1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, known in the United States as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War, commanding American troops in several battles, including the Siege of Yorktown. After returning to France, he was a key figure in the French Revolution of 1789 and the July Revolution of 1830. Lafayette was born into a wealthy land-owning family in Chavaniac in the province of Auvergne in south central France, he followed the family's martial tradition and was commissioned an officer at age 13. He became convinced that the American cause was noble in its revolutionary war, he traveled to the New World seeking glory in it, he was made a major general at age 19, but he was not given American troops to command. He was wounded during the Battle of Brandywine but still managed to organize an orderly retreat, he served with distinction in the Battle of Rhode Island. In the middle of the war, he sailed for home to lobby for an increase in French support.
He was given senior positions in the Continental Army. In 1781, troops under his command in Virginia blocked forces led by Cornwallis until other American and French forces could position themselves for the decisive Siege of Yorktown. Lafayette returned to France and was appointed to the Assembly of Notables in 1787, convened in response to the fiscal crisis, he was elected a member of the Estates General of 1789, where representatives met from the three traditional orders of French society: the clergy, the nobility, the commoners. After forming the National Constituent Assembly, he helped to write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen with Thomas Jefferson's assistance; this document was inspired by the United States Declaration of Independence and invoked natural law to establish basic principles of the democratic nation-state. He advocated the end of slavery, in keeping with the philosophy of natural liberty. After the storming of the Bastille, he was appointed commander-in-chief of France's National Guard and tried to steer a middle course through the years of revolution.
In August 1792, radical factions ordered his arrest, he fled into the Austrian Netherlands. He was spent more than five years in prison. Lafayette returned to France after Napoleon Bonaparte secured his release in 1797, though he refused to participate in Napoleon's government. After the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, he became a liberal member of the Chamber of Deputies, a position that he held for most of the remainder of his life. In 1824, President James Monroe invited him to the United States as the nation's guest, he visited all 24 states in the union and met a rapturous reception. During France's July Revolution of 1830, he declined an offer to become the French dictator. Instead, he supported Louis-Philippe as king, but turned against him when the monarch became autocratic, he is buried in Picpus Cemetery in Paris, under soil from Bunker Hill. He is sometimes known as "The Hero of the Two Worlds" for his accomplishments in the service of both France and the United States. Lafayette was born on 6 September 1757 to Michel Louis Christophe Roch Gilbert Paulette du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette, colonel of grenadiers, Marie Louise Jolie de La Rivière, at the château de Chavaniac, in Chavaniac-Lafayette, near Le Puy-en-Velay, in the province of Auvergne.
Lafayette's lineage was one of the oldest and most distinguished in Auvergne and in all of France. Males of the Lafayette family enjoyed a reputation for courage and chivalry and were noted for their contempt for danger. One of Lafayette's early ancestors, Gilbert de Lafayette III, a Marshal of France, had been a companion-at-arms of Joan of Arc's army during the Siege of Orléans in 1429. According to legend, another ancestor acquired the crown of thorns during the Sixth Crusade, his non-Lafayette ancestors are notable. Lafayette's paternal uncle Jacques-Roch died on 18 January 1734 while fighting the Austrians at Milan in the War of the Polish Succession. Lafayette's father died on the battlefield. On 1 August 1759, Michel de Lafayette was struck by a cannonball while fighting a British-led coalition at the Battle of Minden in Westphalia. Lafayette became marquis and Lord of Chavaniac. Devastated by the loss of her husband, she went to live in Paris with her father and grandfather, leaving Lafayette to be raised in Chavaniac-Lafayette by his paternal grandmother, Mme de Chavaniac, who had brought the château into the family with her dowry.
In 1768, when Lafayette was 11, he was summoned to Paris to live with his mother and great-grandfather at the comte's apartments in Luxembourg Palace. The boy was sent to school at the Collège du Plessis, part of the University of Paris, it was decided that he would carry on the family martial tradition; the comte, the boy's great-grandfather, enrolled the boy in a program to train future Musketeers. Lafayette's mother and great-grandfather died, on 3 and 24 April 1770 leaving Lafayette an income of 25,000 livres. Upon the death of an uncle, the 12-year-old Lafayette inherited a handsome yearly income of 120,000 livres. In May 1771, aged less than 14, Lafayette was commissioned an officer in the Musketeers, with the rank of sous-lieutenant, his duties, which included marching in military parades and pr
Arkansas Highway 29
Arkansas Highway 29 is a state highway that extends 77.2 miles in South Arkansas. It runs north from the Louisiana state line to its terminus at AR 301 in Antoine, it is intersected by many major thoroughfares including Interstate 30. Part of the highway is known as Bill Clinton Drive. Maintained by the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department the route begins at Louisiana Highway 3 at the Louisiana state line, it runs north parallel to the Union Pacific tracks, intersecting AR 160 in Bradley and US 82 in Lewisville. The route runs for 33.8 miles in Lafayette County before continuing north into Hempstead County. The route has multiple important junctions in Hope; the route meets US 67, US 278, US 371, Interstate 30 in Hope. The route runs around Hope as Bill Clinton Drive. AR 29 runs for 41.3 miles in Hempstead County. In Nevada County, the route begins a concurrency with AR 19; the route runs for 3.7 miles in Nevada County before entering Pike County. AR 29 meets AR 301, before terminating at that same route in Antoine.
