X-Men is a 2000 American superhero film directed by Bryan Singer and written by David Hayter from a story by Singer and Tom DeSanto. The film is based on the Marvel Comics superhero team of the same name and features an ensemble cast consisting of Hugh Jackman, Patrick Stewart, Ian McKellen, Halle Berry, Famke Janssen, James Marsden, Bruce Davison, Rebecca Romijn-Stamos, Ray Park, Anna Paquin; the film depicts a world where a small proportion of people are mutants, whose possession of superhuman powers makes them distrusted by normal humans. It focuses on mutants Wolverine and Rogue as they are brought into a conflict between two groups that have radically different approaches to bringing about the acceptance of mutant-kind: Professor Xavier's X-Men, the Brotherhood of Mutants, led by Magneto. Development of X-Men began as far back as 1984 with Orion Pictures, with James Cameron and Kathryn Bigelow in discussions at one point; the film rights were bought by 20th Century Fox in 1994, various scripts and film treatments were commissioned from Andrew Kevin Walker, John Logan, Joss Whedon, Michael Chabon.
Singer signed to direct in 1996, with further rewrites by Ed Solomon, Tom DeSanto, Christopher McQuarrie, Hayter, in which Beast and Nightcrawler were deleted over budget concerns from Fox. X-Men marked the Hollywood debut for Jackman, a last-second choice for Wolverine, cast three weeks into filming. Filming took place from September 22, 1999 to March 3, 2000 in Toronto. X-Men premiered at Ellis Island on July 12, 2000, was released in the United States on July 14, 2000, it was a box office success, grossing over $296.3 million worldwide, received positive reviews from critics, citing its performances and thematic depth. The film's success led to a series of sequels and spin-offs, with the overall success of the series spawning a reemergence of superhero films, a genre that would remain popular for the next two decades. In Nazi-occupied Poland, 12-year-old Erik Lehnsherr is separated from his parents upon entering the Auschwitz concentration camp. While trying to reach them, he causes a set of metal gates to bend towards him as the result of his mutant ability to create magnetic fields and control metal manifesting, only to be knocked out by the guards.
In the not too distant future, U. S. Senator Robert Kelly attempts to pass a "Mutant Registration Act" in Congress, which would force mutants to publicly reveal their identities and abilities. Present are Lehnsherr, now going by the name "Magneto", his telepathic colleague Professor Charles Xavier. Seeing Lehnsherr in attendance, Xavier becomes concerned with how he will respond to the Registration Act. Meanwhile, in Meridian, Mississippi, 17-year-old Marie D'Ancanto accidentally puts her boyfriend into a coma upon kissing him as the result of her mutant ability to absorb the powers and life force of others, she adopts the name Rogue. In Alberta, she meets Logan known as Wolverine, a mutant who possesses superhuman healing abilities and metal "claws" that protrude from between his knuckles. While on the road together, they are attacked by a minion of Magneto's, until two of Xavier's students Cyclops and Storm arrive and save them. Wolverine and Rogue are brought to Xavier's mansion and school for mutants in Westchester County, New York.
Xavier tells Logan that Magneto appears to have taken an interest in Wolverine and asks him to stay while Xavier's mutants, the X-Men, investigate the matter. Meanwhile, Rogue enrolls in the school. Senator Kelly is abducted by two more of Magneto's minions and Mystique and is brought to their hideout on the uncharted island of Genosha. There, Magneto uses Kelly as a test subject for a machine powered by his magnetic abilities that generates a field of radiation, inducing mutation in normal humans. Kelly escapes by taking advantage of his newfound mutation. Rogue visits Wolverine during the night, she is convinced by Mystique, who disguises herself as Rogue's crush Bobby Drake, that Xavier is angry with her and she should leave the school. Xavier uses his mutant-locating machine Cerebro to find Rogue at a train station, the X-Men go to retrieve her. Meanwhile, Mystique sabotages it. Having left ahead of Storm and Cyclops, Wolverine finds Rogue on a train and convinces her to return to the school.
