A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Chelsea is an affluent area of West London, bounded to the south by the River Thames. Its frontage runs from Chelsea Bridge along the Chelsea Embankment, Cheyne Walk, Lots Road and Chelsea Harbour, its eastern boundary was once defined by the River Westbourne, now in a pipe above Sloane Square Underground station. The modern eastern boundary is Chelsea Bridge Road and the lower half of Sloane Street, including Sloane Square. To the north and northwest, the area fades into Knightsbridge and Brompton, but it is considered that the area north of King's Road as far northwest as Fulham Road is part of Chelsea; the district is within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, although Chelsea gives its name to nearby locations, such as Chelsea Harbour in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, Chelsea Barracks in the City of Westminster. From 1900, until the creation of Greater London in 1965, it formed the Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea in the County of London; the exclusivity of Chelsea as a result of its high property prices has resulted in the term Sloane Ranger being used to describe its residents.
Since 2011, Channel 4 has broadcast a reality television show called Made in Chelsea, documenting the lives of affluent young people living there. Moreover, Chelsea is home to one of the largest communities of Americans living outside the United States, with 6.53% of Chelsea residents being born in the U. S; the word Chelsea originates from the Old English term for "landing place for chalk or limestone". Chelsea hosted the Synod of Chelsea in 787 AD; the first record of the Manor of Chelsea precedes the Domesday Book and records the fact that Thurstan, governor of the King's Palace during the reign of Edward the Confessor, gave the land to the Abbot and Convent of Westminster. Abbot Gervace subsequently assigned the manor to his mother, it passed into private ownership. By 1086 the Domesday Book records that Chelsea was in the hundred of Ossulstone in Middlesex, with Edward of Salisbury as tenant-in-chief. King Henry VIII acquired the manor of Chelsea from Lord Sandys in 1536. Two of King Henry's wives, Catherine Parr and Anne of Cleves, lived in the Manor House.
In 1609 James I established a theological college, "King James's College at Chelsey" on the site of the future Chelsea Royal Hospital, which Charles II founded in 1682. By 1694, Chelsea – always a popular location for the wealthy, once described as "a village of palaces" – had a population of 3,000. So, Chelsea remained rural and served London to the east as a market garden, a trade that continued until the 19th-century development boom which caused the final absorption of the district into the metropolis; the street crossing, known as Little Chelsea, Park Walk, linked Fulham Road to King's Road and continued to the Thames and local ferry down Lover's Lane, renamed "Milmans Street" in the 18th century. King's Road, named for Charles II, recalls the King's private road from St James's Palace to Fulham, maintained until the reign of George IV. One of the more important buildings in King's Road, the former Chelsea Town Hall, popularly known as "Chelsea Old Town hall" – a fine neo-classical building – contains important frescoes.
Part of the building contains the Chelsea Public Library. Opposite stands the former Odeon Cinema, now Habitat, with its iconic façade which carries high upon it a large sculptured medallion of the now almost-forgotten William Friese-Greene, who claimed to have invented celluloid film and cameras in the 1880s before any subsequent patents. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, "the better residential portion of Chelsea is the eastern, near Sloane Street and along the river; this is no longer the case, although Council property do remain. The areas to the west attract high prices; this former fashionable village was absorbed into London during the eighteenth century. Many notable people of 18th century London, such as the bookseller Andrew Millar, were both married and buried in the district; the memorials in the churchyard of Chelsea Old Church, near the river, illustrate much of the history of Chelsea. These include Lady Dacre; the intended tomb Sir Thomas More erected for himself and his wives can be found there, though More is not in fact buried here.