The 6.7 miles in Pike County makes the total route length 77.2 miles. The route terminated at Blevins in 1947. Arkansas Highway 29 Business is a 3.0-mile-long business route in Hope. It passes the Missouri Pacific Railroad Depot-Hope and the Ethridge House, both on the National Register of Historic Places; the route was designated after 1962. List of state highways in Arkansas Media related to Arkansas Highway 29 at Wikimedia Commons
Bossier Parish, Louisiana
Bossier Parish is a parish located in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 116,979; the parish seat is Benton. The principal city is Bossier City, located east of the Red River and across from the larger city of Shreveport, the seat of Caddo Parish; the parish was formed in 1843 from the western portion of Claiborne Parish. Bossier Parish is part of the Shreveport–Bossier City Metropolitan Statistical Area. Lake Bistineau and Lake Bistineau State Park are included in parts of Bossier and neighboring Webster and Bienville parishes. Loggy Bayou flows south from Lake Bistineau in southern Bossier Parish, traverses western Bienville Parish, in Red River Parish joins the Red River. Bossier Parish is named for Pierre Bossier, an ethnic French, 19th-century Louisiana state senator and U. S. representative from Natchitoches Parish. Bossier Parish was spared fighting on its soil during the American Civil War. In July 1861, at the start of the war, the Bossier Parish Police Jury appropriated $35,000 for the benefit of Confederate volunteers and their family members left behind, an amount considered generous.
After the war, whites used violence and intimidation to maintain dominance over the newly emancipated freedmen. From the end of Reconstruction into the 20th century, violence increased as conservative white Democrats struggled to maintain power over the state. In this period, Bossier Parish had 26 lynchings of African Americans by whites, part of racial terrorism; this was the fifth-highest total of any parish in Louisiana, tied with the total in Iberia Parish in the South of the state. Overall, parishes in northwest Louisiana had the highest rates of lynchings. Bossier Parish is governed by the Bossier Parish Police Jury. Members are elected from single-member districts. Eddy Shell, a prominent Bossier City educator, was re-elected, serving on the police jury from 1992 until his death in 2008; the current members of the police jury are: District 1 - Hank Meachum District 2 - Glenn Benton District 3 - Wanda Bennett District 4 - Douglas Cook District 5 - Barry Butler District 6 - Rick Avery District 7 - Jimmy Cochran District 8 - J. Brad Cummings District 9 - William R. Altimus District 10 - Jerome Darby District 11 - Wayne Hammack District 12 - Paul M. "Mac" PlummerSince the late 20th century, the white majority of the parish has shifted from the Democratic to the Republican Party, as have most conservative whites in Louisiana and other Southern states.
Before this, the state was a one-party state dominated by the Democratic Party, in the period after the turn of the century when most blacks were disenfranchised in Louisiana. Bossier Parish has since reliably supported Republican candidatese in most contested US presidential elections. Since 1952, George Wallace, the former governor of Alabama who ran in 1968 on the American Independent Party ticket, is the only non-Republican to have carried Bossier Parish. In 2008, U. S. Senator John McCain of Arizona won in Bossier Parish with 32,713 votes over the Democrat Barack H. Obama of Illinois, who polled 12,703 votes. In 2012, Mitt Romney polled 34,988 votes in Bossier Parish, or 2,275 more ballots than McCain drew in 2008. President Obama trailed in Bossier Parish with 12,956 votes, or 253 more votes than he had received in 2008. In 2011, Bossier Parish elected a Republican, Julian C. Whittington, as sheriff to succeed the long-term Larry Deen, he was a Democrat and changed his registration to the Republican Party.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 867 square miles, of which 840 square miles is land and 27 square miles is water. Four miles east of Bossier City is Barksdale Air Force Base. Interstate 20 Interstate 220 Future Interstate 69 U. S. Highway 71 U. S. Highway 79 U. S. Highway 80 Louisiana Highway 2 Louisiana Highway 3 Miller County, Arkansas Lafayette County, Arkansas Webster Parish Bienville Parish Red River Parish Caddo Parish Red River National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2010, there were 116,979 people, 62,000 households, 37,500 families residing in the parish; the population density was 142 people per square mile. There were 49,000 housing units at an average density of 48 per square mile; the racial makeup of the parish was 70.66% White, 18.52% Black or African American, 0.82% Native American, 2.18% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 1.00% from other races, 1.65% from two or more races. 8.15% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 46,020 households out of which 36.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.60% were married couples living together, 14.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.30% were non-families.
