Main chain of the Alps
The main chain of the Alps, called the Alpine divide is the central line of mountains that forms the water divide of the range. The Alps are generally divided into Western Alps and Eastern Alps, the Western Alps are higher, but their central chain is shorter and much curved, they are located in France and Switzerland. The Eastern Alps belong to Austria, Italy, the highest peak of the Western Alps is Mont Blanc, in the Eastern Alps Piz Bernina,4,049 meters. the west. From here the divide extends eastwards, culminating in the Aiguille de Scolette, once more the chain bends to the north-west, rising in several lofty peaks, before attaining the considerable depression of the Little St Bernard Pass. The divide briefly north to the Col de la Soigne, and north-east along the crest of the Mont Blanc chain, which culminates in the peak of Mont Blanc. A number of high peaks line the divide before it attains Mont Dolent and it is in the portion of the watershed between the Grande St Bernard Pass and the Simplon that the main chain maintains a greater average height than in any other part.
On the other hand the chain between the Grande St Bernard and the Simplon sinks at barely half a dozen points below a level of 3,000 metres, the Simplon Pass corresponds to what may be called a dislocation of the main chain. From there to the St. Gotthard the divide runs north-east, all the higher summits rising on it, but all the loftiest peaks rise on it, Piz Medel, the Rheinwaldhorn, the Pizzo Tambo and Piz Timun. From the Maloja Pass the main watershed dips to the south-east for a short distance, the break in the continuity of the Alpine chain marked by the deep valley, the Vinschgau, of the upper Adige is one of the most remarkable features in the orography of the Alps. The little Reschen Lake, which forms the source of the Adige is only 4 metres below the Reschen Pass. The Brenner is almost the lowest of all the great Carriage-road passes across the main chain, for some way beyond it the watershed runs eastwards over the highest crest of the Zillertal Alps, which attains 3,510 metres in the Hochfeiler.
The water divide further runs eastwards through the Northern Limestone Alps, ending at Vienna Gate, the slopes of the Leopoldsberg high above the Danube water gap. The main chain has more glaciers and eternal snow than the independent or external ranges, the longest of these are both 9¼ miles, the Mer de Glace at Chamonix and the Gorner Glacier at Zermatt. But the next two longest glaciers in the Eastern Alps are both in the Ötztal Alps, and so close to the main watershed. Alps Geography of the Alps This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
The Zinalrothorn is a mountain in the Pennine Alps in Switzerland. Its name comes from the village of Zinal lying on the north side, when it was first climbed in 1864 the mountain was known locally as Moming. The Zinalrothorn is one of the high summits separating the Matter valley on the east, the summit of the Weisshorn is located 5 km to the north and the Dent Blanche 7 km to the west. At the western foot of the lies the large Zinal Glacier and, on the northern side. LEpaule is a minor summit lying at the base of the northern ridge, the villages of Täsch and Zermatt are the closest while Zinal on the north-west is located further. The first ascent was made on 22 August 1864 via the ridge by Leslie Stephen and Florence Crauford Grove with guides Jakob Anderegg. They left Zinal at 1 a. m. and ascended the Zinal Glacier, the reached the shoulder from the ridge connecting the Blanc de Moming at the base of the northern ridge at 9 a. m. The traverse of the ridge to the summit took them 2 hours, the first winter and ski ascent was by Marcel Kurz and T.
Theytaz on 7 February 1914. In the 1880s Mrs Aubrey Le Blond, the first president of the Ladies Alpine Club, to preserve her modesty, she made the decision to climb the mountain a second time to retrieve it rather than return to Zermatt in trousers
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
It maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography and geographic information system onto a 3D globe. It was originally available with three different licenses, but has since reduced to just two, Google Earth and Google Earth Pro, which is now free and is intended for commercial use. The third original option, Google Earth Plus, has been discontinued. The product, re-released as Google Earth in 2005, is available for use on computers running Windows 2000 and above, Mac OS X10.3.9 and above, Linux kernel,2.6 or later. Google Earth is available as a plugin which was released on May 28,2008. It was available for mobile viewers on the iPhone OS on October 28,2008, as a free download from the App Store. In addition to releasing an updated Keyhole based client, Google added the imagery from the Earth database to their web-based mapping software, as of October 2011, Google Earth has been downloaded more than a billion times. Google Earth displays satellite images of varying resolution of the Earths surface, Imagery resolution ranges from 15 meters of resolution to 15 centimeters.
