Winchester College is an independent boarding school for boys in the British public school tradition, situated in Winchester, Hampshire. It has existed in its present location for over 600 years, it is the oldest of the original seven English public schools defined by the Clarendon Commission and regulated by the Public Schools Act 1868. According to its statutes, the school is called in Latin Collegium Sanctae Mariae prope Wintoniam, or Collegium Beatae Mariae Wintoniensis prope Winton, which translates as St Mary's College, near Winchester, or The College of the Blessed Mary of Winchester, near Winchester, it is sometimes referred to by pupils, former pupils and others as "Win: Coll:", is more known as just "Winchester". Winchester College was founded in 1382 by William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor to both Edward III and Richard II, the first 70 poor scholars entered the school in 1394. In the early 15th century the specific requirements was that that scholars come from families where the income was less than five marks sterling per annum.
It was founded in conjunction with New College, for which it was designed to act as a feeder: the buildings of both colleges were designed by master mason William Wynford. This double foundation was the model for Eton College and King's College, some 50 years and for Westminster School, Christ Church and Trinity College, Cambridge, in Tudor times. In addition to the 70 scholars and 16 "Quiristers", the statutes provided for ten "noble Commoners"; these Commoners were paying guests of the Headmaster or Second Master in his official apartments in College. Other paying pupils, either guests of one of the Masters in his private house or living in lodgings in town, grew in numbers till the late 18th century, when they were all required to live in "Old Commoners" and town boarding was banned. In the 19th century this was replaced by "New Commoners", the numbers fluctuated between 70 and 130: the new building was compared unfavourably to a workhouse, as it was built over an underground stream, epidemics of typhus and malaria were common.
In the late 1850s four boarding houses were planned, to be headed by housemasters: the plan, since dropped, was to increase the number of scholars to 100 so that there would be "College", "Commoners" and "Houses" consisting of 100 pupils each. In the 1860s "New Commoners" was closed and converted to classrooms, its members were divided among four further boarding houses. At the same time two more houses were added to the "Houses" category. There are therefore now ten houses in addition to College, which continues to occupy the original 14th-century buildings, the total number of pupils is 700. From the late 1970s there has been a continual process of extension to and upgrading of College Chambers; the Scholars live in the original buildings, known as College. College is not referred to as a house: hence the terms'housemaster of College' and'College house' are not used; the housemaster of College is now known as the'Master in College', though these duties belonged to the Second Master. Within the school,'College' refers only to the body of scholars.
Every pupil at Winchester, apart from the Scholars, lives in a boarding house, chosen or allocated when applying to Winchester. It is here that he studies and sleeps; each house is presided over by a number of house tutors. Houses compete in school competitions in sporting competitions; each house has an official name based on the family name of the first housemaster, used as a postal address. Each house has an informal name, more used in speech based on the name or nickname of an early housemaster; each house has a letter assigned to it, in the order of their founding, to act as an abbreviation on laundry tags. A member of a house is described by the informal name of the house with "-ite" suffixed, as "a Furleyite", "a Toyeite", "a Cookite" and so on; the houses have been ordered by their year of founding. College does not have an informal name, although the abbreviation Coll is sometimes used on written work, it has a letter assigned to it, X, but it is considered bad form to use this except as a laundry mark or in lists of sporting fixtures.
Each house had a set of house colours, which adorned the ribbon worn around boys' "strats". The wearing of strats was abolished for Commoners in around 1984 – Collegemen had ceased to wear them years earlier, they can however still be seen being sported on Winchester Day. House colours are now used on socks and "pussies", scarves awarded for exceptional contribution to the house or society. Winchester has its own entrance examination, does not use Common Entrance like other major public schools; those wishing to enter a Commoner House make their arrangements with the relevant housemaster some two years before sitting the exam sitting
Joan Carlile or Carlell or Carliell, was an English portrait painter. She was one of the first British women known to practise painting professionally. Before Carlisle, known professional female painters working in Britain were born elsewhere in Europe, principally the low countries. Joan Carlile was born as Joan Palmer, the daughter of William Palmer, an official in the Royal Parks. Carlile reproduced them in miniature, she was an accomplished painter in her own right. In July 1626 she married Lodowick Carlell or Carlile, Gentleman of the Bows to Charles I and a poet and dramatist, who, as keeper/deputy ranger at Richmond Park during the Commonwealth period, had accommodation at Petersham Lodge, demolished in the 1690s by Lawrence Hyde, Earl of Rochester; the couple moved to Covent Garden in 1654 but returned to Petersham two years after the restoration of the monarchy, when Lodowick was given the post of "Keeper of the house or Lodge and the Walk at Petersham". They returned to London in 1665.
