Endurance riding is an equestrian sport based on controlled long-distance races. It is one of the international competitions recognized by the FEI. There are endurance rides worldwide. Endurance rides can be any distance, though they are over 160 km for a one-day competition. There are two main types of competitive trail riding and endurance rides. In an endurance ride, discussed in this article, the winning horse is the first one to cross the finish line while stopping periodically to pass a veterinary check that deems the animal in good health and fit to continue; as with human marathon running, many riders will participate to improve their horse's personal best performance and consider finishing the distance with a proper vet completion record to be a "win". In the United States, most endurance rides are either 100 miles long. Shorter rides, called Limited Distance rides, are organized for new riders to the sport or young horses being trained. However, LD's have evolved into a competition of their own, in which more experienced riders and horses participate.
There are longer multi-day, rides as well. In the US, the American Endurance Ride Conference sanctions endurance rides. In the UK, Endurance GB is the governing body. Winning riders can complete 100-mile rides in 14 to 15 hours. Any breed can compete, but the Arabian dominates the top levels because of the breed's stamina and natural endurance abilities. Though the need to ride long distances has existed since the domestication of the horse, endurance riding as an organized activity was first developed in the United States based on European cavalry and breeding program tests requiring the ability to carry 300 lb over 100 miles in one day. Organized endurance riding as a formal sport began in 1955, when Wendell Robie and a group of equestrians rode from the Lake Tahoe area across the Sierra Nevada Range to Auburn in under 24 hours, they followed the historic Western States Trail. This ride soon became known as the Tevis Cup, it remains the most difficult of any 100-mile ride in the world because of the severe terrain, high altitude, 100-degree temperatures.
Endurance riding first was brought to Europe in the 1960s. Before the ride, horses are inspected by a veterinarian to ensure they are fit to perform in the ride. Riders may be given a map or GPS waypoints for the course, which shows the route, the places for compulsory halts, any natural obstacles; the trails are marked with colored surveyor's tape ribbons at regular intervals with additional ribbons or small arrow markers at turns in the trail. The ride is divided with different names, depending on sanctioning organization. After each section, horses are stopped for a veterinary inspection, where they are checked for soundness and dehydration, with their pulse and respiration taken. To continue the ride, the horse must pass the examination, including reducing its heart rate below that specified for the event 64 bpm, although terrain and weather may require the ride veterinarians to set a different maximum target; the riders' time keeps running until their horses reach the required target, so it is important that the horses recover as soon as possible.
Any horse deemed unfit to continue is eliminated from further competition. After the veterinary inspection, the horse must be held for an additional hold time, at which time it is fed and watered. If the veterinary inspection is on the course rather than at base camp, ride management delivers to the inspection location a cache of riders' personal gear and water. While riders may compete without additional aid, sometimes referred to as riding cavalry, many riders have a designated crew to assist them during veterinary checks. In upper level competition this is important to efficiently prepare the horse for the vet as well as care of both horse and rider during the mandatory hold times. A good crew allows the rider a brief respite and time to concentrate all energies on the strategy and demands of the trail itself. Riders are free to choose their pace during the competition, adjusting to the terrain and their mount's condition. Therefore, they must have a great knowledge of pace, knowing when to slow down or speed up during the ride, as well as a great knowledge of their horse's condition and signs of tiring.