In 1718, the Raw Silk Company was established in Chelsea Park, with mulberry trees and a hothouse for raising silkworms. At its height in 1723, it supplied silk to Caroline of Ansbach Princess of Wales. Chelsea once had a reputation for the manufacture of Chelsea buns, made from a long strip of sweet dough coiled, with currants trapped between the layers, topped with sugar; the Chelsea Bun House was patronised by the Georgian royalty. At Easter, great crowds would assemble on the open spaces of the Five Fields – subsequently developed as Belgravia; the Bun House would do a great trade in hot cross buns and sold about quarter of a million on its final Good Friday in 1839. The area was famous for its "Chelsea China" ware, though the works, the Chelsea porcelain factory – thought to be the first workshop to make porcelain in England – were sold in 1769, moved to Derby. Examples of the original Chelsea ware fetch high values; the best-known building is Chelsea R
Jagger/Richards is the songwriting partnership of Mick Jagger and Keith Richards, a musical collaboration whose output has produced the majority of the catalog of the Rolling Stones. They are one of the most successful songwriting partnerships in history. In addition to Jagger and Richards's songwriting partnership, they have produced or co-produced numerous Rolling Stones albums under the pseudonym The Glimmer Twins. Jagger and Richards have different recollections about their first songwriting endeavours but both credit manager Andrew Loog Oldham as the catalyst for their collaboration. Richards agrees that it was Oldham who pressed the pair to write songs after the duo had first emphasized other people's material. According to him: Jagger's version is: According to John Lennon, he and Paul McCartney might have been instrumental in inspiring Jagger and Richards to start writing their own material. In 1963 Lennon and McCartney gave the Stones one of their compositions, "I Wanna Be Your Man."
In a Playboy interview in 1980, Lennon recalled: The first original Jagger/Richards song to be released as the A-side of a Rolling Stones single was "Tell Me", from their debut album. Released as a single in the US only, peaked at number 24 on the charts there; the earlier "Good Times, Bad Times" had been released as the B-side to their cover of Bobby and Shirley Womack's "It's All Over Now". The band's first UK single featuring an a-side Jagger/Richards original was "The Last Time". Although most Jagger/Richards compositions have been collaborations, some of the songs credited to the famous partnership have been solo songwriting from either Jagger, whose examples include "Sympathy for the Devil" and "Brown Sugar", or Richards, whose examples include "Happy", "Ruby Tuesday", "Little T&A"; this is comparable to the Lennon–McCartney partnership, who adhered to a tradition of joint credits on numbers that were written by just one of the pair. Mick Jagger stated in his comprehensive 1995 interview with Jann Wenner of Rolling Stone magazine "I think in the end it all balances out."On 26 June 2013, the duo's songwriting credits were handed over to BMG, marking the first time they would be managed by an outside company in over 40 years.
Jagger and Richards have shared credits with few others. Among them are: Jagger/Richards compositions that have been released only by artists other than The Rolling Stones include: "That Girl Belongs to Yesterday", a January 1964 single by Gene Pitney "Will You Be My Lover Tonight"/"It Should Be You", a January 1964 single by George Bean "Each And Every Day", B-side of the February 1964 single "All I Want Is My Baby" by Bobby Jameson; the A-side was co-written by Andrew Loog Oldham. "Shang a Doo Lang", a March 1964 single by Adrienne Posta "So Much in Love", an August 1964 single by The Mighty Avengers recorded by The Herd in 1966 and The Lonely Boys for their self-titled 1996 album. "Act Together", on Ronnie Wood's September 1974 LP I've Got My Own Album to Do and the associated July 1974 The First Barbarians: Live from Kilburn concert "Sure the One You Need", on Wood's I've Got My Own Album to Do and The First Barbarians: Live from Kilburn. "Lonely at the Top", on Mick Jagger's February 1985 LP She's the Boss.
These are the Jagger/Richards songs that have been released as Rolling Stones singles, promos, as credited to Jagger/Richards: Jagger and Richards adopted the nickname "The Glimmer Twins" after a vacation cruise they took to Brazil in December 1968/January 1969 with their then-girlfriends, Marianne Faithfull and Anita Pallenberg. An older English couple on the ship kept asking Jagger who they were; when they refused to reveal their identities, the woman kept asking, "just give us a glimmer", which amused Jagger and Richards. Jagger and Richards began to produce the Stones' albums under the pseudonym "The Glimmer Twins" starting with It's Only Rock'n' Roll; the Glimmer Twins were the sole credited producers for the band's studio and live albums from that point through Still Life. Starting with Undercover, the Glimmer Twins have shared production credit for the Rolling Stones albums with other producers, most Don Was and Chris Kimsey. Besides their production work for the Rolling Stones and Richards used the Glimmer Twins for their co-production credit on Peter Tosh's album Bush Doctor, released in 1978.
