Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Crystal World is the debut album of the Scottish musician Marnie, the lead vocalist and one of the songwriters and keyboardists of the electronic band Ladytron. The album was self-released on 11 June 2013 through the site PledgeMusic; the album was produced in 2012 in Reykjavík, Iceland by her band-mate Daniel Hunt in collaboration with the Icelandic musician Barði Jóhannsson. Alessandro Cortini co-produced the second song, "We Are the Sea". Crystal World comprises ten original songs written by Marnie while Ladytron had a break after they recorded and promoted their fifth studio album, Gravity the Seducer in 2011; the album is available in these formats: CD, 12" vinyl. In an interview for The Electricity Club site, Marnie said: "I played around with the idea for a couple of years and joked about it for while. I had a handful of songs and when Ladytron had some time off last year, I began to believe it could be a reality. I thought if I have the opportunity, I'm just going to go for it. So I started writing as much as I could."On 24 May 2012, her Ladytron band-mate Daniel Hunt announced that he would produce Marnie's solo album in Iceland in August 2012.
Daniel Hunt, in collaboration with the Icelandic musician Barði Jóhannsson, produced Marnie's album. The album was recorded in Reykjavík, Iceland from August to early October 2012 and for few days in December 2012. Marnie said on her PledgeMusic account about her debut album: "For the past year I've been writing more than and I'm so pleased with the results thus far; the album, as yet untitled, is straight from the heart. I can't put it any other way, it means a lot. It is me, no one else, it is everything around me, my loves, my life and loss. I wanted to create an electronic album with more of pristine vocals. Lyrically, the album is expansive, but the elements do play a part in much of the record, with the sea being dominant and reoccurring. So, with the sea in mind and beautiful landscapes, I decided to fly to Iceland to record in a studio there; the light is so pretty, the air fresh, the sea vast, that I thought it would be the perfect setting to record."Regarding the recording process of her album, Marnie said in an interview with The VPME: "I'd say 8 out of the 10 songs were written for a solo record.
The others were a little older but I knew I wanted them used for something. I guess after December 2011, I started to write a lot, until I went to Iceland in August 2012. So that 7-month period was quite productive for me. 9 songs were completed. I wrote the final track'Gold' at home in Glasgow late last year, flew for one last time to Reykjavík, recorded it there in December 2012. Having time away from touring gave me the incentive to write." She mentioned that the majority of the songs were written over the course of 6-8 months. On 16 September 2012, Marnie started the PledgeMusic campaign in order to fund the making of her solo album, she posted a short trailer about this project. She achieved 100% of her goal in three days. Helen Marnie offered various items for potential pledgers, like digital download/CD/gatefold vinyl of the album, signed 8x10 studio photos, disposable cameras filled with random pictures chosen by her, market bags customized with her logo, screen printed posters, handwritten lyric sheets, a pair of shoes and a dress that she wore in Ladytron's "Tomorrow" music video, a blue bikini that she wore in a pool photoshoot, personalized ringtone package, test pressing package, her 1998 Mini Cooper Sport car.
On 16 February 2013, Marnie offered to the pledgers a 1 minute 45 seconds preview of an unfinished version of one of her songs titled "The Hunter". Marnie shot her first solo music video on 30 April in Glasgow with a group of friends. On 16 May 2013, she announced the title of the album, Crystal World. On 29 May, Marnie premiered on her official YouTube account the music video for her debut single as solo artist, "The Hunter"; the video was directed by Michael Sherrington, who directed Ladytron's "Mirage" video. On 1 June, she shared to the pledgers a 55-second-long sample from a song titled "Hearts on Fire" and confirmed the official track listing of the album; the album was scheduled to be released on March 2013, but it was delayed multiple times, to 10 May 31 May, 2 June. The album was released and available for download to pledgers on 11 June 2013 in FLAC and mp3 formats. There were 1517 pledges in total and she achieved a bit over 250% of her initial goal. On 15 June 2013, the album was released as music download on iTunes and Amazon through Cobraside label.