Riders may choose to ride, or may dismount and walk or jog with their horse without penalty. However, in FEI, they must finish lines. AERC riders have no requirement for being mounted at any point before, after the ride; the terrain riders compete over varies from ride to ride. Natural obstacles, are marked on the trails. In some areas, wilderness or undeveloped areas are difficult to find. Under the rules of the FEI and AERC, the first horse to cross the line and pass the vet check as "fit to continue" is the winner. Under the rules of competitive trail riding and the endurance rules in some nations, as well as for limited-distance endurance rides, the winner is determined by a combination of speed and the recovery rate of the horse or by a required standard. Additional awards are given to the best-conditioned horses who finish in the top 10 for distances of 50 miles or more; the Best
Classical dressage evolved from cavalry movements and training for the battlefield, has since developed into the competitive dressage seen today. Classical riding is the art of riding in the horse. Correct classical riding only occurs when the rider has a good seat and a correct and well-balanced body position, moves with the horse's motion, applies and times the aids correctly; the origins of classical dressage and collection lie in the natural ability of the horse and its movements in the wild. In fact, most modern definitions of dressage state that the goal is to have the horse perform under saddle with the degree of athleticism and grace that it shows when free. Horses use collection when playing, fighting and courting with each other; when trying to impress other horses, they make. They achieve this by lifting the forehand, raising the neck and making it bigger by flexing the poll, while at the same time transforming their gaits to emphasize more upwards movement; when fighting, the horse will collect because in collection he can produce lightning speed reactions for kicking, spinning, striking with the front feet and jumping.
This natural ability to collect is visible in every horse of any breed, inspired early trainers to reproduce that kind of behavior in more controlled circumstances. This origin points out why, according to most Classical dressage trainers, every healthy horse, regardless of its breed, can perform classical dressage movements, including the Haute Ecole jumps, or Airs above the ground though it may perform them a little differently from the ideal performance due to the build of its body; the ultimate goal of dressage training is to develop a horse to its ability as an athlete: maximum performance with a minimum of effort. The training scale is to physically develop the horse in a consistent manner with longevity in mind. Dressage is fitness training and needs to be treated as such, with thought and patience; the Western World's earliest complete surviving work on many of the principles of classical dressage is Xenophon's On Horsemanship. Xenophon emphasized training the horse through reward. In the 15th century, brute force training fell out of favour, while artistry in riding came to the fore.
Along with these developments came an increase in indoor riding. The Renaissance gave rise to a new and more enlightened approach to riding, as a part of the general cultivation of the classical arts. By the Victorian age, indoor riding had become a sophisticated art, with both rider and horse spending many years perfecting their form. Gueriniere, Ruy d'Andrade and Marialva wrote treatises on technique and theory during these periods; the horses were trained to perform a number of airs above the ground movements, which could enable their riders to escape if surrounded, or to fight more easily. These included movements such as levade, capriole and ballotade. Movements still seen today in competitive dressage include the piaffe and half-pass. Modern, or competitive, dressage evolved from the classical school, although it now exists in a somewhat different form from its ancestor. Competitive dressage is an international sport ranging from beginner levels to the Olympics. Unlike classical dressage, competitive dressage does not require the airs above ground, which most horses cannot perform well with correct training, due to physical limitations.
Instead, competitive dressage focuses on movements such as the piaffe, half-pass, extended trot and tempi changes. In theory, competitive dressage should follow the same principles as classical dressage. However, there has been criticism by some riders for the trend at all levels for "quick fixes" and incorrect training that makes the horse appear correct, but, in fact neglecting the fundamentals. Classical riders criticize such training methods on the grounds that they are biomechanically incompatible with correct movement, are painful to the horse, cause long-term physical damage; these short-cuts catch up to the rider as they move up the levels and need to be corrected to perform certain movements. While these modern methods, such as the controversial rollkur technique, can produce winning animals, classical dressage riders argue that such training is incorrect and abusive, it is believed by some that competitive dressage does not always reward the most trained horse and rider at the lower levels.
For example, some riders who consider themselves to be training classically would not ask their horse to hold his head near-vertical when he first began training, this would be penalized at the lower levels of competitive dressage, marked down because the horse is not considered to be on the bit. Other riders, who would consider themselves classically trained, would disagree, saying that if a horse is not ready to travel in a correct outline he is not ready for competition, this is the reason such horses would be marked down; the highest form of classical riding, as well as dressage, high school dressage, or haute école, takes years for both the horse and rider to master. When a horse is advanced in its training, it can perform not only Grand Prix dressage movements such as collected and extended gaits and piaffe, but some can perform certain "Airs Above the Ground," although a horse will only be trained in one air, only if it is able; the "high school" or haute ecole school jumps, popularly known as the "airs above the ground", include the courbette, capriole and ballotade.