Before they can leave, Magneto knocks out Wolverine and subdues Rogue. Although Xavier attempts to stop Magneto by mentally controlling Sabretooth, he is forced to release his hold on Sabretooth when Magneto threatens the police who have converged on the train station, allowing Magneto's Brotherhood to escape with Rogue. Kelly arrives at Xavier's school, Xavier reads his mind to learn about Magneto's machine. Realizing the strain of powering it nearly killed Magneto, the group deduces he intends to transfer his powers to Rogue and use her to power it at the cost of her life. Kelly's body rejects his mutation, his body dissolves into liquid. Xavier attempts to locate Rogue using Cerebro, but Mystique's sabotage incapacitates him, he falls into a coma. Fellow telekinetic and telepath Jean Grey fixes Cerebro and uses it, learning that Magneto plans to place his mutation-inducing machine on Liberty Island and use it to "mutate" the world leaders meeting at a summit on nearby Ellis Island; the X-Men scale the Statue of Liberty, battling the Brotherhood while Magneto transfers his powers to Rogue and activates the mutating machine.
As Wolverine confronts and distracts Magneto, Cyclops blasts him away, allowing Wolverine to destroy the machine. He transfe
Kalymnos, is a Greek island and municipality in the southeastern Aegean Sea. It belongs to the Dodecanese and is located to the west of the peninsula of Bodrum, between the islands of Kos and Leros: the latter is linked to it through a series of islets. Kalymnos lies between five hours away by sea from Rhodes. In 2011 the island had a population of 16,001, making it the third most populous island of the Dodecanese, after Kos and Rhodes, it is known in Greece for the affluence of much of its population, stands as both the wealthiest member of the Dodecanese and one of the wealthiest Greek islands overall. The Municipality of Kalymnos, which includes the populated offshore islands of Pserimos, Kalolimnos, Pláti, as well as several uninhabited islets, has a combined land area of 134.544 square kilometres and a total population of 16,179 inhabitants. The island is known as Kelemez in Turkish; the island is rectangular in shape, with a length of 21 km and a width of 13 km, covers an area of 109 square kilometres.
Moreover, on the north side there is a peninsula. Kalymnos is mountainous with complicated topography. There are three main chains going from W-NW to E-SE, a fourth which extends NW the length of the peninsula; the coastline is irregular, with many sheltered coves. There are one among them being thermal; the soil is limestone-based, but in the valleys there is a compact bank of volcanic tuff, the relic of an ancient volcano, located in Vigles, between the villages of Myrties and Kantouni. The island is barren, except for the two fertile valleys of Vathys and Pothia, where olives and vines are grown. There is an ostrich farm in Argos, near the airport. Earthquakes are a frequent occurrence around Kalymnos, a fact, connected with the volcanoes in surrounding islands; the last earthquake occurred was the 2017 Aegean Sea earthquake with a magnitude of 6.7Mw, which injured two people in Kalymnos. Kalymnos is neighbored by the small island of Telendos, once part of Kalymnos, but split off after a major earthquake in 554 AD and is now separated from Kalymnos by a channel of water.
Between Kalymnos and Kos lies the islet of Pserimos, inhabited and, with an area of 11 square kilometres, is one of the largest of the lesser islands of the Dodecanese. Near Pserimos lies the islet of Platí, about 5 km to the NE lies the small islet of Kalolimnos. Inhabited by Carians, in Antiquity Kalymnos depended on Kos, followed its history; the island's Hellenistic Temple of Apollo was excavated by the British archaeologist Charles Newton in the nineteenth century. In the Middle Ages it was under the influence of the Byzantine Empire, during the 13th century it was used by the Venetian Republic as a naval base. In 1310 it came under the control of the Knights of Rhodes, was attacked by the Ottomans, who conquered it in 1522. Unlike Rhodes and Kos, during the Ottoman period there was no Turkish immigration to Kalymnos. On May 12, 1912, during the Italo-Turkish War, Kalymnos was occupied by Italian sailors of the Regia Marina. Italy took control of the island along with other islands of the Dodecanese until 1947, when the Dodecanese were united with mainland Greece, as part of the modern Greek state.