Lodowick was buried in the churchyard of Petersham Parish Church. Joan, living in the parish of St Martin-in-the-Fields, died in 1679, was buried beside her husband on 27 February, they had two children and Penelope. Carlile's portrait Lady Dorothy Browne and Sir Thomas Browne is held at London's National Portrait Gallery; the National Portrait Gallery's portrait of Sir Thomas Browne is attributed to her. In 2016, the Tate acquired Carlile's Portrait of an Unknown Lady which she painted between 1650 and 1655. A painting from circa 1648 of Elizabeth Murray, Countess of Dysart with her husband and sister has been attributed to Carlile and is held by the National Trust, it is on display at Ham House. Another painting of the Countess of Dysart, attributed to Carlile, is held by the Thirlestane Castle Trust; the Carlile Family with Sir Justinian Isham in Richmond Park is held at Lamport Hall in Lamport, Northamptonshire. Known as A Stag Hunt, The Stag Hunt, or Stag hunt in Richmond Park, it was exhibited at the Tate Gallery in 1972.
Her full-length portrait of a lady, believed be Lady Anne Wentworth, in a white dress and a purple mantle, is in a private collection. A miniature portrait, attributed to Carlile, described as A Lady, Wearing White Dress With Brooch At Her Corsage... was auctioned by Sotheby's in London in 2005. Mary Beale
Upton by Chester
Upton by Chester is a civil parish and a large suburb on the outskirts of Chester, in the Borough of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire in England. It includes the villages of Upton Heath. At the 2001 Census the population was recorded as 7,800. A township in Broxton Hundred, it included the hamlet of Upton Heath; the population was 173 in 1801, 555 in 1851, 1,769 in 1901 and 6,343 in 1951. An illustrated 300 page book on the history of Upton called'Upton-by-Chester: A People's History' was published in 2005. Upton-by-Chester as we know it today started. Gentlemen's country houses were provided employment other than traditional rural jobs. Ribbon development but housing estates were built as more people moved out of the overcrowded city. Following the post-WW2 building boom there is now little development land left. A permanent military presence was established in the town with the completion of Dale Barracks in 1939. Upton has four churches. One building of particular interest is Upton Mill.
Built in 1775 this was a full working flour mill with outhouses and orchard. The wind sails were removed in the early 1920s; the mill became closed in 1953 and remained uninhabited until 1979 when the mill was sold and converted as a private residence. Renovation was completed in 1988. Another interesting feature is Upton-by-Chester Golf Club, an established, 18-hole parkland course with mature tree lined fairways and some of nature's water hazards; the course was designed as a 9-hole course in 1934. It's changed a lot since those early days when plant pots were used as holes and garden canes as flags. Upton is now one of Cheshire's finest golf courses, with a reputation for being a family friendly club that welcomes new members and visitors alike; the area has four primary schools - Upton Heath, Westlea and Mill View - and a secondary school, Upton-by-Chester High School. An electoral ward in the name of Upton exists; this ward had a population of 8,905 at the 2011 Census. The area has a hospital, a Royal British Legion Club, a bowling green, a golf course and a zoo, Chester Zoo.