Most areas in Google Earth are only shown in 2D aerial imagery, Google Earth uses digital elevation model data collected by NASAs Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. This means one can view almost the entire earth in three dimensions, since November 2006, the 3D views of many mountains, including Mount Everest, have been improved by the use of supplementary DEM data to fill the gaps in SRTM coverage. Google Earth allows users to search for addresses for some countries, enter coordinates, some people use the applications to add their own data, making them available through various sources, such as the Bulletin Board Systems or blogs mentioned in the link section below. Google Earth is able to show various kinds of images overlaid on the surface of the earth and is a Web Map Service client, Google Earth supports managing three-dimensional Geospatial data through Keyhole Markup Language. In December 2006, Google Earth added a new layer called Geographic Web that includes integration with Wikipedia, in Wikipedia, entries are scraped for coordinates via the Coord templates.
There is a community-layer from the project Wikipedia-World, More coordinates are used, different types are in the display and different languages are supported than the built-in Wikipedia layer. Google announced on May 30,2007 that it is acquiring Panoramio, in March 2010, Google removed the Geographic Web layer. The Panoramio layer became part of the layers and the Wikipedia layer was placed in the More layer. In Google Earth v4.2 a flight simulator was included as a hidden feature, starting with v4.3 it is no longer hidden. The flight simulator could be accessed by holding down the keys Ctrl, initially the F-16 Fighting Falcon and the Cirrus SR-22 were the only aircraft available, and they could be used with only a few airports
The Finsteraarhorn is the highest mountain in the Bernese Alps in Switzerland and the most prominent peak of Switzerland. The Finsteraarhorn is the ninth-highest mountain and third-most prominent peak in the Alps, in 2001 the whole massif and surrounding glaciers were designated as part of the Jungfrau-Aletsch World Heritage Site. Despite being the most elevated and isolated mountain of both the Bernese Alps and the canton of Berne, the Finsteraarhorn is less known and frequented than the nearby Jungfrau and Eiger. This is due to its location in one of the most remote areas in the Alps, to its west lies the Fiescher Glacier, the second longest in the Alps, and to the east lie the Great Aar Glaciers. The smaller Lower Grindelwald Glacier lies north of the massif, the Finsteraarhorn is surrounded by the summits of the Schreckhorn and Lauteraarhorn to the north, the Gross Fiescherhorn, Grünhorn and Gross Wannenhorn to the west and the Oberaarhorn to the east. The summit lies on the border between the cantons of Valais and Berne, politically, it is split between the municipalities of Fieschertal and Guttannen.
The Valais–Berne border is the watershed between the Rhône and Rhine rivers, the Finsteraarhorn is the culminating point of the Rhine drainage basin. The Finsteraarhorn was dethroned by Monte Rosa as the highest summit of Switzerland when Valais joined the Swiss Confederation in 1815, the Finsteraarhorn is the culminating point of the Aarmassif, a geologic crystalline massif which crops out in the eastern Bernese Alps and Urner Alps. The massif belongs to the Helvetic zone and consists of rocks from the European continent, the summit itself is composed of amphibolites. The tectonic uplift of the massif occurred late in the alpine orogeny, the inelastic deformation of rocks led to many fractures and formation of hydrothermal crystals by the deposition of the saturated water flowing inside. The first ascent was long a controversial matter, the first attempt was made on 16 August 1812 by the Aargau merchant Rudolph Meyer, guided by the locals Kaspar Huber, Arnold Abbühl, Joseph Bortes and Aloys Volker.
Bortes and Volker, guiding Meyers father and uncle, had been the first to climb the Jungfrau the previous year. They approached the mountain via the Oberaarjoch, Studer glacier, and south-east ridge, Meyer became exhausted and remained behind after reaching the ridge, perhaps near P.3883. Huber kept him company, while the three other guides went on and purportedly reached the summit after three hours, on 19 August 1828, Franz Joseph Hugi, a geologist from Solothurn, made another attempt with seven local climbers. 4, 080-metre saddle on the north-west ridge, but had to retreat because of bad weather after Hugi, the next year Hugi organized another expedition via the same route. Hugi stayed behind somewhat above the saddle not daring to cross a steep slope, on the way back Hugis ankle played up and Leuthold, Währen and Joseph Zemt took turns carrying him down the glacier. Hugis account makes no mention of evidence of an earlier ascent, in articles of 1881 and 1908, the mountaineers and leading historians of Alpine exploration Gottlieb Studer and W. A. B.
Coolidge, declared to be convinced that the Meyer expedition had been successful, the fifth ascent took place on August 13,1857
The Weisshorn is a major peak of the Alps and Switzerland, culminating at 4,506 metres above sea level. It is part of the Pennine Alps and is located between the valleys of Anniviers and Zermatt in the canton of Valais, in the latter valley, the Weisshorn is one of the many 4000ers surrounding Zermatt, with Monte Rosa and the Matterhorn. The Weisshorn was first climbed in 1861 from Randa by the Irish physicist John Tyndall, the Weisshorn Hut is used on the normal route. The Weisshorn is considered by mountaineers to be the most beautiful mountain in the Alps and Switzerland for its pyramidal shape. In April and May 1991, two consecutive rockslides took place from a cliff above the town of Randa on the east side of the massif, the Weisshorn is situated in the southern canton of Valais, about 25 km southwards from the Rhone between Sierre and Visp. The Weisshorn faces the slightly higher Dom across the Mattertal, with the village of Randa 3100 metres below these two summits, after the Dom, the Weisshorn is the second-highest Alpine summit situated completely out the main chain and fully within Switzerland.
On both sides of the Weisshorn range, the end up in the Rhone, through the Navissence. The Weisshorn has a shape and its faces are separated by three ridges descending steeply from the summit. Two of these are nearly in a line, one running approximately north. The third ridge is nearly at right angles to two, running almost due east. In the compartment between the northern and eastern spurs lies the Bis Glacier and it is connected with the summit by long and extremely steep slopes of snow. In the compartment between the eastern and southern spurs lies the Schali Glacier, ranges of steep rocks rise round the whole basin of this glacier, except in one or two places where they are interrupted by couloirs of snow. Finally, on the side the mountain presents one gigantic face of rocky precipice. This face rises above the Weisshorn Glacier and the Moming Glacier, the northern spur forks out at a considerable distance below the summit into two branches enclosing the Turtmann Glacier. The eastern branch connects the mountain with the Bishorn, across the Weisshornjoch, the Weisshorn is the culminating point of the Dent Blanche nappe, a klippe belonging to the Austroalpine nappes.
The mountain is composed of gneisses, the west face is composed of sedimentary rocks from the cretaceous period. The mountain was first climbed on 19 August 1861 by the 29-year-old physicist John Tyndall, with guides J. J. Bennen and their itinerary corresponds to the normal route for climbing the mountain today, the east ridge, starting from the Weisshorn Hut. In 1860 an attempt was made by C. E. Mathews by the southern face and he came to Zermatt with Melchior Anderegg, and engaged Johann Kronig as second guide
The Grand Combin is a mountain in the western Pennine Alps in Switzerland. With its 4,314 metres high summit it is one of the highest peaks in the Alps, the Grand Combin is a large glaciated massif consisting of several summits, among which three are above 4000 metres. The normal route starts from the Panossière Hut, which lies on the side in the Corbassière valley. Despite the fact that no major difficulties exist, a dangerous passage has to be traversed on the north flank. It is a couloir dominated by seracs continuously falling on it, the massif of the Grand Combin lies south of Verbier between the Val dEntremont and Val de Bagnes. The north-western facing side of Grand Combin is entirely covered by eternal snows, the southern and eastern walls are more steep and thus exempt of snow. The topography of the Grand Combin is intricate, between the Val dEntremont and the Val de Bagnes are two high ridges, nearly parallel to each other and to those valleys, which both diverge from a short transverse ridge of great height.