The majority of Kalymnians are Orthodox Christians. The island belongs to that small part of Greece that does not depend on the Church of Greece, but rather on the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople based in Istanbul, Turkey. Kalymnos belongs to the Metropolis of Leros and Astypalaia. Kalymnos is known and billed as the "Sponge-divers' island". Sponge diving has long been a common occupation on Kalymnos and sponges were the main source of income of Kalymnians, bringing wealth to the island and making it famous throughout the Mediterranean; the Kalymnians harvested sponges from the sea-bed as far as North Africa. Early diving was done without equipment. Sponges are still fished individually, by hand; the Greek sponge trade was centered close in the Dodecanese, featuring Kalymnos until mid-80s, when a disease hit the eastern Mediterranean destroying a great number of sponges and damaging the sponge-fishing industry as a result. Today, Kalymnos faces a lack of sponges due to the outbreak of a disease which has decimated sponge crops.
An annual celebration, Sponge Week, occurs a week after Easter to honour this "Kalymnian gold.” Much has been written and filmed about the legendary courage and recklessness of the sponge divers themselves. Kalymnos offers rock bouldering during the whole year. Being barren, agriculture has always played a minor role in the economy of the island, except for the valley of Vathi; the island is famous for its citrus fruits grown in this area. Another industrial activity typical of Kalymnos was the production of painted head scarfs, which were the most original component of the female dress. In recent times, tourism has become important for the island for rock climbing. In 2006, the island acquired an airport, the Kalymnos Island National Airport in Argos, a village between Pothia and Brosta, to better link the island with the mainland. Since th
2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike
From November 5, 2007, to February 12, 2008, all 12,000 film and television screenwriters of the American labor unions Writers Guild of America and Writers Guild of America West went on strike. The strike sought increased funding for the writers in comparison to the profits of the larger studios, it was targeted at the Alliance of Motion Picture and Television Producers, a trade organization representing the interests of 397 American film and television producers. The most influential of these are eleven corporations: CBS, MGM, NBCUniversal, The Weinstein Company, News Corp/Fox, Paramount Pictures, Anchor Bay/Liberty Media/Starz, Sony Pictures, the Walt Disney Company, Warner Bros.. Negotiators for the striking writers reached a tentative agreement on February 8, 2008, the boards of both guilds unanimously approved the deal on February 10, 2008. Striking writers voted on February 12, 2008 on whether to lift the restraining order, with 92.5% voting to end the strike. On February 26, the WGA announced that the contract had been ratified with a 93.6% approval among WGA members.
The Writers Guild requested a court order seeking that the agreement be honored and implemented. The guilds were on strike for 2 days. In contrast, the previous strike in 1988, the longest in the history of the Guild, lasted 21 weeks and 6 days, costing the American entertainment industry an estimated $500 million in opportunity costs. According to a National Public Radio report filed on February 12, 2008, the strike cost the economy of Los Angeles an estimated $1.5 billion. A report from the UCLA Anderson School of Management put the loss at $380 million, while economist Jack Kyser put the loss at $2.1 billion. The resolution of the strike was unclear: while they lost out on short-term deals, they received a new percentage payment on the distributor's gross for digital distribution based on the deal that the DGA made during the strike; every three years, the Writers Guild negotiates a new basic contract with the AMPTP by which its members are employed. This contract is called the Minimum Basic Agreement.
In 2007, negotiations over the MBA reached an impasse and the WGA membership voted to give its board authorization to call a strike, which it did on Friday, November 2, 2007. Among the many proposals from both sides regarding the new contract, there were several key issues of contention including DVD residuals, union jurisdiction over animation and reality program writers, compensation for "new media". In 1985, the Writers Guild went on strike over the home video market, small and consisted of distribution via video tape. At that time, the entertainment companies argued home video was an "unproven" market, with an expensive delivery channel. Movies were selling in the range of between $40–$100 per tape, the Guild accepted a formula in which a writer would receive a small percentage of the first million of reportable gross of each tape sold as a residual; as manufacturing costs for video tapes dropped and the home video market exploded, writers came to feel they had been shortchanged by this deal.