There is an active village hall, with a wide range of activities for all interests. The nearest railway station is on the Wirral Line at Bache less than a mile from Upton village centre. There are several shops including Bache, Upton-Heath, Weston Grove, at least four pubs including the Race Horse, the Frog, the Mill@Upton and The Wheatsheaf Inn, an Indian Restaurant called Indian Brasserie, a cafe called Russian Style Crepes. Labour Party former Deputy Prime Minister, John Prescott, lived with his parents in Upton after moving from Yorkshire, married his wife Pauline at Church of the Holy Ascension in 1961. Listed buildings in Upton by Chester Upton-by-Chester United Reformed Church
Religio Medici by Sir Thomas Browne is a spiritual testament and early psychological self-portrait. Published in 1643 after an unauthorized version was distributed the previous year, it became a European best-seller which brought its author fame at home and abroad. Structured upon the Christian virtues of Faith and Hope and Charity, Browne expresses his beliefs in the doctrine of sola fide, the existence of hell, the Last Judgment, the resurrection and other tenets of Protestantism. Throughout Religio Medici Browne uses scientific imagery to illustrate religious truths as part of his discussion on the relationship of science to religion, a topic which has lost none of its contemporary relevance. A rare surviving contemporary review by Guy Patin, a distinguished member of the Parisian medical faculty, indicates the considerable impact Religio Medici had upon the intelligentsia abroad: A new little volume has arrived from Holland entitled Religio Medici written by an Englishman and translated into Latin by some Dutchman.
It is a strange and pleasant book, but delicate and wholly mystical. There are hardly any books of this sort. If scholars were permitted to write we would learn many novel things, never has there been a newspaper to this. Throughout the seventeenth century Religio Medici spawned numerous imitative titles, including John Dryden's great poem, Religio Laici, but none matched the frank, intimate tone of the original in which Browne shares his thoughts, as well as the idiosyncrasies of his personality with his reader. Samuel Pepys in his diaries complained that the Religio was cried up to the whole world for its wit and learning. A translation into German of the Religio was made in 1746 and an early admirer of Browne's spiritual testament was Goethe's one-time associate Lavater. In the early nineteenth century Religio Medici was "re-discovered" by the English Romantics. Charles Lamb introduced it to Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who after reading it, exclaimed,- O to write a character of this man! Thomas de Quincey in his Confessions of an English Opium-Eater praised it, stating: I do not recollect more than one thing said adequately on the subject of music in all literature.
It is a passage in Religio Medici of Sir T. Browne, though chiefly remarkable for its sublimity, has a philosophical value, inasmuch as it points to the true theory of musical effects; the book influenced the prominent physician William Osler in his early years. Osler, considered the "father of modern medicine", is said to have learned it by heart. In Virginia Woolf's opinion Religio Medici paved the way for all future confessionals, private memoirs and personal writings. In the twentieth century, the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung used the term Religio Medici several times in his writings. Text of Religio Medici A Religio Medici bibliography
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
Sir Thomas Browne was an English polymath and author of varied works which reveal his wide learning in diverse fields including science and medicine and the esoteric. His writings display a deep curiosity towards the natural world, influenced by the scientific revolution of Baconian enquiry. Browne's literary works are permeated by references to Classical and Biblical sources as well as the idiosyncrasies of his own personality. Although described as suffused with melancholia, his writings are characterised by wit and subtle humour, while his literary style is varied, according to genre, resulting in a rich, unique prose which ranges from rough notebook observations to polished Baroque eloquence; the son of Thomas Browne, a silk merchant from Upton and Anne Browne, the daughter of Paul Garraway of Sussex, he was born in the parish of St Michael, Cheapside, in London on 19 October 1605. His father died while he was still young and his mother married Sir Thomas Dutton. Browne was sent to school at Winchester College.
In 1623, he went to Broadgates Hall of Oxford University. Browne was chosen to deliver the undergraduate oration when the hall was incorporated as Pembroke College in August 1624, he graduated from Oxford in January 1627, after which he studied medicine at Padua and Montpellier universities, completing his studies at Leiden, where he received a medical degree in 1633. He settled in Norwich in 1637 and practised medicine there until his death in 1682. In 1641, he married Dorothy Mileham, of Norfolk, she bore him ten children. Browne's first literary work was Religio Medici; this work was circulated as a manuscript among his friends. It surprised him when an unauthorised edition appeared in 1642, since the work included several unorthodox religious speculations. An authorised text appeared with some of the more controversial views removed; the expurgation did not end the controversy: in 1645, Alexander Ross attacked Religio Medici in his Medicus Medicatus and, in common with much Protestant literature, the book was placed upon the Papal Index Librorum Prohibitorum in the same year.