A rare exception to Jagger and Richards's use of the Glimmer Twins name for production credits appeared on John Phillips's Pay and Follow album, recorded 1973–1979 and released in 2001, for which Jagger and Richards were credited as producers under their own names. Nanker Phelge Songs written by Jagger/Richards Lennon–McCartney Rolling Stones Discography http://www.timeisonourside.com/songwriting.html http://www.uncut.co.uk/music/the_rolling_stones/special_features/8652
The marimba is a percussion instrument consisting of a set of wooden bars struck with yarn or rubber mallets to produce musical tones. Resonators or pipes suspended underneath the bars amplify their sound; the bars of a chromatic marimba are arranged like the keys of a piano, with the groups of two and three accidentals raised vertically, overlapping the natural bars to aid the performer both visually and physically. This instrument is a type of idiophone, but with a more resonant and lower-pitched tessitura than the xylophone. A person who plays the marimba is called a marimba player. Modern uses of the marimba include solo performances and brass ensembles, marimba concertos, jazz ensembles, marching band and bugle corps, indoor percussion ensembles, orchestral compositions. Contemporary composers have used the unique sound of the marimba more in recent years. Xylophones are used in music of west and central Africa. In Latin America, enslaved Africans recreated them in the 17th centuries; the name marimba stems from Bantu marimba or malimba,'xylophone'.
According to some Western sources, the word'marimba' is formed from ma'many' and rimba'single-bar xylophone,' however the use of the term marimba and/or derivative terms is not present in any West African language. The instrument itself is present, but is called balafon or heri in Mali and/or Guinea, while it is known as gyil among the Akan peoples in and around Ghana; the word marimba and derivative words is used in East and Southern Africa. A survey of the literature on the African marimba and related instruments, like the Xylorimba and ilimba indicate a relationship between the word marimba and the various lamellaphones found all over Central and East Africa. Other sources credit the creation of the marimba and the kalimba to Queen Marimba of the Wakambi people, who live south of Lake Victoria. In the Shona language "imba" means song. Kuimba is to sing. Marimba, is said to be the "mother of song" and the creator of all the instruments, including the marimba. Mama means mother in Kiswahili, so it makes perfect sense that the word mother would be combined with the word "imba", the unconjugated verb for'sing'.
The karimba is said to have been created by Queen Marimba. In much of East & Central Africa the karimba is seen as a hand-held version of the marimba. Diatonic xylophones were introduced to Central America in the 17th century; the first historical record of Mayan musicians using gourd resonator marimbas in Guatemala was made in 1680, by the historian Domingo Juarros. It became more widespread during the 18th and 19th centuries, as Mayan and Ladino ensembles started using it on festivals. In 1821, the marimba was proclaimed the national instrument of Guatemala in its independence proclamation. In 1850, Mexican marimbist Manuel Bolán Cruz, modified the old bow marimba, by the wooden straight one, lengthening the legs so that the musicians could play in a standing mode, expanded the keyboard and replaced the gourd resonators by wooden boxes. In 1892, Mexican musician Corazón de Jesús Borras Moreno expanded marimba to include the chromatic scale by adding another row of sound bars, akin to black keys on the piano.
The name marimba was applied to the orchestra instrument inspired by the Latin American model. In the United States, companies like Deagan and Leedy company adapted the Latin American instruments for use in western music. Metal tubes were used as resonators, fine-tuned by rotating metal discs at the bottom; the marimbas were first used for light dance, such as Vaudeville theater and comedy shows. Clair Omar Musser was a chief proponent of marimba in the United States at the time. French composer Darius Milhaud made the ground-breaking introduction of marimbas into Western classical music in his 1947 Concerto for Marimba and Vibraphone. Four-mallet grip was employed enhancing interest for the instrument. In the late 20th century and contemporary composers found new ways to use marimba: notable examples include Leoš Janáček, Carl Orff, Karl Amadeus Hartmann, Hans Werner Henze, Pierre Boulez and Steve Reich. Marimba bars are made of either wood or synthetic material. Rosewood is the most desirable.
Bars made from synthetic materials fall short in sound quality in comparison to wooden bars, but are less expensive and yield added durability and weather resistance, making them suitable for outdoor use. Bubinga and mahogany have been cited as comparable to rosewood in quality for use as marimba bars; the specific rosewood, Dalbergia stevensonii, only grows in Southern Guatemala and Belize the British Honduras. This wood has a Janka rating of 2200, about three times harder than Silver Maple; the bars are wider and longer at the lowest pitched notes, get narrower and shorter as the notes get higher. During the tuning, wood is taken from the middle underside of the bar to lower the pitch; because of this, the bars are thinner in the lowest pitch register and thicker in the highest pitch register. In Africa, most marimbas are made by local artisans from locally available materials. Marimba bars produce their fullest sound when struck just off center, while striking the bar in the center produces a more articulate tone.