The glacier is surrounded by the peaks of Petit Combin, Combin de Corbassière and Combin de Boveire on the west, Grand Tavé, smaller glaciers lie on the external flanks such as Boveire and Mont Durand Glacier. Two other minor summits over 4,000 metres are located on the ridge, the Grand Combin de Valsorey on the west, all the waters flowing on the region end up in the Dranse river and the Rhone. After Dom, Weisshorn, it is the highest massif of the Alps situated out of the main chain. South of the Grand Combin, the ridge separating the glaciers of Mont Durand and Sonadon reaches the Grande Tête de By a few kilometres away, which is located on the main watershed. The ridge diverges to the south-west and appears to be continuous with the range of the Aiguilles Vertes, or Aiguilles de Valsorey, and that of Mont Vélan. From this branches the lower range, which divides the channel of the Glacier du Mont Durand from the Val dOllomont in the Aosta Valley, the Grand Combin, which yields in height to only a few European mountains, was long one of the least known of Alpine summits.
He was followed in that ascent five years by W. and C. E. Mathews, the first four expeditions on Grand Combin reached only the minor summit east of Grand Combin. The first one was made by mountain guides from the valley on July 20,1857, the first complete ascent of Grand Combin was finally made on July 30,1859 by Charles Sainte-Claire Deville with Daniel and Gaspard Balleys, and Basile Dorsaz. The Grand Combin de Valsoray on the west was reached for the first time on 16 September 1872 by J. H. Isler and they climbed the south south face above the Plateau du Couloir. The itinerary on the south-east ridge was opened on 10 September 1891 by O. Glynne Jones, A. Bovier, Panossière Hut, north side Valsorey Hut, south-west side Bivouac Biaggio Musso, south side Grand Combin. Grand Combin on Hikr Grand Combin on Peakware
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder
The Dent Blanche is a mountain in the Pennine Alps, lying in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. With its 4,357 metres -high summit, it is one of the highest peaks in the Alps, the original name was probably Dent dHérens, the actual name of the nearby Dent dHérens which does not overlook the Val dHérens. The nearby north face of the Dent dHérens is glaciated while the Dent Blanche holds much less snow, in fact on older maps, in the area where lie both summits, only the name Weisszahnhorn was indicated, the French name appearing in 1820 only. The actual names are official since the completion of the Dufour map in 1862, the summit of Dent Blanche is an important geographic place as it is the converging point of three ridges. The three valleys separated by them are the Val dHérens, Val dAnniviers and Mattertal, the respective villages of Evolène, Zinal and Zermatt lie approximatively at the same distance of the mountain. The four ridges encompass almost exactly the four cardinal directions, the west ridge is named Arête de Ferpècle and the east ridge is named Arête des Quatre Ânes.
The Col de la Dent Blanche lies at the foot of the northern ridge, the Dent Blanche Hut lies at the foot of the southern ridge which is used as the normal route. The region around Dent Blanche consists of many 4000 metres peaks, the Ober Gabelhorn, Dent dHérens and Matterhorn are the closest high summits. The first ascent was made via the ridge, which is the less difficult route to the summit. On 12 July 1862, T. S. Kennedy, after an attempt on the east face of the unconquered Matterhorn, almost reached the summit with the guides Peter Taugwalder, but after a minor accident, Peter Taugwalder refused to go any higher. Kennedy would finally reach the only a few days later, on July 18,1862 with W. Wigram, J. Croz and J. Konig. A route on the west ridge was opened on 11 August 1882 by John Stafford Anderson and G. P. Baker, with guides Alois Pollinger of St. Niklaus in the canton Valais and Ulrich Almer. They started from the Mountet Hut and arrived at the summit after a difficult 12 hours climbing on a ridge overlooking the north face.