Show jumping known as "stadium jumping", "open jumping", or "jumping", is a part of a group of English riding equestrian events that includes dressage, eventing and equitation. Jumping classes are seen at horse shows throughout the world, including the Olympics. Sometimes shows are limited to jumpers, sometimes jumper classes are offered in conjunction with other English-style events, sometimes show jumping is but one division of large, all-breed competitions that include a wide variety of disciplines. Jumping classes may be governed by various national horse show sanctioning organizations, such as the United States Equestrian Federation in the USA or the British Showjumping Association in Great Britain. International competitions are governed by the rules of the International Federation for Equestrian Sports. Show jumping events have jumper classes and hunt seat equitation classes. Hunters are judged subjectively on the degree to which they meet an ideal standard of manners and way of going.
Conversely, jumper classes are scored objectively, based on a numerical score determined only by whether the horse attempts the obstacle, clears it, finishes the course in the allotted time. Jumper courses tend to be much more complex and technical than hunter courses because riders and horses are not being judged on style. Courses are colorful and at times, quite creatively designed. Hunters have meticulous turnout and tend toward quiet, conservative horse tack and rider attire. Hunter bits, crops and martingales are regulated. Jumpers, while caring for their horses and grooming them well, are not scored on turnout, are allowed a wider range of equipment, may wear less conservative attire, so long as it stays within the rules. Formal turnout always is preferred. In addition to hunters and jumpers, there are equitation classes, sometimes called hunt seat equitation, which judges the ability of the rider; the equipment and fence styles used in equitation more resemble hunter classes, although the technical difficulty of the courses may more resemble jumping events.
Jumper classes are held over a course of show jumping obstacles, including verticals and double and triple combinations with many turns and changes of direction. The intent is to jump cleanly over a set course within an allotted time. Time faults are assessed for exceeding the time allowance. Jumping faults are incurred for blatant disobedience, such as refusals. Horses are allowed a limited number of refusals before being disqualified. A refusal may lead to a rider exceeding the time allowed on course. Placings are based on "faults" accumulated. A horse and rider who have not accumulated any jumping faults or penalty points are said to have scored a "clear round". Tied entries have a jump-off over a raised and shortened course, the course is timed. In most competitions, riders are allowed to walk the initial course but not the jump-off course before competition to plan their ride. Walking the course before the event is a chance for the rider to walk the lines he or she will have to ride, in order to decide how many strides the horse will need to take between each jump and from which angle.
Going off course will cost time if minor errors are made and major departures will result in disqualification. The higher levels of competition, such as "A" or "AA" rated shows in the United States, or the international "Grand Prix" circuit, present more technical and complex courses. Not only is the height and width of an obstacle increased to present a greater challenge, technical difficulty increases with tighter turns and shorter or unusual distances between fences. Horses sometimes have to jump fences from an angle rather than straight on. For example, a course designer might set up a line so that there are six and a half strides between the jumps, requiring the rider to adjust the horse's stride in order to make the distance. Unlike show hunter classes, which reward calmness and style, jumper classes require boldness, power and control; the first round of the class consists of the rider and horse having to go around the course without refusing or knocking down any jumps while staying within the time allowed.
If the horse/rider combination completes the first round then they move on to the second round, called the "jump-off". In a jump-off, the rider needs to plan ahead of time because they need to be speedy and not have any faults; the jump-off has fewer jumps than the first round but is much more difficult. To win this round, the rider has to be the quickest while still not refusing or knocking down any jumps. Show jumping is a new equestrian sport; until the Inclosure Acts, which came into force in England in the 18th century, there had been little need for horses to jump fences but with this act of Parliament came new challenges for those who followed fox hounds. The Inclosure Acts brought fencing and boundaries to many parts of the country as common ground was dispersed amongst separate owners; this meant that those wishing to pursue their sport
Eventing is an equestrian event where a single horse and rider combine and compete against other combinations across the three disciplines of dressage, cross-country, show jumping. This event has its roots in a comprehensive cavalry test that required mastery of several types of riding; the competition may be run as a one-day event, where all three events are completed in one day or a three-day event, more now run over four days, with dressage on the first two days, followed by cross-country the next day and show jumping in reverse order on the final day. Eventing was known as Combined Training, the name persists in many smaller organizations; the term "Combined Training" is sometimes confused with the term "Combined Test", which refers to a combination of just two of the phases, most dressage and show jumping. Eventing is an equestrian triathlon, in that it combines three different disciplines in one competition set out over one, two, or three days, depending on the length of courses and number of entries.