On chromatic marimbas, the accidentals can be played on the extreme front edge of the bar, away from the node if neces
The Appalachian dulcimer is a fretted string instrument of the zither family with three or four strings played in the Appalachian region of the United States. The body extends the length of the fingerboard, its fretting is diatonic; the Appalachian dulcimer has many variant names. Most it is called a dulcimer; when it needs to be distinguished from the unrelated hammered dulcimer, various adjectives are added, for example: mountain dulcimer. The instrument has acquired a number of nicknames: "harmonium," "hog fiddle," "music box," "harmony box," and "mountain zither". Although the Appalachian dulcimer first appeared in the early 19th century among Scots-Irish immigrant communities in the Appalachian Mountains, the instrument has no known precedent in Ireland or Scotland; because of this, a dearth of written records, the history of the Appalachian dulcimer has been, until recently speculative. Since 1980, more extensive research has traced the instrument's development through several distinct periods, origins in several similar European instruments: the Swedish hummel, the Norwegian langeleik, the German scheitholt, the French épinette des Vosges.
Folk historian Lucy M. Long said of the instrument's history: Because few historical records of the dulcimer exist, the origins of the instrument were open to speculation until when Ralph Lee Smith and L. Alan Smith reconstructed the instrument's history by analyzing older dulcimers; the organological development of the dulcimer divides into three periods: transitional, pre-revival or traditional, revival or contemporary. Charles Maxson, an Appalachian luthier from Volga, West Virginia, speculated that early settlers were unable to make the more complex violin in the early days because of lack of tools and time; this was one of the factors which led to the building of the dulcimer, which has less dramatic curves. He too cited scheitholt and épinette des Vosges as ancestor instruments. Few true specimens of the mountain dulcimer exist from earlier than about 1880, when J. Edward Thomas of Knott County, began building and selling them; the instrument became used as something of a parlor instrument, as its modest sound volume is best-suited to small home gatherings.
But for the first half of the 20th century the mountain dulcimer was rare, with a handful of makers supplying players in scattered pockets of Appalachia. No audio recordings of the instrument exist from earlier than the late 1930s; the soprano Loraine Wyman, who sang Appalachian folk songs in concert venues around the time of the First World War, created a brief splash for the Appalachian dulcimer by demonstrating it in concerts, was portrayed in Vogue magazine holding her instrument, a Thomas. But Wyman preferred singing with the more robust support of the piano; the instrument achieved its true renaissance in the 1950s urban folk music revival in the United States through the work of Jean Ritchie, a Kentucky musician who performed with the instrument before New York City audiences. In the early 1960s, Ritchie and her partner George Pickow began distributing dulcimers made by her Kentucky relative Jethro Amburgey the woodworking instructor at the Hindman Settlement School, they began producing their own instruments in New York City.
Meanwhile, the American folk musician Richard Fariña was bringing the Appalachian dulcimer to a much wider audience, by 1965 the instrument was a familiar presence in folk music circles. In addition to Amburgey, by winding down his production, influential builders of mid-1960s included Homer Ledford, Lynn McSpadden, A. W. Jeffreys and Joellen Lapidus. In 1969 Michael and Howard Rugg formed; as well as being the first to mass-produce the instrument, they made design changes to make the instrument easier to produce and to play. The body was made larger, they installed metal friction or geared tuners, rather than traditional wooden pegs, to making tuning easier and more reliable. Organologically, the Appalachian dulcimer is a plucked box-zither. Appalachian dulcimers are traditionally constructed of wood, early instruments were made all of one wood, using wood found in the particular area of the mountains where the builder lived. More guitar aesthetics and construction ideals have been applied, with a tone wood such as spruce or cedar preferred for the top of the soundbox.
