The grey wagtail is a member of the wagtail family, measuring around 18–19 cm overall length. The species looks somewhat similar to the yellow wagtail but has the yellow on its underside restricted to the throat and vent. Breeding males have a black throat; the species is distributed, with several populations breeding in Europe and Asia and migrating to tropical regions in Asia and Africa. The species is always associated with running water when breeding, although they may use man-made structures near streams for the nest. Outside the breeding season, they may be seen around lakes and other watery habitats. Like other wagtails, they wag their tail and fly low with undulations and they have a sharp call, given in flight; the binomial name of the grey wagtail Motacilla cinerea was introduced by Marmaduke Tunstall in his 1771 publication Ornithologia Britannica. Motacilla is the Latin name for the pied wagtail; the specific cinerea is Latin for "ash-grey" from cinis, "ashes". The relationships of this species are not well resolved.
While the present species is most related to citrine wagtails and some blue-headed wagtails, the exact nature of this relationship is unclear. This slim wagtail has a broken eye ring; the upperparts are grey and the yellow vent contrasting with whitish underparts makes it distinctive. The breeding male has a black throat, edged by whitish moustachial stripes, they forage singly or on shallow water marshes. They use rocks in water and will perch on trees, they have a clear sharp call note and the song consists of trills. The bird is distributed across the Palearctic region with several well marked populations; the nominate form is from western Europe including the British Isles and Mediterranean region. Race melanope, not well separated from the nominate subspecies, is described as the population breeding in eastern Europe and central Asia along the mountain chains of the Urals, Tien Shan and along the Himalayas, they winter in Asia. Race robusta breeds along the northeastern parts of Asia in Siberia extending to Japan.
These winter in Southeast Asia. Island forms include patriciae of the Azores, schmitzi of Madeira and canariensis of the Canary Islands, they sometimes occur on the islands to the West of Alaska but have been known to occur further south in California as a vagrant. The breeding season is April to July and the nest is placed near fast running streams or rivers on an embankment between stones and roots; the male in display, makes short flights up into the air and descends with fluttering flight accompanied by a rapid series of chipping high notes. In Europe the nests are made in holes in manmade structures; the clutch consists of 3–6 speckled eggs and multiple broods may be raised with declining numbers in the clutch in subsequent broods. The usual clutch size is five in Ireland and the breeding success is about 80% with predation of eggs or chicks being the main cause of breeding failure; the Canary Islands population have smaller clutches and the breeding season is not as short and well marked as in populations at higher latitudes.
The incubation period is about two weeks with chicks fledging within a fortnight. They live for a maximum of 8 years in the wild. In some parts of the its range the white-throated dipper nests in the same habitats as the grey wagtail and there are some records of interspecific feeding of dipper chicks by adult wagtails; these birds feed on a variety of aquatic invertebrates including adult flies, beetles and molluscs. They forage along roadsides in winter, flushing with a sharp chi-cheep call and flying up further along the road but after some distance turning back to return to the original location. In winter, they roost in small groups. Wintering birds have been known to return to the same sites, sometimes a small urban garden, each year. Adults have parasitic ticks, Ixodes ricinus, which can harbour Borrelia and thus can disperse Lyme disease over a wide region. Coccidia such as Isospora sp. are known in this species. The common cuckoo is sometimes a brood parasite of this species, kestrels may sometimes prey on them.
Grey wagtail videos, photos & sounds Grey wagtail Ageing and sexing by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze
Euphorbia stygiana is an endangered species of perennial evergreen shrub in the family Euphorbiaceae, endemic to several islands of the Azores. It grows to a height of 1.5m / 4.9 ft and spread of 1m / 3.3 ft, with dark green lanceolate leaves and yellow flowers. Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 3: 605 1844. The Plant List entry Plant Database entry
Conceição (Ribeira Grande)
Conceição is a freguesia in the district of Ribeira Grande in the Azores. The population in 2011 was 2,425, in an area of 12.73 km². It is situated on the north coast of the island. Together with the parish Matriz, it forms the old core of the town Ribeira Grande
Água de Pau Massif
Água de Pau Massif is a stratovolcanic complex, located in central part of the island of São Miguel, in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. More recognizable for the Lagoa do Fogo at its centre, the volcanic complex includes centuries of geomorphological structures that include lava domes and encrusted lava flows that have marked its history from, the last, 45,000 years BC; the outer caldera dates from between 30,000 and 45,000 years ago, comprises an area 4 kilometres wide and 13 kilometres long outer caldera. The inner caldera, 2.5 kilometres wide and 3 kilometres long was formed about 15,000 years ago. It is the younger inner caldera, filled by the crater lake Lagoa do Fogo; until about 5000 years ago, activity in the caldera created several lava domes on the northern and western flanks. Some of the cinder cones on these flanks are marked by radial and concentric fissures and have been active within the last 5000 years; the region has been marked by five large eruptions, which included sub aerial events 1563, 1564 and 1652.