DVDs debuted in 1996 and replaced the more-expensive VHS format, outselling VHS for the first time on the week of June 15, 2003. The previous VHS residual formula continued to apply to DVDs. Prior to the strike, the home video market had become the major source of revenue for the movie studios. In April 2004, The New York Times reported the companies made $4.8 billion in home video sales versus $1.78 billion at the box office between January and March. WGA members argued that a writer's residuals are a necessary part of a writer's income, relied upon during periods of unemployment common in the writing industry; the WGA requested a doubling of the residual rate for DVD sales, which would result in a residual of 0.6% per DVD sold. The AMPTP maintained that studios' DVD income was necessary to offset rising production and marketing costs, they further insisted that the current DVD formula be applied to residuals in other digital media—an area, contested by the Writers Guild. The WGA provisionally removed the increased DVD residual request from the table, in an effort to avert a strike and on the understanding of certain concessions by the AMPTP, the night before the strike began.
However, after the strike began, WGAW President Patric M. Verrone wrote that the membership exhibited "significant disappointment and anger" when they learned of the proposed removal of the request. There was no change to the calculation of DVD residuals. Driven by the then-recent contract between Viacom and the creators of South Park, one of the critical issues for the negotiations was residuals for "new media", or compensation for delivery channels such as Internet downloads, IPTV, smart phone programming, straight-to-Internet content, other "on-demand" online distribution methods, along with video on demand on cable and satellite television. Prior to the strike, the WGA had no arrangement with producers regarding the use of content online, and
Altered Carbon (TV series)
Altered Carbon is an American dystopian science fiction cyberpunk web television series created by Laeta Kalogridis and based on the 2002 novel of the same title by English author Richard K. Morgan; the first season consists of ten episodes and premiered on Netflix on February 2, 2018. On July 27, 2018, the series was renewed for a second season of eight episodes; the series takes place over 360 years in the future, with most episodes set in the year 2384, in a futuristic San Francisco known as Bay City. In the future, a person's memories and consciousness can be decanted in a disk-shaped device called a cortical stack, implanted in the vertebrae at the back of the neck; these storage devices have been reverse engineered and mass produced. Physical human or synthetic bodies are called "sleeves" and stacks can be transferred to new bodies after death, but a person can still be killed if their stack is destroyed. While this theoretically means anyone can live forever, only the wealthiest, known as "Meths" in reference to Methuselah, have the means to do so through clones and remote storage of their consciousness in satellites.
Takeshi Kovacs, a political operative with mercenary skills, is the sole surviving soldier of the Envoys, a rebel group defeated in an uprising against the new world order. 250 years after the Envoys are destroyed, his stack is pulled out of prison by 300-year-old Meth Laurens Bancroft, one of the wealthiest men in the settled worlds. Bancroft gives him the choice to solve a murder—Bancroft's own—to get a new shot at life. Joel Kinnaman / Anthony Mackie as Takeshi Kovacs / Elias Ryker, a former Envoy, an elite rebel group defeated 250 years prior to the start of the series. James Purefoy as Laurens Bancroft, one of the wealthiest men alive, who lives in a skyscraper above the clouds and out of the reach of everyday people, ruthlessly powerful and wanting to exert control on those around him. Martha Higareda as Kristin Ortega, a smart and tough lieutenant in the Bay City Police Department, of Latin American descent and comes from a family of cops. Chris Conner as Edgar Poe, an artificial intelligence that takes the form of Edgar Allan Poe and runs the hotel that serves as Kovacs' base of operations in Bay City.
Dichen Lachman as Reileen Kawahara, Kovacs' sister, who shared his violent childhood, who joined the Envoys at the same time as him and perished when the uprising was put down. Ato Essandoh as Vernon Elliot, a former Protectorate marine whose wife was imprisoned and daughter murdered. Kristin Lehman as Miriam Bancroft, Laurens' wife and a Meth who has her own motivations. Lehman said she was "really intrigued and challenged" to play the character, considering it different from her other work, her background as a dancer helped. Of the character's sexuality, "She has commodified her sexuality and I was interested in exploring that side of the character." Trieu Tran as Mister Leung / Ghostwalker, a killer and "fixer" who kills and solves problems for a mysterious employer. Renée Elise Goldsberry as Quellcrist Falconer, a "master strategist" and leader of the Envoys, as well as a love interest of Kovacs', she was killed when the rebellion was put down but reappears in Kovacs' flashbacks and hallucinations.