In 1646, Browne published his encyclopaedia, Pseudodoxia Epidemica, or, Enquiries into Very many Received Tenets, Presumed Truths, whose title refers to the prevalence of false beliefs and "vulgar errors". A sceptical work that debunks a number of legends circulating at the time in a methodical and witty manner, it displays the Baconian side of Browne—the side, unafraid of what at the time was still called "the new learning"; the book is significant in the history of science because it promoted an awareness of up-to-date scientific journalism. Browne's last publication during his lifetime were two philosophical Discourses which are related to each other in concept; the first, Urn Burial, or a Brief Discourse of the Sepulchral Urns found in Norfolk inspired by the discovery of some Bronze Age burials in earthenware vessels found in Norfolk, resulted in a literary meditation upon death, the funerary customs of the world and the ephemerality of fame. The other discourse in the diptych is antithetical in subject-matter and imagery.
The Garden of Cyrus, or The Quincuncial Lozenge, or Network Plantations of the Ancients, Artificially and Mystically Considered features the quincunx, used by Browne to demonstrate evidence of the Platonic forms in art and nature. In Religio Medici, Browne confirmed his belief, in accordance with the vast majority of seventeenth century European society, in the existence of angels and witchcraft, he attended the 1662 Bury St Edmunds witch trial, where his citation of a similar trial in Denmark may have influenced the jury's minds of the guilt of two accused women, who were subsequently executed for witchcraft. In 1671 King Charles II, accompanied by the Court, visited Norwich; the courtier John Evelyn, who had corresponded with Browne, took good use of the royal visit to call upon "the learned doctor" of European fame and wrote of his visit, "His whole house and garden is a paradise and Cabinet of rarities and that of the best collection, amongst Medails, Plants, natural things". During his visit, Charles visited Browne's home.
A banquet was held in St Andrew's Hall for the royal visit. Obliged to honour a notable local, the name of the Mayor of Norwich was proposed to the King for knighthood; the Mayor, declined the honour and proposed Browne's name instead. Browne was buried in the chancel of St Peter Mancroft, Norwich, his skull was removed when his lead coffin was accidentally re-opened by workmen in 1840. It was not re-interred in St Peter Mancroft until 4 July 1922 when it was recorded in the burial register as aged 317 years. Browne's coffin plate, stolen the same time as his skull, was eventually recovered, broken into two halves, one of, on display at St Peter Mancroft. Alluding to the commonplace opus of alchemy it reads, Amplissimus Vir Dns. Thomas Browne, Medicinae Dr. Annos Natus 77 Denatus 19 Die mensis Octobris, Anno. Dni. 1682, hoc Loculo indormiens. Corporis Spagyrici pulvere plumbum in aurum Convertit. — translated from Latin as "The esteemed Gentleman Thomas Browne, Doctor of Medicine, 77 years old, died on the 19th of October in the year of Our Lord 1682 and lies sleeping in this coffin.
With the dust of the alchemical body he converts lead into gold". The origin of the invented word spagyrici are from the Greek of: Spao to tear open, + ageiro to collect, a signature neologism coined by Paracelsus to define his medicine-oriented alchemy.
L'Allegro is a pastoral poem by John Milton published in his 1645 Poems. L'Allegro is invariably paired with the contrasting pastoral poem, Il Penseroso, which depicts a similar day spent in contemplation and thought, it is uncertain when L'Allegro and Il Penseroso were composed because they do not appear in Milton's Trinity College manuscript of poetry. However, the settings found in the poem suggest that they were composed shortly after Milton left Cambridge; the two poems were first published in Poems of Mr. John Milton both English and Latin, compos'd at several times dated 1645 but issued early in 1646. In the collection, they served as a balance to each other and to his Latin poems, including "Elegia 1" and "Elegia 6". Milton follows the traditional classical hymn model when the narrator invokes Mirth/Euphrosyne and her divine parentage: In Heav'n yclept Euphrosyne, And by men, heart-easing Mirth, Whom lovely Venus at a birth With two sister Graces more To ivy-crowned Bacchus bore The narrator continues by requesting Mirth to appear with: Jest and youthful Jollity and Cranks, wanton Wiles and Becks, wreathed Smiles...