This sport follows a similar format in Australia, Ireland, United Kingdom and the United States The dressage phase consists of an exact sequence of movements ridden in an enclosed arena. The test is judged by one or more judges, who are looking for balance, rhythm and most the cooperation between the horse and rider; the challenge is to demonstrate that a supremely fit horse, capable of completing the cross-country phase on time has the training to perform in a graceful and precise manner. Dressage work is the basis of all the other phases and disciplines within the sport of eventing because it develops the strength and balance that allow a horse to go cross-country and show jump competently. At the highest level of competition, the dressage test is equivalent to the United States Dressage Federation Third Level and may ask for half-pass at trot, shoulder-in, collected and extended gaits, single flying changes, counter-canter; the tests may not ask for Grand Prix movements such as canter pirouette, or passage.
Each movement in the test is scored on a scale from 0 to 10, with a score of "10" being the highest possible mark and with the total maximum score for the test varying depending on the level of competition and the number of movements. A score of 10 is rare. Therefore, if one movement is poorly executed, it is still possible for the rider to get a good overall score if the remaining movements are well executed; the marks are added together and any errors of course deducted. To convert this score to penalty points, the average marks of all judges are converted to a percentage of the maximum possible score, subtracted from 100 and the multiplied by a co-efficient decided by the governing body. Canadian example: 77 percent becomes 34.5 penalty points or x 1.5 = 34.5 Once the bell rings the rider is allowed 45 seconds to enter the ring or receive a two-point penalty an additional 45 seconds, for a total of 90 seconds, or is eliminated. If all four feet of the horse exit the arena during the test, this results in elimination.
If the horse resists more than 20 seconds during the test, this results in elimination. If the rider falls, this results in elimination. Errors on course: 1st: minus 2 marks 2nd: minus 4 marks 3rd: elimination The next phase, cross-country, requires both horse and rider to be in excellent physical shape and to be brave and trusting of each other; this phase consists of 12–20 fences, or 30–40 at the higher levels, placed on a long outdoor circuit. These fences consist of solidly built natural objects as well as various obstacles such as ponds and streams, ditches and banks, combinations including several jumping efforts based on objects that would occur in the countryside. Sometimes at higher levels, fences are designed that would not occur in nature. However, these are still designed to be as solid as more natural obstacles. Safety regulations mean that some obstacles are now being built with a "frangible pin system", allowing part or all of the jump to collapse if hit with enough impact. Speed is a factor, with the rider required to cross the finish line within a certain time frame.
Crossing the finish line after the optimum time results in penalties for each second over. At lower levels, there is a speed fault time, where penalties are incurred for horse and rider pairs completing the course too quickly. For every "disobedience" a horse and rider incur on course, penalties will be added to their dressage score. After four disobediences altogether or three disobediences at one fence the pair is eliminated, meaning they can no longer participate in the competition. A horse and rider pair can be eliminated for going off course, for example missing a fence. If the horses shoulder and hind-quarter touch the ground, mandatory retirement is taken and they are not allowed to participate further in the competition. If the rider falls off the horse they are eliminated. However, in the US this rule is being revised for the Novice level and below; the penalties for disobediences on cross-country are weighted relative to the other phases of competition to emphasize the importance of courage and athleticism.