Simone Missick as Trepp Dina Shihabi as Dig 301 Torben Liebrecht as Colonel Ivan Carrera James Saito as Tanaseda Hideki Netflix ordered the series in January 2016, fifteen years after Laeta Kalogridis optioned the novel with the intent of making a feature film. According to Kalogridis, the complex nature of the novel and its R-rated material meant that it was a tough sell for studios before Netflix ordered the series; the show was one of a number of dramas ordered in short order by Netflix, which had committed to spending $5 billion on original content. Kalogridis served as executive producer and showrunner. Steve Blackman served as co-showrunner. David Ellison, Dana Goldberg and Marcy Ross of Skydance Television served as producers, as well as Brad Fischer and James Vanderbilt of Kalogridis' Mythology Entertainment. Miguel Sapochnik directed the pilot episode. Morgan served as a consultant during the show's production; the production costs were not disclosed but Kinnaman said it had "bigger budget than the first three seasons of Game of Thrones".
Ann Foley served as costume designer. The production crew fitted about 2,000 costumers and custom made at least 500 pieces for the show, emphasized "grounded" looks for future fashion but figured in specific details, such as a unique palette for Meth characters and subtle costume changes when different people are inhabiting the same sleeve; the series is produced in British Columbia, Canada. Altered Carbon was renewed for a second season in July 2018. Anthony Mackie will take over the lead role of Takeshi Kovacs, replacing season 1 star Joel Kinnaman. Additionally, Alison Schapker joined the series as co-showrunner alongside Laeta Kalogridis. While most of the major plot points in the book are retained, the adaptation featured several major changes for characters. Poe's character took the form of Jimi Hendrix in the books, but Hendrix's estate declined to license his image for the series because of its violence. Instead Kalogridis said Poe and a Victorian era hotel would juxtapose well with the futuristic Bay City.
In the novel the Envoys are elite soldiers of the United Nations Protectorate, based on Earth, not rebels on Harlan's World, where Kovacs was born. The character of Virginia Vidaura, the Envoy who trained Kovacs in the novel, is replaced by Quellcrist Falconer, only an historical figure in the n
BuzzFeed, Inc. is an American Internet media and entertainment company with a focus on digital media. BuzzFeed was founded in 2006 by Jonah Peretti and John S. Johnson III, to focus on tracking viral content. Kenneth Lerer, co-founder and chairman of The Huffington Post, started as a co-founder and investor in BuzzFeed and is now the executive chairman. Known for online quizzes, "listicles", pop culture articles, the company has grown into a global media and technology company, providing coverage on a variety of topics including politics, DIY, business. In late 2011, BuzzFeed hired Ben Smith of Politico as editor-in-chief, to expand the site into serious journalism, long-form journalism, reportage. After years of investment in investigative journalism, by 2018 BuzzFeed News had won the National Magazine Award and the George Polk Award, been a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize and the Michael Kelly Award. Despite BuzzFeed's entrance into serious journalism, a 2014 Pew Research Center survey found that in the United States, BuzzFeed was viewed as an unreliable source by the majority of respondents, regardless of age or political affiliation.
BuzzFeed News has since moved to its own domain rather than exist as a section of the main BuzzFeed website. Prior to establishing BuzzFeed, Peretti was director of research and development and the OpenLab at Eyebeam, Johnson's New York City-based art and technology nonprofit, where he experimented with other viral media. In 2006, while working at the Huffington Post, Peretti started BuzzFeed as a side project, in partnership with his former supervisor John Johnson. In the beginning, BuzzFeed employed no writers or editors, just an "algorithm to cull stories from around the web that were showing stirrings of virality." The site launched an instant messaging client, BuzzBot, which sent users a link to popular content. The messages were sent based on algorithms which examined the links that were being disseminated, scouring through the feeds of hundreds of blogs that were aggregating them; the site began spotlighting the most popular links that BuzzBot found. Peretti hired curators to help describe the content, popular around the web.