Sport that wrinkled Care derides. The narrator describes how Mirth is connected to pastoral environments: Whilst the landscape round it measures, Russet lawns, fallows grey, Where the nibbling flocks do stray... Meadows trim with daisies pied, Shallow brooks, rivers wide Near the end of the poem, the narrator requests from Mirth to be immersed in the poetry and the pleasures that Mirth is able to produce: And against eating cares, Lap me in soft Lydian airs, Married to immortal verse Such as the meeting soul may pierce The final lines of the poem is a response to questions found within Elizabethan poetry, including Christopher Marlowe's "Come live with me and be my love": These delights, if thou canst give, Mirth with thee, I mean to live. According to Barbara Lewalski, L'Allegro, along with Il Penseroso, "explore and contrast in generic terms the ideal pleasures appropriate to contrasting lifestyles... that a poet might choose, or might choose at different times, or in sequence". In particular, L'Allegro celebrates Grace Euphrosone through the traditional Theocritan pastoral model.
The poem is playful and is set within a pastoral scene that allows the main character to connect with folk stories and fairy tales in addition to various comedic plays and performances. There is a sort of progression from the pleasures found in L'Allegro with the pleasures found within Il Penseroso. Besides being set in a traditional form, there is no poetic antecedent for Milton's pairing; the poem invokes Mirth and other allegorical figures of joy and merriment, extols the active and cheerful life, while depicting a day in the countryside according to this philosophy. Mirth, as one of the Graces, is connected with poetry within Renaissance literature, the poem, in its form and content, is similar to dithrambs to Bacchus or hymns to Venus. However, the pleasure that Mirth brings is moderated, there is a delicate balance between the influence of Venus or Bacchus achieved by relying on their daughter; the poems have been classified in various traditions and genres by various scholars, including: as academic writing by E. M. W. Tillyard.
Stelle Revard believes that the poems follow the classical hymn model which discuss goddess that are connected to poetry and uses these females to replace Apollo completely. During the eighteenth century, both L'Allegro and Il Penseroso were popular and were imitated by poets; the poet and engraver William Blake, influenced by Milton's poetry and personality, made illustrations to both L'Allegro and Il Penseroso. Revard believes that Milton, in his first publication of poems, "takes care to showcase himself as a poet in these first and last selections and at the same time to build his poetic reputation along the way by skillful positioning of poems such as'L'Allegro' and'Il Penseroso.'"Handel's L'Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato is based on this poem. Charles Villiers Stanford's 5th Symphony is titled L'Allegro et Il Pensieroso after the two poems of Milton. 1645 in poetry Havens, Raymond. The Influence of Milton on English Poetry. New York: Russell & Russell, 1961. Kerrigan, William. New York: The Modern Library, 2007.
Lewalski, Barbara. "Genre" in A Companion to Milton. Ed. Thomas Corns. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. Osgood, Charles; the Classical Mythology of Milton's English Poems. New York: Holt, 1900. Revard, Stella. Milton and the Tangles of Neaera's Hair. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1997. Røstvig, Maren-Sofie; the Happy Man: Studies in the Metamorphosis of a Classical Idea, 1600–1700. Oslo: Oslo University Press, 1962. Tillyard, E. M. W. "Milton:'L'Allegro' and'Il Penseroso in The Miltonic Setting and Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1938. Watson, Sara. "Milton's Ideal Day: Its Development as a Pastoral Theme". PMLA 57: 404–420. Woodhouse, A. S. P. and Bush, Douglas. Variorum: The Minor English Poems Vol 2. New York: Columbia University Press, 1972. "L'Allegro" William Blake's illustrations