As Almer said on the summit, We are four asses, the north ridge was explored in 1899. On 28 August O. G. Jones, F. W. Hill with guides E. Furrer, zurbriggen and J. Vuignier headed to the summit but they fell and only Hill survived. He reached alone the summit and a storm forced him to make a bivouac and he could report the news of the fatal accident in Zermatt only two days later. The first ascent of the face is attributed to K. Schneider. They climbed from the part at the base of the face to the summit
The Monte Rosa and the lower Gornergrat at 3,090 m. Monte Rosa is one of the high mountains surrounding the 40 km long Matter Valley south of Stalden. On the southwest to west are Liskamm, Zwillinge with Castor and Pollux, the Breithorn and the Matterhorn, on the north are the Weisshorn, there are no convenient mode of subdividing the range. However the natural limits of the district can be defined on the side by the two branches of the Visp torrent. Within the line so traced, exceeding 450 km in length, the direction of the ranges and the depressions offers a marked contrast to that prevailing throughout the adjoining regions of the Alps. Unless in a part of the Italian valleys, the direction here is either parallel or perpendicular to the meridian. The minor ridges on the side of the border are parallel to this latter range, with their corresponding depressions occupied by the glaciers of Gorner. On clear days the mountainous massif of Monte Rosa provides a view from the Po plain, particularly its upper reaches in western Lombardy.
It dominates the horizon, towering between other lesser Alpine peaks as a prominent, multi-pointed, razor-sharp bulge, its permanent glaciers shining under the sun, - John Ball The massif is the border between Switzerland and Italy, though glacial melt has caused some alterations to the border. These changes were ratified by the two countries in 2009 and will continue to be subject to change as melting continues, the entire massif consists mainly of granite and granite gneiss. Rocks in the paragneiss of the Monte Rosa Nappe record eclogite-facies metamorphism, the deformation of the Monte Rosa granites indicates a depth of subduction of about 60 km. They were brought to the surface by uplift, which still continues today. The summit is a sharp, jagged edge of mica schist connected by an arête with the Nordend, being the highest point in Switzerland, Monte Rosa is one of the most extreme places. The average air pressure is about half of that of the sea level, the snow line is located at about 3,000 metres.
The Monte Rosa massif is popular for mountaineering, hiking and snowboarding and it hosts several ski resorts with long pistes. Plateau Rosa, about 3,500 metres high sea level, is a renowned summer ski resort. The Plateau Rosa is connected via aerial tramway to Cervinia and to Zermatt via the Klein Matterhorn, the western fringes of the massif reach the Zermatt ski domain. Gressoney, Alagna Valsesia and Macugnaga are the main mountain, the Tour of Monte Rosa can be effected by trekkers in about 10 days. The circuit follows many ancient trails that have linked the Swiss, the circuit includes larch forests, alpine meadows, balcony trails and a glacial crossing
The Aletschhorn is a mountain in the Alps in Switzerland, lying within the Jungfrau-Aletsch region, which has been designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The mountain shares part of its name with the Aletsch Glacier lying at its foot, the Aletschhorn, the second highest mountain of the Bernese Alps after the Finsteraarhorn, is the only one of the higher peaks that lies completely in Valais. It is the point of a chain running parallel with the dividing ridge. The Aletschhorn is often thought to command the finest of all the views from Alpine summits. On its northern flank lies the Aletschfirn, which is part of the Aletsch Glacier, on the southwest lies the Oberaletsch Glacier and, on the southeast, lies the Mittelaletsch Glacier. Both are in the catchment area of the Massa river, which originates in the Aletsch Glacier, the Aletschhorn was first climbed almost 50 years after the first ascent of the Jungfrau. When the Jungfrau was first climbed, the climbers used base camps on the Aletschfirn, the Aletschhorn was climbed first in 1859 by Francis Fox Tuckett, J. J.
Bennen, V. Tairraz and P. Bohren. But the summit could be reached without too much difficulty, like many other climbers, Tuckett took with him a barometer and made scientific observations. He noted the icy temperature and the strong wind, blowing the snow. After they reached the summit, Tuckett separated from Bennen and descended via the face with Bohren. He wanted to directly to the Lötschental, but soon after they began the descent. They cautiously went back and descended on the Mittelaletsch, Aletschhorn on Summitpost Photo Aletschhorn from Lötschenlücke Photo Aletschhorn from Mischabelhuts