In 2011, Peretti hired Politico's Ben Smith, who earlier had achieved much attention as a political blogger, to assemble a news operation in addition to the many aggregated "listicles". In 2016, BuzzFeed formally separated its news and entertainment content into BuzzFeed News and the newly formed BuzzFeed Entertainment Group, which includes BuzzFeed Motion Pictures; as of 2016, BuzzFeed had correspondents from 12 countries, foreign editions in Australia, France, India, Mexico and the United Kingdom. By the end of BuzzFeed employed around 1,700 employees worldwide, although it announced plans in November of that year to lay off around 100 employees in the US, 45 in the UK, 100 in France in June 2018. On January 23, 2019, BuzzFeed notified all employees via memo that there would be an upcoming 15% reduction in workforce affecting the international, web content, news divisions of the company; the layoffs would affect 200 employees. In 2011, BuzzFeed ran more than 100 Campaigns, resulting in triple revenue from 2010.
By February 2012, BuzzFeed raised $15.5 million the few months before through social-advertising campaigns. In October 2012, BuzzFeed started running ads for the Obama campaign; this led to a huge boost in their advertising revenue. In August 2014, BuzzFeed raised $50 million from the venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz, more than doubling previous rounds of funding; the site was valued at around $850 million by Andreessen Horowitz. BuzzFeed generates its advertising revenue through native advertising that matches its editorial content, does not rely on banner ads. BuzzFeed uses its familiarity with social media to target conventional advertising through other channels, such as Facebook. In December 2014, growth equity firm General Atlantic acquired $50 million in secondary stock of the company. In August 2015, NBCUniversal made a $200 million equity investment in BuzzFeed. Along with plans to hire more journalists to build a more prominent "investigative" unit, BuzzFeed planned on hiring journalists around the world and plans to open outposts in India, Germany and Japan.
It planned on hiring staff for its UK bureau, its rapidly-expanding motion picture unit and its food-themed business, Tasty. In October 2016, BuzzFeed raised $200 million from Comcast's TV and movie arm NBCUniversal, at a valuation of $1.7 billion. Altogether and its NBCUniversal subsidiary own about a third of BuzzFeed. BuzzFeed has said. In 2019, despite earning nearly 300 million dollars during the past year, they have laid off 200 members of its staff. BuzzFeed's first acquisition was in 2012 when the company purchased Kingfish Labs, a startup founded by Rob Fishman focused on optimizing Facebook ads. On October 28, 2014, BuzzFeed announced its next acquisition; the Torando team was to become BuzzFeed's first data engineering team. BuzzFeed produces daily content, in which the work of staff reporters, syndicated cartoon artists, its community are featured. Popular formats on the website include lists and quizzes; the style of such content inspired the parody website ClickHole. While BuzzFeed was focused on such viral content, according to The New York Times, "it added more traditional content, building a track record for delivering breaking news and reported articles" in the years up to 2014.
In that year, BuzzFeed deleted over 4000 early posts, "apparen
Avatar (2009 film)
Avatar is a 2009 American epic science fiction film directed, produced, co-edited by James Cameron, stars Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, Michelle Rodriguez, Sigourney Weaver. Film's title is based on Sanskrit word Avatar; the film is set in the mid-22nd century, when humans are colonizing Pandora, a lush habitable moon of a gas giant in the Alpha Centauri star system, in order to mine the mineral unobtanium, a room-temperature superconductor. The expansion of the mining colony threatens the continued existence of a local tribe of Na'vi – a humanoid species indigenous to Pandora; the film's title refers to a genetically engineered Na'vi body operated from the brain of a remotely located human, used to interact with the natives of Pandora. Development of Avatar began in 1994. Filming was supposed to take place after the completion of Cameron's 1997 film Titanic, for a planned release in 1999, according to Cameron, the necessary technology was not yet available to achieve his vision of the film.