The 1563 eruption, for example was characterized by a hydromagnetic event in the interior of the caldera, followed four days by an effusive eruption, while the 1564 was an explosive hydromagmatic event. Owing to the existence of hot springs along the northwest flank, particular in the so name Caldeiras da Ribeira Grande and Caldeira Velha, the region has been used in the generation of geothermal energy or as therapeutic tourist spas. Situated in the central part of the island, Água de Pau corresponds to a central volcanic complex and caldera that includes a large lake, punctuated by lava domes and a pumice cone. On the flanks of the massif is the Ribeira Grande Graben, a tectonic structure oriented northwest-southeast, in addition to other regional fractures and radial faults that formed other scoria and pumice cones, or lava domes; the stratigraphy of the Água de Pau Massif is complex, caused by a diverse volcanic activity over a period dated to 200,000 years. The history of its geological features is divided into two groups.
The inferior group includes ancient material consisting of lava flows and trachyte pyroclastic deposits older than 40,000 years. The superior group covers volcanic products dating from the last 40,000 years; these consist of pyroclastic bombs and trachyte flows and layered basalt rock, from phases associated with Plinian and sub-Plinian eruptions in the interior of the caldera. This group is divided into five formations: Roída da Praia, Ribeira Chã, Fogo A, Lombadas and geological eruptions occurring in the last 3000 years. Among the various deposits Fogo A, which dates to 5000 years, corresponds a clear stratigraphy of the island of São Miguel; the flanks of the massif are eroded, with drainage confined to many valleys and gullies. List of volcanoes in Azores Scarth, Alwyn. Volcanoes of Europe. Oxford University Press. P. 243 pp. ISBN 0-19-521754-3. "Água de Pau". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Zbyszewsky, G.. T. Notícia explicativa da Folha "B", da ilha S. Miguel da Carta Geológica de Portugal na escala 1:50000, Portugal: Serviços Geológicos de Portugal, p. 37 Zbyszewsky, G..
T. Notícia explicativa da Folha "A", da ilha S. Miguel da Carta Geológica de Portugal na escala 1:50000. Lisbon, Portugal: Serviços Geológicos de Portugal, p. 22 Zbyszewsky, G. "Étude geologique de l'ile de S. Miguel", Comunicações, Serviços Geológicos de Portugal, pp. 5–79 Freire, Pedro Artur Teles, Recursos Hidrominerais dos Açores: Hidrogeologia e Avaliação de Potencial Socioeconomico, Ponta Delgada, Portugal: University of the Azores
Vila Franca do Campo
Vila Franca do Campo is a town and municipality in the southern part of the island of São Miguel in the Portuguese Autonomous Region of the Azores. The population of the municipality was 11,229 in 2011, in an area of 77.97 km². The town proper, which incorporates the urbanized parishes São Miguel and São Pedro, has 4100 inhabitants. Vila Franca do Campo displays its municipal motto, Quis sicut deus?, on its flag and on its coat-of-arms. This Latin phrase means "Who is like God?" It is a reference to St. Michael the Archangel. Founded in the middle of the 15th century by Gonçalo Vaz Botelho, the settlement was elevated to the status of vila in 1472; the greatest tragedy to befall the Azores occurred on 20 October 1522, when a violent earthquake hit the area of Vila Franca do Campo capital of the archipelago and most important Azorean settlement. During the earthquake and subsequent landslide, 5000 people were killed, with Captain-Donatário Rui Gonçalves da Câmara II escaping the tragedy: he was relaxing in his summer home in Lagoa at the time of the tragedy.
Many of the residents were buried alive from a debris. Because of its destruction, the capital of São Miguel was transferred to Ponta Delgada, where the Captain-Donatário installed his administration in a residence near the Church of São Pedro. King John III elevated Ponta Delgada to the status of city on 2 April 1546, attracting more and more economic activity and settlement. In the sequel of the 1582 naval battle off the coast of São Miguel, the Spanish victors had several hundred French and Portuguese prisoners executed in the town; the town began to prosper again from the 18th century onwards from orange plantations, from pineapple production. Vila Franca do Campo Municipality is located east of Ponta Delgada via the Regional E. R.1-1ª roadway, while it is linked by mountain roads to the eastern and northern communities. Most of the mountainous areas of the municipality are forested, interspersed with pasturelands and fields dedicated to agriculture and grazing; the climate in this region is mild and humid, with temperatures oscillating between 14 °C and 22 °C, with regular precipitation, responsible for the fertile soils and ravines.