On August 2013 the album was issued on CD format by Les Disques Du Crépuscule. Marnie released the James Slater-directed music video of "Hearts on Fire" on 19 April 2014. "The Hunter" was released as first single on 29 May 2013 through a music video. On 12 August 2013, "The Hunter" was released on 7" vinyl format on Soft Power Records; the B-side of this disc is "The Wind Breezes On". There were 200 clear vinyls pressed for pledgers and another 300 classic black vinyls for general release. Marnie released a special single titled "The Hunter Remixed" through Les Disques du Crépuscule, it was issued in a limited edition of 500 copies on clear 12" vinyl to celebrate Record Store Day on 19 April 2014. The single includes the original version of "The Hunter", two "The Hunter" remixes, a "Sugarland" remix by Mark Reeder. Crystal World was positively reviewed by the site The Electricity Club: "'Crystal World' achieves Marnie's objective'to create an electronic album with more of a pop element and pristine voca
Lush were an English rock band formed in London in 1987. The original line-up consisted of Emma Anderson, Steve Rippon and Chris Acland. Phil King replaced Rippon in 1991, they were one of the first bands to have been described with the "shoegazing" label. Following the death of Acland, the group disbanded in 1996; the group reunited for a short time between 2015 and 2016 with Berenyi, Anderson and Justin Welch. They recorded an EP of new material; the band formed in 1987 in London named the Baby Machines, with a lineup of Meriel Barham, Berenyi, Steve Rippon and Chris Acland. Their influences were diverse. Anderson and Berenyi had been school friends, having known each other since the early 1980s, together published the Alphabet Soup fanzine. In 1986, Anderson joined the Rover Girls as bassist, Berenyi joined the Bugs as a bass player. Neither band lasted long, in 1987, they joined Barham and Acland in the Baby Machines. Rippon joined shortly thereafter, the band members decided on a change of name to Lush, making their live debut at the Camden Falcon on 6 March 1988.
Barham left the band and joined Pale Saints. Berenyi took on lead vocal duties. Anderson said of the band's beginnings: "We were kind of punk rock in one way. We did think,'Well, if they can do it, why the fuck can't we?' Our idea was to have loud guitars with much weaker vocals. And the vocals were weaker due to nervousness – we'd always be going'Turn them down! Turn them down!'" Berenyi said, "We started by writing crappy riot grrl anthems..., charming in a juvenile way. But there was a rapid shift from the minute we started to write for records; the music, the lyrics became much expressive, more important, really. I remember that change beginning when Emma wrote "Thoughtforms," it made me think I needed to get my act together." In 1989, the band released Scar, a six-track mini-album. Critical praise for Scar and a popular live show established Lush as one of the most written-about groups of the late 1980s/early 1990s UK indie scene. Anderson told Everett True in Melody Maker, "I remember when I couldn't play, I wasn't in a band, didn't know anyone else who could play, now we've got a record out on 4AD.
I sometimes find it impossible to come to terms with what's happening."Not long after, the British music press tagged them with the "shoegazing" label. The following year, the EPs Mad Love and Sweetness and Light were released. All three releases were combined into the Gala compilation album, produced for the US and Japanese markets; the band recorded a live session for John Peel's BBC Radio 1 show in 1990 and contributed a cover version of "Chirpy Chirpy Cheep Cheep" that year to the anti-poll tax album Alvin Lives. The band's profile was raised by extensive touring, including an appearance at the Glastonbury Festival in June 1990 and tours of Japan in late 1990 and the US in the spring of 1991. Preceded by the Black Spring EP issued in October 1991, Lush's first full-length album of new material, was released in January 1992. Again produced by Guthrie, Spooky featured a sound similar to Guthrie's band Cocteau Twins, with walls of sound and a great deal of guitar effects. Reviews were mixed and critics of the album held that Guthrie's production brought the sound away from the band's original creative vision, although it sold well, reaching No. 7 in the UK Albums Chart.
The album was preceded by the band's first UK top 40 single, "For Love", re-recorded and remixed by Mark Freegard. He produced the single's B-sides: the original recording of "Starlust", Wire cover "Outdoor Miner" and the only Lush track with lead vocals by Anderson, "Astronaut". Gil Norton remixed "Superblast!" for the Japanese single release. Rippon left the band after recording the "For Love" EP to concentrate on writing, he was replaced by Phil King. During the summer of 1992, Lush toured America as part of the second edition of the Lollapalooza festival. Lush was added to the roster by Lollapalooza organiser Perry Farrell, the Jane's Addiction/Porno for Pyros frontman, who requested Lush. Lush approached Bob Mould to produce their second album; the band stated that Mould was too busy to produce them, but Mould said in a Spin article that he backed out because "I kept picking the wrong girl's songs... I had to get out before I broke up the band!" The band found completing Split frustrating. It was recorded by Mike Hedges at Rockfield Studios in Wales.