Work on the language of the film's extraterrestrial beings began in 2005, Cameron began developing the screenplay and fictional universe in early 2006. Avatar was budgeted at $237 million. Other estimates put the cost between $280 million and $310 million for production and at $150 million for promotion; the film made extensive use of new motion capture filming techniques, was released for traditional viewing, 3D viewing, for "4D" experiences in select South Korean theaters. The stereoscopic filmmaking was touted as a breakthrough in cinematic technology. Avatar premiered in London on December 10, 2009, was internationally released on December 16 and in the United States and Canada on December 18, to positive critical reviews, with critics praising its groundbreaking visual effects. During its theatrical run, the film broke several box office records and became the highest-grossing film of all time, as well as in the United States and Canada, surpassing Cameron's Titanic, which had held those records for twelve years.
It became the first film to gross more than $2 billion and the best-selling film of 2010 in the United States. Avatar was nominated for nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director, won three, for Best Art Direction, Best Cinematography and Best Visual Effects. Following the film's success, Cameron signed with 20th Century Fox to produce four sequels: Avatar 2 and Avatar 3 are filming, will be released on December 18, 2020, December 17, 2021, respectively. Several cast members are expected to return, including Worthington, Saldana and Weaver. In 2154, humans have depleted Earth's natural resources; the Resources Development Administration mines for a valuable mineral — unobtanium — on Pandora, a densely forested habitable moon orbiting the gas giant Polyphemus in the Alpha Centauri star system. Pandora, whose atmosphere is poisonous to humans, is inhabited by the Na'vi, a species of 10-foot tall, blue-skinned, sapient humanoids that live in harmony with nature and worship a mother goddess named Eywa.
To explore Pandora's biosphere, scientists use Na'vi-human hybrids called "avatars", operated by genetically matched humans. Dr. Grace Augustine, head of the Avatar Program, considers Sully an inadequate replacement but accepts his assignment as a bodyguard. While protecting the avatars of Grace and fellow scientist Dr. Norm Spellman as they collect biological data, Jake's avatar is attacked by a thanator and flees into the forest, where he is rescued by Neytiri, a female Na'vi. Witnessing an auspicious sign, she takes him to her clan, whereupon Neytiri's mother Mo'at, the clan's spiritual leader, orders her daughter to initiate Jake into their society. Colonel Miles Quaritch, head of RDA's private security force, promises Jake that the company will restore his legs if he gathers information about the Na'vi and the clan's gathering place, a giant tree called Hometree, which stands above the richest deposit of unobtanium in the area; when Grace learns of this, she transfers herself and Norm to an outpost.
Over the following three months, Jake grows to sympathize with the natives. After Jake is initiated into the tribe, he and Neytiri choose each other as mates, soon afterward, Jake reveals his change of allegiance when he attempts to disable a bulldozer that threatens to destroy a sacred Na'vi site; when Quaritch shows a video recording of Jake's attack on the bulldozer to Administrator Parker Selfridge, another in which Jake admits that the Na'vi will never abandon Hometree, Selfridge orders Hometree destroyed. Despite Grace's argument that destroying Hometree could damage the biological neural network native to Pandora, Selfridge gives Jake and Grace one hour to convince the Na'vi to evacuate before commencing the attack. While trying to warn the Na'vi, Jake confesses to being a spy, the Na'vi take him and Grace captive. Seeing this, Quaritch's men destroy Hometree. Mo'at frees Jake and Grace, but they are detached from their avatars and imprisoned by Quaritch's forces. Pilot Trudy Chacón, disgusted by Quaritch's brutality, frees Jake and Norm, airlifts them to Grace's outpost, but during the escape Quaritch fires at them, hitting Grace.
To regain the Na'vi's trust, Jake connects his mind to that of Toruk, a dragon-like predator
Greek Americans are Americans of full or partial Greek ancestry. About 1.3 million Americans are of Greek descent, although there are estimates that raise this number to 3 million, 321,144 people older than five spoke Greek at home in 2010. Greek Americans have the highest concentrations in the New York City and Chicago regions, but have settled in major metropolitan areas across the United States. In 2000, Tarpon Springs, Florida was home to the highest per capita representation of Greek Americans in the country; the United States is home to the largest Greek community outside of Greece, ahead of Australia, Albania, Canada and the United Kingdom. The first Greek known to have been to what is now the United States was Don Theodoro, a sailor who landed on Florida with the Narváez expedition in 1528, he died during the expedition. In 1592, Greek captain Juan de Fuca sailed up the Pacific coast under the Spanish flag, in search of the fabled Northwest Passage between the Pacific and the Atlantic.