A harder wood, such as mahogany or rosewood, will be used for the back and neck, a hardwood such as rosewood, maple, or ebony is used for the fingerboard. As the modern dulcimer arose in America, the bulk of them are still made there, American hardwoods such as walnut, oak and apple are still employed by makers; as with many folk instruments the Appalachian dulcimer has been made—and continues to be made—in many shapes and variations in construction details. The general format has a long narrow soundbox, with the "neck" centered in the soundbox and running the length of the instrument. Typical instruments are 70–100 cm long; the top of the fingerboard sits about 1.25 cm (1/2
An audio engineer helps to produce a recording or a live performance and adjusting sound sources using equalization and audio effects, mixing and reinforcement of sound. Audio engineers work on the "...technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, pre-amp knobs, the setting of levels. The physical recording of any project is done by an engineer... the nuts and bolts." It's a creative hobby and profession where musical instruments and technology are used to produce sound for film, television and video games. Audio engineers set up, sound check and do live sound mixing using a mixing console and a sound reinforcement system for music concerts, sports games and corporate events. Alternatively, audio engineer can refer to a scientist or professional engineer who holds an engineering degree and who designs and builds audio or musical technology working under terms such as acoustical engineering, electronic/electrical engineering or signal processing. Research and development audio engineers invent new technologies and techniques, to enhance the process and art of audio engineering.
They might design acoustical simulations of rooms, shape algorithms for audio signal processing, specify the requirements for public address systems, carry out research on audible sound for video game console manufacturers, other advanced fields of audio engineering. They might be referred to as acoustic engineers. Audio engineers working in research and development may come from backgrounds such as acoustics, computer science, broadcast engineering, acoustical engineering, electrical engineering and electronics. Audio engineering courses at university or college fall into two rough categories: training in the creative use of audio as a sound engineer, training in science or engineering topics, which allows students to apply these concepts while pursuing a career developing audio technologies. Audio training courses give you a good knowledge of technologies and their application to recording studio and sound reinforcement systems, but do not have sufficient mathematical and scientific content to allow you to get a job in research and development in the audio and acoustic industry.
Audio engineers in research and development possess a bachelor's degree, master's degree or higher qualification in acoustics, computer science or another engineering discipline. They might work in acoustic consultancy. Alternatively they might work in audio companies, or other industries that need audio expertise, or carry out research in a university; some positions, such as faculty require a Doctor of Philosophy. In Germany a Toningenieur is an audio engineer who designs and repairs audio systems; the listed subdisciplines are based on PACS coding used by the Acoustical Society of America with some revision. Audio engineers develop audio signal processing algorithms to allow the electronic manipulation of audio signals; these can be processed at the heart of much audio production such as reverberation, Auto-Tune or perceptual coding. Alternatively, the algorithms might carry out echo cancellation on Skype, or identify and categorize audio tracks through Music Information Retrieval. Architectural acoustics is the engineering of achieving a good sound within a room.
For audio engineers, architectural acoustics can be about achieving good speech intelligibility in a stadium or enhancing the quality of music in a theatre. Architectural Acoustic design is done by acoustic consultants. Electroacoustics is concerned with the design of headphones, loudspeakers, sound reproduction systems and recording technologies. Examples of electroacoustic design include portable electronic devices, sound systems in architectural acoustics, surround sound and wave field synthesis in movie theater and vehicle audio. Musical acoustics is concerned with describing the science of music. In audio engineering, this includes the design of electronic instruments such as synthesizers. Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of. At the heart of audio engineering are listeners who are the final arbitrator as to whether an audio design is successful, such as whether a binaural recording sounds immersive; the production, computer processing and perception of speech is an important part of audio engineering.
Ensuring speech is transmitted intelligibly and with high quality. A variety of terms are used to describe audio engineers who install or operate sound recording, sound reinforcement, or sound broadcasting equipment, including large and small format consoles. Terms such as "audio technician," "sound technician," "audio engineer," "audio technologist," "recording engineer," "sound mixer" and "sound engineer" can be ambiguous; such terms can refer to a person working in music production.
In My Life
"In My Life" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles from their 1965 album Rubber Soul. It was written by John Lennon and credited to Lennon–McCartney. Paul McCartney and Lennon disagreed over the extent of their respective contribution to that song the melody. George Martin contributed the piano solo bridge, sped up to sound like a harpsichord; the song inspired more pop music producers to use harpsichords in their arrangements. Rolling Stone magazine ranked "In My Life" number 23 on its list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time", as well as fifth on their list of the Beatles' "100 Greatest Songs"; the song placed second on CBC's 50 Tracks. Mojo magazine named it the best song of all time in 2000. It's one of the most well known Beatles songs about nostalgia. In a 1980 interview, Lennon referred to this song as his "first real major piece of work" because it was the first time he penned personal lyrics about his own life. According to Lennon, the song's origins can be traced to when the English journalist Kenneth Allsop made a remark that Lennon should write songs about his childhood.