Fitness is required as the time allowed will require a strong canter at the lower levels, all the way to a strong gallop at the higher events. In recent years, a controversy has developed between supporters of sho
Equestrianism, more known as horse riding or horseback riding, refers to the skill and sport of riding, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, competitive sport. Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes, such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch, they are used in competitive sports including, but not limited to, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing and rodeo. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows where horses perform in a wide variety of disciplines. Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding, or hacking. There is public access to horse trails in every part of the world. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes both in specialized para-equestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve human health and emotional development.
Horses are driven in harness racing, at horse shows, in other types of exhibition such as historical reenactment or ceremony pulling carriages. In some parts of the world, they are still used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in public service: in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols and for mounted search and rescue. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding. Though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests. There is some evidence that about 3,000 BC, near the Dnieper River and the Don River, people were using bits on horses, as a stallion, buried there shows teeth wear consistent with using a bit. However, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct hard evidence of horses used as working animals.
In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as heavy cavalry. The horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses died out at the end of the Ice Age. Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493. Equestrianism was introduced in the 1900 Summer Olympics as an Olympic sport with jumping events. Humans appear to have long expressed a desire to know which horse or horses were the fastest, horse racing has ancient roots. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a long history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide. In the UK, it is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom. In the USA, horse racing is governed by The Jockey Club.
Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses jump over obstacles. It is most common in the UK, where it is called National Hunt racing. American Quarter Horse racing—races over distances of a quarter-mile. Seen in the United States, sanctioned by the American Quarter Horse Association. Arabian horses, Akhal-Teke, American Paint Horses and other light breeds are raced worldwide. Endurance riding, a sport in which the Arabian horse dominates at the top levels, has become popular in the United States and in Europe; the Federation Equestre International governs international races, the American Endurance Ride Conference organizes the sport in North America. Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an start. Races are 50 to 100 miles, over mountainous or other natural terrain, with scheduled stops to take the horses' vital signs, check soundness and verify that the horse is fit to continue; the first horse to finish and be confirmed by the veterinarian as fit to continue is the winner.
Additional awards are given to the best-conditioned horses who finish in the top 10. Limited distance rides of about 25–20 miles are offered to newcomers. Ride and Tie. Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: one horse; the humans alternately ride. Show jumping: Show jumping is when a horse carries a rider over an obstacle commonly known as a jump. There are multiple jumps in a show, if the horse hits or refuses a jump, points will be deducted from the rider score; this is a timed event, the rider is expected to complete the course in a certain amount of time, without error. There are the hunter divisions. In the hunters, riders have to make their horses look good; the judges look at the quality of the course, if there are two or more riders who had put down amazing courses the judge or judges looks at how the horse looks and acts with the rider. In harness: Both light and heavy breeds as well as ponies are raced in harness with a sulk
Combined driving is an equestrian sport involving carriage driving. In this discipline, the driver sits on a vehicle drawn by a pair or a team of four; the sport has three phases: dressage, cross-country marathon and obstacle cone driving, is most similar to the mounted equestrian sport of eventing. It is one of the ten international equestrian sport horse disciplines recognized by the Fédération Équestre Internationale; the FEI classification system denotes driving competitions as Concours d'Attelage, which may be either National or International. A National Event is limited to competitors of that nation, who shall take part according to the regulations of their National Federation. Foreign athletes may take part by invitation. An International Event must be organised under the FEI Statutes, General Regulations and Sport Rules, may be open to competitors of all NFs. CAIs are for individual athletes. However, at World Championships, competitions for national teams of three or four members run concurrently with the individual competition.
There are two categories of international competitions – CAI-A and CAI-B. The CAI-A category denotes, it is assumed that a CA classified competition is for horses. If pony classes are involved, the letter P is added to the classification. Numbers denote the arrangement of horses in the class. World championships are denoted as Championnat du Monde Attelage. There are three World Championships for horses – Singles and Four-in-Hand; these are held every two years, with Single Horse and Four-in-Hand Championships in an even-numbered year and Horse Pairs every odd year. In addition, a World Combined Pony Championships are held every odd-numbered year. FEI World Cup Driving, is a series of competitions for four-in-hand horse teams. Introduced in 2001, it provides an exciting style of competition which takes place in an indoor arena; the course combines cone driving obstacles. Five or six drivers, each with a team of four horses take turns to drive the course against the clock. World Cup Driving events are take place throughout the winter months.