22.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.09. In the parish the population was spread out with 28.00% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 30.50% from 25 to 44, 21.30% from 45 to 64, 10.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 96.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.80 males. The median income for a household in the parish was $39,203, the median income for a family was $45,542. Males had a median income of $32,305 versus $23,287 for females; the per capita income for the parish was $18,119. About 10.60% of families and 13.70% of the population were below the poverty line
Arkansas Highway 160
Highway 160 is a designation for four state highways in South Arkansas. The northernmost segment of 51.55 miles runs from Farm to Market Road 249 at the Texas state line near Bloomburg, Texas east to Highway 19 at Macedonia. A second segment of 14.73 miles runs east from Highway 57 east to Highway 7 Business in Smackover. In southern Calhoun County, Highway 160 begins at US Route 278 and runs east to US 425 in Fountain Hill. A fourth segment runs 22.73 miles east to US 65 at Chicot Junction. Highway 160 begins at State Line Avenue as Farm to Market Road 249 near Bloomburg and heads east to a junction with Highway 237 before a junction with US 71 near Doddridge; the route runs underneath Interstate 49. The route continues east, passing Gin City where it meets Highway 360, Conway Cemetery on the National Register of Historic Places, Highway 29 in Bradley. Highway 160 heads southeast around Lake Erling before forming a concurrency north with Highway 53 to Walker Creek; the route enters Columbia County near Taylor where it forms a 0.13 miles designated exception over US 371 before continuing northeast to Macedonia where it terminates at Highway 19.
Highway 160 begins at Highway 57 in Mount Holly in the northwest corner of Union County. The route runs northeast to a junction with Highway 7 outside Smackover before entering the city limits. Highway 160 terminates at Highway 7 Business near Smackover High School. Arkansas Highway 160 travels south until meeting AR 172, after which it begins to arrow east to join with US 63/AR 15; the merge continues until Hermitage, when AR 160 continues south past Vick. The route angles north towards Highway 8 in Johnsville. Beyond Johnsville, AR 160 becomes concurrent with AR 133 until Fountain Hill. Mile markers reset at some concurrencies. List of state highways in Arkansas Media related to Arkansas Highway 160 at Wikimedia Commons
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi
Nevada County, Arkansas
Nevada County is a county located in the southwestern part of the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,997, less than half of its peak in 1920; the county seat is Prescott. Nevada County is Arkansas's 63rd county, formed during the Reconstruction era on March 20, 1871, from portions of Hempstead and Columbia counties, it was named after the state of Nevada because of the perceived similarity between their physical shapes. In contrast with how people pronounce the state's name, the local pronunciation for this Arkansas county is "nuh-VAY-duh", it is dry county. Dorcheat Bayou, a 122-mile stream, begins in Nevada County, it flows south into Columbia County and across the border into Webster Parish, where it flows into Lake Bistineau and Loggy Bayou, forming a continuous passage to the Red River. In the 19th century, the bayou was navigable for three to six months by steamboat from Bistineau to Minden; the watershed had fertile farmland and swampland. The bayou is now popular for its natural environment.
This area was occupied by members of the Caddoan Confederacy, whose territory extended into present-day Texas and Louisiana. They settled along the waterways, using them for fishing. Colonial French and European-American settlers took over lands along the waterways, which formed their basic transportation routes well into the 19th century. After the Congress repealed Prohibition in the early 20th century, Nevada County voted to retain it and the county is still "dry". According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 621 square miles, of which 618 square miles is land and 2.8 square miles is water. The county is bounded on the north by the Little Missouri River, a branch of the Ouachita River, drained by several tributaries of that stream and of Red River. Nevada County is alternately considered as part of the greater regions of South Arkansas or Southwest Arkansas. Clark County Ouachita County Columbia County Lafayette County Hempstead County Pike County The population declined by more than half from 1920 to 1970, due to mechanization of agriculture and the decline of the lumber industry causing loss of jobs.
In addition, blacks left in the Great Migration to midwestern and western industrial cities, where they found better work and less social oppression. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 9,955 people, 3,893 households, 2,721 families residing in the county; the population density was 16 people per square mile. There were 4,751 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 66.90% White, 31.18% Black or African American, 0.38% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.85% from other races, 0.62% from two or more races. 1.52% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,893 households out of which 31.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.90% were married couples living together, 14.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.10% were non-families. 27.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.02.
In the county, the population was spread out with 25.20% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 26.10% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 16.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,962, the median income for a family was $33,095. Males had a median income of $27,888 versus $17,920 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,184. About 18.30% of families and 22.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.00% of those under age 18 and 27.10% of those age 65 or over. Emmet Prescott Bluff City Bodcaw Cale Rosston Willisville Reader Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research.
Each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Nevada County are listed below. List of lakes in Nevada County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Nevada County, Arkansas