian portion of SIS's Operation Jungle in the 1950s. David Cornwell worked as an intelligence officer for both MI5 and the SIS. Maria Andreyevna Ostrakova, a Soviet émigrée in Paris, is told by a Soviet agent calling himself "Kursky" that her daughter Alexandra, whom she was forced to leave behind, may be permitted to join her for "humanitarian reasons".
Maria eagerly applies for French citizenship for her daughter, but time passes with no sign of Alexandra and no further contact with "Kursky". Realising she has been duped, Maria writes to General Vladimir, a former Soviet general and British agent, for help. Vladimir realises that Maria was unwittingly used to provide a "legend", or false identity, for an unknown young woman, a ploy which KGB spymaster Karla has fruitlessly tried before. Vladimir recognises that the operation is wholly unofficial, because Karla used a blundering amateur agent instead of trained intelligence officers. Vladimir contacts Toby Esterhase, his old handler and "postman" in the Circus, but Esterhase has left the service and refuses to be involved in Vladimir's plans. Vladimir sends a confidant, Otto Leipzig, to interview Maria in Paris. From a photograph, Maria identifies "Kursky". Vladimir sends the son of an old friend to Hamburg to collect vital proof from Leipzig, he contacts the Circus again, invoking Moscow Rules and insisting on speaking to his former "vicar" or senior case officer, George Smiley, not realising that Smiley is retired.
The Circus personnel, unfamiliar with Vladimir, are uncooperative. Meanwhile, Vladimir's activities are betrayed to Karla by jealous members of Vladimir's émigré organisation. Vladimir is assassinated on Hampstead Heath, evidently by Moscow Centre agents, while on his way to meet an inexperienced handler from the Circus. New Circus head Saul Enderby and Civil Service undersecretary Oliver Lacon believe that Vladimir was an obscure ex-agent seeking attention, want to bury the matter to protect the Circus from any scandal, they recall Smiley from his forced retirement in the hope that he will erase any links to the Circus. Unlike Enderby and Lacon, Smiley takes Vladimir's claims and begins to investigate, he manages to recover a second letter sent to Vladimir by Maria, now being shadowed and fears for her life. Near the site where Vladimir was killed, he discovers Vladimir's half-empty packet of Gauloises cigarettes, containing the negative of a compromising photograph of Leipzig and another man with prostitutes.
Smiley recalls that Leipzig had blackmailed a venal Soviet agent named Oleg Kirov to obtain information, surmises that Kirov is the other man in the photograph. Meanwhile, Soviet agents bungle an attempt to kill Maria. Smiley consults dying former Circus researcher Connie Sachs, who remembers some background information on Kirov known by the cover name "Kursky". Following Vladimir's logic that Karla was acting outside the dedicated system he himself devised, Connie recounts rumours that Karla had a daughter by a mistress whom he had sent to the Gulag when she turned against him; the daughter, who grew up without a mother and with a father she never knew, became mentally unstable and was subsequently confined to a mental institution. Smiley flies to Hamburg, he tracks down Claus Kretzschmar, an old associate of Leipzig and owner of the seedy night club where the photograph was taken. Kretzschmar gives him directions to Leipzig's temporary address on a boat in a gypsy encampment on the Baltic Sea near Lübeck, but two of Karla's agents have tortured and killed Leipzig.
Smiley's search of Leipzig's boat uncovers. His discovery is witnessed by several people, his rental car is damaged by two boys. Smiley rushes to finish his work in Lübeck before Soviet agents close in on him. Here, Smiley appears as a master of tradecraft, he takes the half of the postcard to Kretzschmar, who matches it to the other half and in exchange gives Smiley a tape recording made at the time the photograph of Leipzig and Kirov was taken, a photocopy of Maria's first letter to Vladimir. Smiley lays a false trail in the direction of London, hastens by train and ferry to Copenhagen, from where he flies to Paris, fearing for Maria's life. With help from his old friend and former lieutenant Peter Guillam, serving out his days in the British embassy in Paris, Smiley gets Maria to safety, he learns that Kirov has been summoned back to Moscow, has been killed for his indiscretions. Smiley meets in secret with Enderby; the transcribed tape of Kirov's confession to Leipzig shows that Karla is secretly diverting funds to a Swiss bank account and misappropriating other resources using a commercial attaché of the Soviet embassy in Bern, named Grigoriev.
The money is going to the care of Karla's daughter, committed to an expensive Swiss psychiatric san