Competitions for drivers with disabilities are classified as CPEAI and the championships are held in every odd-numbered year. At the National level the sport is governed by each country's National Federation, sometimes through a governing body, which will have rules based on the FEI Rulebook, but maybe with some variations. Most countries hold their own National Championships. Most people will start driving by joining a local organisation or club, who organise training sessions and one- or two-day competitions. Keen drivers can qualify to take part in national events from which they may put themselves forward to be selected to represent their country at international competitions or World Championships; because a driver always needs a groom, it's possible to take part as such and to enjoy the competition as much as the driver. Phase A is further sub-divided into two sections:A1 is Presentation. For newcomer or novice classes, this is inspected and marked by a judge at a stand-still before the second part of the competition.
A2 is Driven Dressage. For more advanced classes, phase A1 is incorporated into the marking of phase A2 and is judged on the move as part of the driven dressage test; the judge grades on the turnout, cleanliness, general condition and impression of the horses and vehicle, the matching of the horses or ponies, the dress of the driver and groom. The judging is done at the halt. Pre-novice and novice drivers are judged on safety and fit of the harness and vehicle and a three-phase or marathon vehicle and harness is acceptable. Presentation is judged on the move during the dressage test for more advanced drivers. Presentation carries a maximum of ten penalties. Driver and Passengers: All persons should be clean and smartly dressed; the livery of the grooms should match if there is more than one groom. The whip should be the correct length, based on the number of horses used; the driver and groom should wear brown gloves, as well as a driving hat and the driver wears an apron. Horse: The horses should be clean and well-conditioned.
If there are several horses, they should be of similar size and type, although the wheelers may be larger than the leaders. Matching color is secondary to matching size. Manes may not be braided, but should be level. Tails should not be braided. Harness: Should be "sound and fit correctly". Harness, if more than one horse is used, should match; the overall harness should match. Martingales other than false martingales are not permitted. Harness straps should not be buckled on the last hole, so that adjustment may be made should a piece of harness break. Vehicle: carriage should be the correct size and weight for the horse, as should the height and length of the poles for pairs and fours. Lamps are required at the advanced level, but only required at the training and intermediate levels if the carriage has lamp brackets. A set of spares should be carried on the vehicle in case of emergency: a spare trace of the correct size, a rein splice, a hole punch and similar items are traditionally included.
These may be inspected by the judge and the gro
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, make reports; the information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called reporting, in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers and visual journalists, such as photojournalists.
Journalism has developed a variety of standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are of primary concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint; this has become more prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions and policies. These platforms project extreme bias, as "sources" are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, televised, or otherwise "published" end product. Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on science communication, has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a public intellectual who, like Walter Lippmann, David Brooks, Fareed Zakaria, Naomi Klein, Michael Pollan, Thomas Friedman, Andrew Revkin, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to information to research themselves communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.
In his best-known books, Public Opinion and The Phantom Public, Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights; these limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints, prejudices. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was important.” In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026. Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press.
Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment; the "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are higher; the ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Cuba and Sudan. Apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically; this applies to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is needed.
However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far. The Newseum in Washington, D. C. is home to the Journalists Memorial, which lists the names of over 2,100 journalists from around the world who were killed in the line of duty. The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, a source can sometimes impact the direction of the article written by the journalist; the article'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor'The Tango' to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source leads but journalists object to this notion for two reasons: It signals source supremacy in news making, it offends journalists' professional culture, which emphasizes editorial autonomy. This dance metaphor helps showcase consensus within the relationship but the article describe the common relation between the two "A relationship with sources, too cozy is compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive.
Journalists have favored a