Hedges along with the band went to mix the recordings, first at Abbey Road Studios, at Hedges' studio in Domfront, France. However, neither the band nor Ivo Watts-Russell of their label 4AD were satisfied with the sound. Unusually, the band released two EPs from the album both on the same day. Neither single broke into the UK Top 40. Released on 13 June 1994, Split was less successful than Spooky; the band concentrated on the American market, on the advice of their management, but failed to make a breakthrough. A third EP from "Split", planned for release in the autumn of 1994, was to have featured "Lovel
AnyDecentMusic? is a website that collates album reviews from magazines and newspaper. It includes music albums, covering rock, electronic, folk, country and urban. Reviews are sourced from more than 50 websites and newspapers from the US and UK, but from Canada and Australia. AnyDecentMusic? was set up in 2009 by Ally Palmer and Terry Watson, the directors of PalmerWatson, a newspaper and magazine design consultancy. On creating the site: "Newspapers are our business. Our other passion is music, we've combined the two things." The site's creators and Watson, say: " surveys reviews of recent album releases in newspapers and websites and provides a updated chart of critical reaction."Ratings are averaged and albums ranked in a chart intended to give an overall picture of critical appraisal of current releases, based on the averaged score out of 10. This chart forms the centrepiece of the site. Users can view charts showing rankings over 3 months, 6 months or 12 months, it is possible to view a genre-specific chart, or to exclude genres not of interest.
Short extracts of the review are provided, with hyperlinks to the original article. Some print-only reviews are included, but not all of these have extracts from the original. AnyDecentMusic? assesses reviews which do not provide a numerical score and assigns what it deems to be an appropriate score, based on the tone and content of the review. On album review pages, there is a link to streaming media service such as Spotify; the music website AltSounds was added to the list of ratings sources in November 2012. They announced it by saying: "AltSounds has joined the tastemaking chart website Any Decent Music, where our reviews are a part of the construction of the album chart."In July 2012, an AnyDecentMusic app was launched within the music streaming service Spotify. This was Spotify's App of the Day on July 19, it was described by Spotify: "Developed from the AnyDecentMusic.com chart, which provides music lovers with updated listings of the most critically-acclaimed albums, this novel Spotify app uses ratings from the leading expert, independent review sources across the world to help you discover the best in new music".
According to Palmer and Watson, "the focus on the ADM Spotify app is on all contemporary genres, from indie to electronic to hip hop and everything in between." They went on to explain the website's process of aggregating reviews: "Each day we sift through more than 50 music review publications and offline. We reckon it's a representative spread of sources from the UK, US, Australia and Germany. They're different, but they're all intelligent and sussed and we think it gives a good cross-section of critical opinion. We are not a wholescale review aggregator, automatically sweeping up anything and everything relating to every album release. Everything on ADM has been manually reviewed and added. It's painstaking work, but it's a labour of love and it means we don't clutter the site with reissues and compilations and stuff we know real music fans aren't interested it." The site is similar to other review aggregator websites such as Metacritic and Rotten Tomatoes in that it gathers reviews to assess critical acclaim.
The site differs in the sense. It does not cover jazz or classical releases, or many world music albums, tends to ignore most reissues and various artist collections, it differs in its choice of sources, electing to be more selective, rather than cover all available reviews. The site offers regular track recommendations, called "Today We Love", regular playlists, with themes that appear sometimes to be topical and sometimes random. Although similar in principle to other review aggregator websites, AnyDecentMusic? puts some focus on its users finding new music through its features, with users able to formulate a personal "chart" through genre and time period search filters. Palmer and Watson described their reasoning behind the site on their PalmerWatson.com website: "We couldn't find a site that did what AnyDecentMusic? does, so we built one." Once an album or release has five reviews from different sources, it enters the current Recent Releases chart, where it remains for six weeks. It is this chart.
In 2010 The Observer Sunday newspaper featured the AnyDecentMusic? Top 10 in its charts page. There is an "All-Time" Chart, but this covers only the duration of the website's existence, six years. Since the site's beginning, the following albums have the highest aggregate rating: To Pimp a Butterfly by Kendrick Lamar – 9.3 Damn by Kendrick Lamar – 9.1 Black Messiah by D'Angelo – 9.1 Channel Orange by Frank Ocean – 8.9 Skeleton Tree by Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds – 8.9 Hadestown by Anaïs Mitchell – 8.8 My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy by Kanye West – 8.8 You Want It Darker by Leonard Cohen – 8.8 Carrie & Lowell by Sufjan Stevens – 8.8 A Crow Looked at Me by Mount Eerie – 8.8 Room 25 by Noname – 8.8 Sunbather by Deafheaven – 8.8Lowest rating: JLS by JLS – 2.7 Review aggregator Metacritic Rotten Tomatoes AnyDecentMusic? homepage
Igor Graziano Cavalera is a Brazilian musician. He is best known as the former drummer for Brazilian heavy metal band Sepultura, which he co-founded with his brother Max in 1984. Max left the band in 1996, Cavalera himself would depart ten years making him the last original member of Sepultura to leave the band; the brothers have since reunited in the band Cavalera Conspiracy. He has played in the bands Nailbomb and Strife, guest drumming in "Brasileiro," a song by Titãs; as his hip-hop influences grew stronger he began to DJ. Cavalera is one half of a project he founded with his wife Laima Leyton. Cavalera started playing drums around 7 years old, he was into samba music as a child but, after watching Queen live in 1981 along with his brother Max, he started listening to rock music. When Sepultura was formed, Cavalera was the youngest member at the age of 13, his brother Max was 14 at the time. Sepultura gave Cavalera an early start. On April 21, 1984, Cavalera played, for the first time, on a real drum kit, borrowed from Helinho of the band Overdose, that played that night.
After the band split with his brother Max in 1996, their relationship underwent a crisis. In recent times their relationship has improved, with Max stating in an interview that a reunion with Sepultura was possible. Cavalera joined Max's current band Soulfly on stage at the 2006 tenth annual D-Low Memorial Show, to play the Sepultura songs "Roots Bloody Roots" and "Attitude", it was the first time. In 2006, with the release of Dante XXI, he began spelling his name "Iggor," preferring the way it looks. On January 13, 2006, it was announced that he was taking a break from the band due to the birth of his fourth child leaving Sepultura temporarily, he announced that he was quitting Sepultura due to "artistic incompatibility." Sepultura replaced him with Jean Dolabella. Cavalera was scheduled to collaborate with underground hip hop artist Necro, on a project described by Necro as in the style of "old-school'80s thrash/death metal." However, Necro mentioned that the project will not go ahead. In 2008 he released the album Inflikted together with his brother Max in a project named Cavalera Conspiracy.
He is credited as having made a guest appearance on Biohazard's 2001 release Uncivilization on the track "Gone". In 2012, Cavalera performed drums for the entire Strife album Witness A Rebirth, released via 6131 Records. In 2017, Cavalera performed drums for Soulwax on their album "From Deewee" and in their live tour, along with two other live drummers. In 2018, Cavalera formed the Noise music duo PET BRICK with Wayne Adams of Big Lad and Death Pedals Cavalera collects toys and football shirts and has many hobbies, including Brazilian jiu-jitsu, surfing and supporting Brazilian football club Palmeiras, he admires his father Graziano Cavalera as his role model. He has four children: Christian Bass Cavalera, Raissa Bass Cavalera, Iccaro Bass Cavalera, Antonio Leyton Cavalera and a stepson Pedro Leyton Pereira. In 1996 he started the fashion label "Cavalera", he lives in London since 2013. Cavalera cites drummers like Roger Taylor, Bill Ward, Dave Lombardo, Stewart Copeland and Mike Bordin among his major influences.
In the early Sepultura albums his drumming was loud and fast, following the thrash metal style of the 80s. He mastered this style by 1987–1991, his innovative style in the album Chaos A. D. brought tribal elements into the songs. One example of his contribution is the introduction of the song "Territory", he further developed this style in the 1996 Roots album, adding more tribal elements to Sepultura's music. Throughout his career, Cavalera has been recognized as a hard-hitting drummer. In years, Cavalera adopted a drumset conformation with upright toms and fewer cymbals, as seen in Live in São Paulo. In reference to his work on the Sepultura album Nation, Allmusic wrote "Drummer Igor Cavalera's timing and tempo couldn't be more perfect as the adrenaline heightens until the album's intensity burns right through the speakers." Bestial Devastation Morbid Visions Schizophrenia Beneath the Remains Arise Chaos A. D. Roots Against Nation Roorback Dante XXI Inflikted Blunt Force Trauma Pandemonium Psychosis Titãs – Domingo on "Brasileiro" Massacration – Gates of Metal Fried Chicken of Death Soulwax - Belgica soundtrack - drums with Burning Phlegm Ladytron - Ladytron Igor Cavalera at FMD Igor Cavalera Biography at Drum Solo Artist
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Ladytron are a British electronic music band formed in Liverpool in 1999. The group consists of Mira Aroyo, Daniel Hunt and Reuben Wu, their sound blends electropop with new shoegazing elements. Ladytron described their sound as "electronic pop"; some of the group's songs performed by Aroyo contain lyrics written in her native Bulgarian. Their name was taken from the song "Ladytron" by Roxy Music. According to Brian Eno, once a member of Roxy Music: "Ladytron are, for me, the best of English pop music. They're the kind of band that only appears in England, with this funny mixture of eccentric art-school dicking around and dressing up, with a full awareness of what's happening everywhere musically, kind of knitted together and woven into something quite new."Ladytron have released six studio albums so far: 604, Light & Magic, Witching Hour and Gravity the Seducer, a self-titled album. They issued the live album Live at London Astoria 16.07.08 in 2009 and the compilation album Best of 00–10 in 2011.