These ravines that cross the municipality include the Ribeira da s Três Voltas, Ribeira da Praia and Ribeira da Mãe d'Água. The relief of this region is characterized by basaltic rock and projectiles from volcanic activities on the island, forming many of the distinctive geomorophological structures, such as: the islet of Vila Franca, Pico d'El-Rei, Monte Escuro, Lombados Pisões, Lagoa do Fogo and Ponta da Pirâmide. Administratively, the six parishes of Vila Franca do Campo Municipality include: Água de Alto, the 1624 resident population, located on the western border of the municipality is known for the beaches and coves that hug the coast. After 1552 the building was referred to as a possession of the Santa Casa da Misericórdia, where a chapel/church was part of the building. Over the intervening years the church evolved into a complex three nave structure, decorated in the Manueline style with ornate frontispiece and doorways. Church of Bom Jesus Menino, the simple church, includes a plain facade facade with oculus over the doorway.
Matriz (Ribeira Grande)
Matriz is a parish in the district of Ribeira Grande in the Azores. The population in 2011 was 3,968, in an area of 10.84 km². It is situated on the north coast of the island. Together with the parish Conceição, it forms the town Ribeira Grande
Água de Alto
Água de Alto is a civil parish in the municipality of Vila Franca do Campo on the island of São Miguel in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores. The population in 2011 was 1,788, in an area of 18.41 km². According to historian Gaspar Frutuoso, little is known about this parish. What is known is that during the 15th century, a hermitage in this region sheltered a hospital for lepers, named Lazareto. Following Gaspar Frutuoso's reference, the community of Água de Alto consisted of thirty houses, administered by Father Baltazar Faguntes; the parish's name had its origin in the 30 metres waterfall in the vicinity of the Ribeira do Degredo. Owing to water falling from a height, the region began to be referred as Água D´Alto, water from the heights. During the early decades of the 16th century, the residents of Água d'Alto divided their days with tilling the land, collecting woad and fishing. On one day, close to evening, the peasants returned to their homes, where the women had prepared meager meals.
Unbeknownst to the residents, a boat carrying pirates Algerian in origin, neared the beach. In the shadows of the night, they passed unseen to the local sentries, surprised the local populous, they sacked and injured the men, violated the women, while another group advanced into the interior led by a drummer, who frightened the citizenry with his drumming. While the sound sacred and terrified the women and children, the pirates continued their task of pillaging and destruction; the sentries, discovering what was happening, launched boats and knights on horseback to attack the pirates. But, the pirates returned to their launches and escaped, except for the drummer, who continued to drum; when he realized, it was too late, he drummed louder. At the end of the night, the drummer quieted his drumming, but the townsfolk heard a scream: the drummer had fallen into a cavern. Although they could not find the body, the settlers would report that in the evenings they were able to hear the drum; the cavern became known as the Grota do Tamborileiro, because the spirit of the drummer continued to play his drum.
In 1602, Bishop D. Gerónimo visited the parish, finding the parish small and maltreated, ordered the transference of the priest to São Pedro; the hospital that functioned here, was transferred closer to the sea, constructed in the area known as Degredo, which referred to the fact that many of the lepers were left to this zone. With the growth of the population, in 1832, the settlers petitioned the Bishop of Angra to authorize the institution of a sanctuary, where they could place the holy sacraments. For a long time the settlement was part of São Pedro, was promoted to status of civil parish in 1908, during the government of João Franco. Água de Alto is situated on the southern coast of the island of São Miguel. It is located along the regional roadway E. R.1-1ª, that encircles the island, connecting the municipality of Vila Franca do Campo with Ponta Delgada by way of the community of Lagoa along the southern coast. Economically, the primary sector is still the most important activities in the parish, its relevance has declined over time.
The pastures of the parish are dominated by cattle ranching and dairy herding, with agriculture that includes the cultivation of potato and other vegetables are occurring in the small parcels. Complimenting these activities are secondary sector industries associated with construction and carpentry. Trade and commerce are based on subsistence and supports the local market. Church of São Lázaro, the church was begun following the testament of João Afonso, das Grotas Fundas, in 1511