He reported discovering a body of water, a strait which today bears his name: the Strait of Juan de Fuca, which today forms part of the Canada–United States border. About 500 Greeks from Smyrna and Mani settled in New Smyrna Beach, Florida in 1768; the colony was unsuccessful, the settlers moved to St. Augustine in 1776; the St Photios Greek Chapel exists as a remnant of their presence, is believed to be the oldest still standing Greek Orthodox religious structure in the United States. The first significant Greek community to develop was in Louisiana during the 1850s. By 1866, the community was numerous and prosperous enough to have a Greek consulate and the first official Greek Orthodox Church in the United States. During that period, most Greek immigrants to the New World came from Asia Minor and those Aegean Islands still under Ottoman rule. By 1890, there were 15,000 Greeks living in the U. S. Immigration picked up again in the 1890s and early 20th century, due to economic opportunity in the U.
S. displacement caused by the hardships of Ottoman rule, the Balkan Wars, World War I. Most of these immigrants had come from southern Greece from the Peloponnesian provinces of Laconia and Arcadia. 450,000 Greeks arrived to the States between 1890 and 1917, most working in the cities of the northeastern United States. Each wave of immigration contributed to the growth of Hellenism in the U. S. Greek immigration at this time was over 90% male, contrasted with most other European immigration to the U. S. such as Italian and Irish immigration, which averaged 50% to 60% male. Many Greek immigrants expected to work and return to their homeland after earning capital and dowries for their families. However, the loss of their homeland due to the Greek Genocide and the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey, which displaced 1,500,000 Greeks from Anatolia, Eastern Thrace, Pontus caused the initial economic immigrants to reside permanently in America; the Greeks were de jure denaturalized from their homelands and lost the right to return, their families were made refugees.
Additionally, the first implemented U. S. immigration limits against non Western European immigrants were made in 1924, creating an impetus for immigrants to apply for citizenship, bring their families and permanently settle in the U. S. Fewer than 30,000 Greek immigrants arrived in the U. S. between 1925 and 1945, most of whom were "picture brides" for single Greek men and family members coming over to join relatives. The events of the early 1920s provided the stimulus for the first permanent national Greek American religious and civic organizations. Greeks again began to arrive in large numbers after 1945, fleeing the economic devastation caused by World War II and the Greek Civil War. From 1946 until 1982 211,000 Greeks emigrated to the United States; these immigrants were less influenced by the powerful assimilation pressures of the 1920s and 1930s and revitalized Greek American identity in areas such as Greek-language media. Greek immigrants founded more than 600 diners in the New York metropolitan area in the 1950s through the 1970s.
Immigration to the United States from Greece peaked between the 1950s and 1970. After the 1981 admission of Greece to the European Union, annual U. S. immigration numbers fell to less than 2,000. In recent years, Greek immigration to the United States has been minimal. Over 72,000 U. S. citizens live in Greece. The predominant religion among Greeks and Greek Americans is Greek Orthodox Christianity. There are a number of Americans who descend from Greece's smaller Sephardic and Romaniote Jewish communities. In the aftermath of the Greek financial crisis, there has been a resurgence of Greek emigration to New York City since 2010, accelerating in 2015, centered upon the traditional Greek enclave of Astoria, Queens. According to The New York Times, this new wave of Greek migration to New York is not being driven as much by opportunities in New York as it is by a lack of economic options in Greece itself. Population by state according to the 2011-2015 American Community Survey. New York – 148,637 California – 133,680 Illinois – 98,509 Florida – 90,347 Massachusetts – 83,701 New Jersey – 63,940 Pennsylvania – 62,167 Ohio – 54,614 Texas – 47,622 Michigan – 42,711 Maryland – 33,733 Virginia – 33,062 Connecticut – 30,304 North Carolina – 26,877 Washington – 25,665 Indiana – 23,993 Arizona – 21,742 Color