They have produced remixes for many artists, including David Gahan, Goldfrapp, Apoptygma Berzerk, Blondie, Gang of Four, Christina Aguilera, Nine Inch Nails, Bloc Party, Kings of Convenience, Indochine. Liverpudlian producers and DJs Daniel Hunt and Reuben Wu met in the 1990s. Hunt founded the indie record label Invicta Hi-Fi and a nightclub. Wu trained in Industrial Design at Sheffield Hallam University and graduated in 1997, he became an industrial designer at Team Consulting Limited, until going full-time with the band around 2002. Using the moniker Ladytron, Hunt and Wu recorded the debut single "He Took Her to a Movie" for £50 with the guest vocalist Lisa Eriksson, The band name was inspired by the song "Ladytron" by Roxy Music. "He Took Her to a Movie" was released in July 1999 and gained positive reviews. In the summer of 1999, Hunt and Wu met the Scottish student Helen Marnie through various DJ gigs, the Bulgarian student Mira Aroyo through a mutual friend. Marnie and Aroyo joined the band as keyboardists.
Helen Marnie studied music at the University of Liverpool where she received a Bachelor of Arts in pop music in 1999. Mira Aroyo was a postgraduate research geneticist in the Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford. In December 1999, Ladytron issued Her Friends in Japan only, it was followed in June 2000 by the EP Commodore Rock and in October 2000 by Mu-Tron EP. All the songs from these EPs, except "Miss Black" and "Olivetti Jerk", were included on their debut studio album. "He Took Her to a Movie", Mu-Tron EP, "The Way That I Found You", were all selected as NME "Single of the Week". On 6 February 2001, Ladytron released the debut album 604 on Emperor Norton; the album was released on 26 March 2001 on Labels and on 2 April 2001 on Invicta Hi-Fi. It was re-released on 20 July 2004 on Emperor Norton and on 14 January 2011 /18 January 2011 /24 January 2011 on Nettwerk. 604 has been written by Daniel Hunt and co-produced by him and Lance Thomas. The singles released from this album were "He Took Her to a Movie", "Playgirl", "The Way That I Found You".
The single "Playgirl" brought some international attention to the band. Until 2004, the band wore uniforms on stage. Daniel Hunt stated in 2001 that their uniforms were inspired by the science fiction movie The Andromeda Strain. In an interview with Chaos Control magazine from 2002, Hunt said that the meaning of 604 album title is the area code for British Columbia. It's the area code for British Columbia... we're glad we've attached this strange importance to that number, it crops up everywhere now. We noticed when we stayed in Hamburg in Germany, that the number to phone reception from your room was'604'. Moments afterwards the building had caught fire and we were lucky to escape with our lives. I'm not joking. Ladytron performed on 4 August 2001 at Festival Internacional de Benicàssim in Spain, on 10 August 2001 at La Route du Rock in France, on 26 August 2001 at Reading Festival in the UK. On 5 December 2001, they performed four songs for Radio 1's John Peel Show: "Zmeyka", "Holiday 601", "Another Breakfast With You", "Discotraxx".
On 1 October 2001, the compilation album Reproductions: Songs of The Human League was released on Carrot Top Records. This compilation included The Human League' song "Open Your Heart" covered by Ladytron, their second album Light & Magic was released on 17 September 2002 at Emperor Norton Records and Telstar. The album was released on 7 April 2003 at Warner Music and on 21 June 2003 at Victor Entertainment, it was re-released on 20 July 2004 on Emperor Norton and on 14 January 2011 /18 January 2011 /24 January 2011 on Nettwerk. Light & Magic featured a darker sound than their previous album, it was co-produced by Mickey Petralia. The album included the underground hits "Seventeen", "Blue Jeans" and "Evil", they issued in 2003 a limited 7" single, "Cracked LCD / USA vs. White Noise", they toured over a year to support the album. On 4 December 2002, Ladytron returned to John Peel Show and performed live the songs "True Mathematics", "Evil", "USA vs. White Noise" and "Blue Jeans". On 7 October 2003, they issued the mix compilation Softcore Jukebox on Emperor Norton.
Besides the songs of other artists, the compilation includes two of their own songs, the single remix of "Blue Jeans" renamed "Blu