Afterwards, Lennon wrote a song in the form of a long poem reminiscing on his childhood years. The original version of the lyrics was based on a bus route he used to take in Liverpool, naming various sites seen along the way, including Penny Lane and Strawberry Field; those original lyrics are on display at The British Library. Lennon thought the original lyrics were "ridiculous", calling it "the most boring sort of'What I Did On My Holidays Bus Trip' song", he replaced the specific memories with a generalized meditation on his past. "Very few lines" of the original version remained in the finished song. According to Lennon's friend and biographer Peter Shotton, the lines "Some are dead and some are living/In my life I've loved them all" referred to Stuart Sutcliffe and to Shotton. Regarding composition of the melody, Lennon's and McCartney's recollections differ. Referring to McCartney, Lennon said "his contribution melodically was the harmony and the middle-eight itself." McCartney claimed he set Lennon's lyrics to music from beginning to end, taking inspiration for the melody from songs by Smokey Robinson & the Miracles.
"I liked'In My Life'. Those were words that John wrote, I wrote the tune to it; that was a great one." A 2018 study that used bag-of-words modelling to analyze the song indicated that the music was composed by Lennon. Based on the analysis, mathematician Keith Devlin reported a.018% probability of McCartney writing the song. The song was recorded on 18 October 1965, was complete except for the instrumental bridge. At that time, Lennon had not decided what instrument to use, but he subsequently asked George Martin to play a piano solo, suggesting "something Baroque-sounding". Martin wrote a Bach-influenced piece. On 22 October, the solo was recorded with the tape running at half speed, so when played back at normal pace the piano was twice as fast and an octave higher, solving the performance challenge and giving the solo a unique timbre, reminiscent of a harpsichord. John Lennon – double-tracked vocal, rhythm guitar Paul McCartney – harmony vocal, bass George Harrison – harmony vocal, lead guitar Ringo Starr – drums, bells George Martin – pianoPersonnel per Ian MacDonaldPersonnel notes Judy Collins recorded the song as the title track of her 1966 LP.
John Denver recorded it on John Denver Sings. José Feliciano recorded a cover version of the song in 1968 for Feliciano!. Siw Malmkvist recorded in Swedish, "I mitt liv" on her album Underbara Siw, awarded a Swedish Grammis the same year. Cilla Black recorded the song as the title track of her 1974 LP. George Harrison did a soul-arranged version during his Dark Horse North American tour. Billy Preston did a Hammond organ solo. Rod Stewart recorded a version for his 1986 album Every Beat of My Heart. Bette Midler recorded one of the more noteworthy cover versions in 1991. Released as a single in early 1992 from the soundtrack of her movie For the Boys, It peaked at #20 on the Billboard Adult Contemporary chart in the U. S; this version appeared on her 1993 hits album Experience the Divine: Greatest Hits. It was used as background music for a tribute to NASCAR on ABC at the end of the 2000 Brickyard 400, the final broadcast of NASCAR on ABC until 2007. Kids Incorporated covered the song in 1993 in the Season 9 episode "Taking A Stand".
Chantal Kreviazuk's cover was used as the theme song for the series Providence. In 2000, The Lettermen covered the song on their Greatest Movie Hits album. Johnny Cash covered the song in 2002 for his album American IV; the Seekers recorded the song for their 2012 Golden Jubilee LP. Charice covered the song in 2009 for her album My Inspiration. New Zealand/Australian band Dragon covered the song on their album, It's All Too Beautiful. Ozzy Osbourne covered the song on his Prince of Darkness boxset. Darren Criss, Samuel Larsen, Jenna Ushkowitz, Damian McGinty, Vanessa Lengies, Kevin McHale, Chord Overstreet covered the song in the Glee season three finale "Goodbye". George Martin produced a version on his 1998 album In My Life, narrated by Sean Connery. Diana Krall covered it on her 2015 album Wallflower. In 2016, Frances sang the song as Katter the Butterfly. James Hetfield covered the song at an Acoustic-4-A-Cure performance in 2014. Rita Lee recorded a version in Portuguese for the telenovela Espelho da Vida.
Alan W. Pollack's Notes on "In My Life" Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics