Leader of the Opposition (Fiji)
The post of Leader of the Opposition is a political office common in countries that are part of the Commonwealth of Nations. It has a long tradition; the Leader of the Opposition is chosen by a vote of all members of Parliament who declare that they do not support the government. But before the adoption of the 2013 Constitution, the Leader of the Opposition was formally appointed by the President; the appointment was not at the president's personal discretion, however, as he was required by the Constitution to appoint the person most acceptable to the majority of the Opposition. In theory, that meant the parliamentary leader of the largest Opposition party. In practice, the person most eligible could decline the office, as was the case between 2001 and 2004, when Mahendra Chaudhry, whose Labour Party held 28 of the 30 Opposition seats in the House of Representatives, adamantly refused to accept the position of Leader of the Opposition, insisting that he and his party wanted representation in the Cabinet instead.
Until he reversed his position late in 2004, this forced the President to appoint Mick Beddoes, the sole parliamentary representative of the United General Party, as Leader of the Opposition. Under the 1997 Constitution, the Leader of the Opposition chose 8 of the 32 members of the Senate, Fiji's upper house of Parliament, had the right to be consulted about the appointment of the Chief Justice. List of political parties in Fiji House of Representatives of Fiji
Prime Minister of Fiji
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Fiji is the head of government of Fiji. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President under the terms of the 2013 Constitution of Fiji; as a former British colony, Fiji has adopted British political models and follows the Westminster, or Cabinet, system of government, in which the executive branch of government is responsible to the legislature. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President, but must be supported, or at least accepted, by a majority in the House of Representatives. If at any time the Prime Minister loses the "confidence" of the House, he must resign, along with the entire Cabinet. In practice, this reduces the Prime Minister's appointment to a formality, as the parliamentary leader of the majority political party or coalition is invariably appointed. If, however, no such majority party or coalition exists, whether due to electoral fragmentation or to party realignments after an election, the President's role becomes much more important.
The President must endeavour to find a candidate acceptable to a majority in the House. The Prime Minister of Fiji is technically the "first among equals," whose vote in meetings of the Cabinet carries no greater weight that that of any other minister. In practice, the Prime Minister dominates the government. Other Ministers are appointed by the President, but on the Prime Minister's advice, may be dismissed by him at any time. Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara was appointed Fiji's first Chief Minister on 20 September 1967, while Fiji still was a British colony; when Fiji attained its independence from Britain on 10 October 1970, the office was renamed Prime Minister. With Mara keeping the office. Afterwards, Mara's first term as Prime Minister lasted until 13 April 1987, he returned to the office for the second term on 5 December 1987, serving until 2 June 1992. As of 2014, Mara is the longest-serving Prime Minister of Fiji. List of heads of state of Fiji President of Fiji Notes Footnotes
2000 Fijian coup d'état
The Fiji coup of 2000 was a complicated affair involving a civilian coup d'état by hardline i-Taukei nationalists against the elected government of a Fijian of Indian Descent Prime Minister, Mahendra Chaudhry, on 19 May 2000, the attempt by President Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara to assert executive authority on 27 May, his own resignation forced, on 29 May. An interim government headed by Commodore Frank Bainimarama was set up, handed power over to an interim administration headed by Ratu Josefa Iloilo, as President, on 13 July. Parliamentary elections in May 1999, had resulted in a decisive victory for the People's Coalition, a multiracial grouping, dominated by the predominantly Labour Party but which included three other parties supported. Mahendra Chaudhry had become the country's first Prime Minister of Indian descent; the election result and Chaudhry's subsequent appointment as Prime Minister angered hardline i-Taukei nationalists. His government's hints at land reform caused further alarm.
When a group led by George Speight, a businessman, declared bankrupt following the cancellation of several contracts by the Chaudhry government, entered Parliament buildings on 19 May 2000, disaffected elements of the i-Taukei population rallied to his side. For 56 days, Prime Minister Chaudhry and most of his cabinet, along with many Parliamentarians and their staff, were held as hostages while Speight attempted to negotiate with the President, Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, who denounced the coup and declared a state of emergency, with the military administration which took office on 29 May. On 26 May, fifteen soldiers and two officers defected to the rebels, the following day, gunfire was exchanged. In a move that constitutional experts have described as of questionable constitutionality, Mara dismissed the government from office prorogued Parliament for six months, assumed executive authority himself. In doing so, he claimed to be following the advice of the Chief Justice, Sir Timoci Tuivaga, but he refused to abrogate the constitution, which Tuivaga had advised.
Mara admitted that his actions were at the edge of constitutionality but said he believed they were within that boundary and necessary. Speight's claims to be a Fijian nationalist and a champion of indigenous rights attracted support from certain elements of the Fijian population who were angered by the results of the 1999 election, which had swept away a government dominated by ethnic Fijians and brought to power a multiracial government led by Mahendra Chaudhry, who became Fiji's first-ever Indo-Fijian Prime Minister. Hints that the Chaudhry government might institute some form of land reform generated considerable resentment among sections of the indigenous population, despite Constitutional guarantees of ethnic Fijian land ownership. Speight thus found sizeable number of sympathizers. Speight proceeded to appoint a "Cabinet", he named himself President, before appointing Ratu Jope Seniloli to the post two days later. Ratu Timoci Silatolu was appointed Prime Minister, downgraded to Deputy Prime Minister two days when Speight himself was named to the post by Seniloli.
Other appointments included Ratu Naiqama Lalabalavu as Minister for Fijian Affairs, Ratu Rakuita Vakalalabure as Minister for Home Affairs, Simione Kaitani, Isireli Leweniqila, Levani Tonitonivanua, Berenado Vunibobo, Ratu Tu'uakitau Cokanauto and Ratu Inoke Kubuabola as Ministers without portfolio. Some, including Seniloli and Vakalalabure were convicted of coup-related offences, but whether all of the others had consented to their ministerial "appointments" as announced by Speight is not known. Claims have been made that Fijian nationalism may have been nothing more than a political ploy to attract supporters to what was, in reality, a personal grab for money and power on the part of Speight and his co-conspirators. During the 1990s, Speight had built up a modestly successful marketing business, but many contracts were lost after the Chaudhry government came to power in 1999. Charging corruption, Chaudhry revoked the contracts of two marketing firms chaired by Speight that were involved in the country's lucrative timber trade.
By the time of the coup he was bankrupt. Several of his accomplices were undischarged bankrupts as well. Conspiracy theories hold. Ratu Isireli Vuibau, the deposed Assistant Minister for Fijian Affairs, declared on 31 August 2000, after the rebellion was over, that many of those involved with Speight had links to the Timber Resource Group, comprising Fijian politicians who were investors in Speight's Timber Resource Management Limited company, which had interests in pine and hardwood, he said these politicians had joined Speight against the government when their proposals were rejected. "Indigenous Fijians were used but little did they know that the coup was for a little group here and abroad," Ratu Vuibau said. Mahendra Chaudhry has supported the view that ethnic nationalism was only a mask to gain the support of nationalist Fijians, that the true purpose was to loot the treasury, he alleged in court papers and on his party's website that some of those who helped to finance and support certain aspects of the coup, such as the mutiny that took place at the Sukunaivalu Barracks in Labasa on 7 July 2000, were, in fact, Indo-Fijians.
Another view sees the rebellion as one supported by a disparate group of individuals, all for diverse reasons for their own. It was alleged that the coup was supported by the Methodist church. Two days on 29 May 2000, Mara resigned under disputed circumstances. Following orchestrated threats to his life and his family, he was evacuat
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Insubordination is the act of willfully disobeying an order of one's superior. Refusing to perform an action, unethical or illegal is not insubordination. Insubordination is a punishable offense in hierarchical organizations which depend on people lower in the chain of command doing what they are expected to do. Insubordination is when a serviceman or servicewoman willfully disobeys the lawful orders of a superior officer. If a military officer were to disobey the lawful orders of their civilian superiors, this would count. For example, the head of state in many countries, is the most superior officer of the military as the Commander in Chief. An officer or soldier may be insubordinate to the point of mutiny if given an unlawful order, however. In the U. S. military, insubordination is covered under Article 91 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice. It covers disobeying lawful orders as well as disrespectful language or striking a superior; the article for insubordination should not be confused with the article for contempt.
While Article 91 of the UCMJ deals predominately with disobeying or disrespecting a superior and applies to enlisted members and warrant officers, Article 88 involves the use of contemptuous words against certain appointed or elected officials and only applies to commissioned officers. Other types of hierarchical structures corporations, may use insubordination as a reason for dismissal or censure of an employee. There have been court cases in the United States which have involved charges of insubordination from the employer with counter charges of infringement of First Amendment rights from the employee. A number of these cases have reached the U. S. Supreme Court involving a conflict between an institution of higher education and a faculty member. In the modern workplace in the Western world, hierarchical power relationships are sufficiently internalized so that the issue of formal charges of insubordination are rare. In his book Disciplined Minds, American physicist and writer Jeff Schmidt points out that professionals are trusted to run organizations in the interests of their employers.
Because employers cannot be on hand to manage every decision, professionals are trained "to make sure that the subtext of each and every detail of their work advances the right interests—or skewers the disfavored ones" in the absence of overt control. There have been a number of famous and notorious people who have committed insubordination or publicly objected to an organizational practice. Emil Bessels – German Arctic explorer who undermined and poisoned the Polaris expedition's commander, Charles Francis Hall Daniel V. Gallery – U. S. Navy admiral whose published articles played a role in the public debate during the Revolt of the Admirals George Grosz – German artist and soldier Douglas MacArthur – U. S. general relieved of command by President Harry S. Truman during the Korean War Billy Mitchell – U. S. Army Air Corps commander during World War I and proponent of air power during the interwar years Stanislav Petrov – Russian army officer who refused to report a detected missile strike averting nuclear war Albert Pike – charged by the Confederate Army with insubordination Jackie Robinson – American baseball player accused of insubordination while in the military, but exonerated at a court martial Thomas Scott – executed by Louis Riel Hunter S. Thompson – American writer, fired from Time Magazine Jeffrey Wigand – vice president of Brown & Williamson, revealed tobacco industry practices Civil disobedience Contempt of court Criticism Discrediting Failure to obey a police order Mutiny Rebellion Whistle blower Court cases involving insubordination: Rendell-Baker v. Kohn, 457 U.
S. 830 Schenck v. United States, 249 U. S. 47 Perry v. Sindermann, 408 U. S. 593
2006 Fijian coup d'état
The Fijian coup d'état of December 2006 occurred as a continuation of the pressure, building since the military unrest of the 2000 Fijian coup d'état and 2005–06 Fijian political crisis. Fiji had seen four definitive coups in the past two decades. At the heart of the previous three of these lay the tensions between the ethnic Fijians and Indian Fijians. Religion played a significant role. In each coup, one of the sides sought to establish reduced rights for the Indian Fijians; the church in Fiji played a significant role in politics — senior leaders of the Methodist Church of Fiji and Rotuma supported the coup of 2000 and the subsequent proposal to pardon those involved. The possibility of declaring Fiji a theocratic Christian state was proposed in the past; this has brought Josaia Voreqe "Frank" Bainimarama, leader of the December 2006 coup, in conflict with the Methodist church in the past. A long-running conflict between the government and military of the Republic of the Fiji Islands reached crisis point in early December 2006.
The catalysts for the unrest were three bills under consideration by the Fijian parliament, one of which would question the illegality of the Fiji coup of 2000 and offer pardons to some of the rebels who participated in it. Nine demands were handed down from Commodore Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama to Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase pertaining to issues concerning these bills. Bainimarama gave an ultimatum to Qarase to concede to these demands or to resign from his post by Friday 1 December; this was deferred to Monday 4 December. After weeks of preparations by the military, on 4 December, a well orchestrated military presence made itself known in Suva by setting up strategic road blocks, making public demonstrations of their presence and seizing weapons from opposing factions, including the police. On 5 December, many key government ministers and chief executives were placed under house arrest and President Ratu Josefa Iloilo signed an order dissolving Parliament, though he made a press statement denying having done so.
Two Australian soldiers died in a Blackhawk helicopter crash after Australia moved three warships to waters near Fiji in case evacuation of foreign nationals became necessary. The current crisis has its origins in the Fiji coup of 2000; the 2000 coup was aimed at the multi-ethnic Government led by Mahendra Chaudhry. The proponents of the coup were an armed faction not associated with the military, who opposed their actions. After Bainimarama declared martial law and resolved the crisis by force, an interim government was sworn in, headed by current prime minister Laisenia Qarase; the Prime Minister was democratically elected in elections in 2001 and 2006, has since begun to take actions that have provoked the displeasure of the military. Three contentious bills have come before parliament: the Reconciliation Tolerance and Unity Bill, Qoliqoli Bill and the Land Tribunal Bill, all three of which were considered objectionable by the opponents of the 2000 coup; the most significant of these has been the RTU bill, which would grant an amnesty to some of those involved or being investigated for involvement in the coup of 2000, including individuals who are presently officials within government.
There was friction concerning these bills and a truce was brokered by Vice-President Ratu Joni Madraiwiwi on 16 January 2006, which cooled the 2005–06 Fijian political crisis. Nonetheless, relations between the government and the military remained strained. On 22 September 2006, Commodore Bainimarama attacked government policies in a speech at Ratu Latianara Secondary School. News service Fiji Village reported that he claimed that government leniency towards perpetrators of the 2000 coup had created a culture of disrespect for the law, to which he attributed the increasing incidents of rape and desecration of Hindu temples, he criticized the Methodist Church of Fiji and Rotuma, for supporting the government. The next day Prime Minister Qarase accused the Commodore's statements of being unconstitutional, announced his intention to refer the matter to the Supreme Court for a judgement on the proper role of the military; the Methodist Church reacted to the Commodore's suggestion that government policies could take Fiji back to paganism and cannibalism.
Reverend Ame Tugaue, the General Secretary of the Church, commented that the Commander appeared to be ignoring the fact that it was the influence of Christianity that had abolished cannibalism in Fiji. On 25 September, military spokesman Major Neumi Leweni said that the government's proposed court action was a threat to the nation, that the military was united in its resolve to prosecute persons implicated in the 2000 coup and in its opposition to legislation proposing amnesty for such offenders, he reiterated the opposition of the military to the "Qoliqoli Bill", which proposed to hand control of seabed resources to ethnic Fijians. The Fiji Sun quoted Bainimarama on 25 September as saying that his speech at Ratu Latianara Secondary School had been based on the advice of United States General John Brown; the same afternoon, United States Ambassador Larry Dinger told the Fiji Village News that Bainimarama had misunderstood Brown's intentions. The military must never challenge the rule of a constitutional government, Dinger insisted.
Brown may have led to the coup. Leweni subsequently denied that the Fijian military stance on the Qoliqoli Bill had been influenced by Brown. Neumi Leweni called on the Qarase government to resig
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula