California County Routes in zone S
There are 34 routes assigned to the "S" zone of the California Route Marker Program, which designates county routes in California. The "S" zone includes county highways in Imperial, Riverside, San Diego, Santa Barbara counties. County Route S1 known as Sunrise Highway for a portion of its length, is a 34.08 mi long county route located in San Diego County, California. It begins at SR 94 near Barrett and moves northward across Interstate 8, just west of the Laguna Summit; this segment is known as Buckman Springs Road. North of I-8, it is a National Forest Scenic Byway; the route begins at SR 94 near Barrett not far from the Mexican border. From there, it heads northward along Buckman Springs Road. Soon afterwards, it enters the Cleveland National Forest; when the road reaches Interstate 8, while Buckman Springs Road continues northeastward across the freeway, CR S1 continues in a northwest direction along Old Highway 80, the original alignment of U. S. Route 80 in California, it closely parallels I-8 for several miles.
Upon crossing the freeway at Laguna Junction, CR S1 separates from Old Highway 80 and becomes Sunrise Scenic Byway. From Interstate 8, it begins its ascent into the Laguna Mountains; the route here was built along a cliff overlooking Pine Valley to its west. Around here, the vegetation still consists of sagebrush; as the route gains elevation through Cleveland National Forest, the route becomes more forested. Around here, numerous campgrounds dot the side of the road. There is a picnic area overlooking Anza-Borrego Desert State Park near the Burnt Rancheria Campground, said to contrast the forest scenery along the route. Upon passing the settlement of Laguna Mountain, the vegetation along the route consists of dead trees devastated by the 2003 Cedar Fire; as the route approaches its north end at SR 79, Lake Cuyamaca is visible. The north terminus is located just north of Cuyamaca Rancho State Park where it meets State Route 79; the route was established by the county in the year 1959, where the entire route was designated as it is now.
No major numbering or routing changes occurred throughout its history. The northern segment of the route was established as a Scenic Byway in 1959. County Route S2 is a county highway in the US state of California, it runs for 65 miles, north -- south, in San Diego County. S2 is the third longest county route in California and is exclusively a two-lane rural road, it follows the route of the former Southern Emigrant Trail and Butterfield Overland Mail. The highway begins at a junction with State Route 98 in Ocotillo and runs north through an interchange with Interstate 8; this part is called Imperial Highway. The highway crosses into its name changes to Sweeney Pass Road. Farther north, the name of the highway changes to the Great Southern Overland Stage Route of 1849 at a remote junction; the highway crosses State Route 78 at Scissors Crossing in a desert community now called Shelter Valley, its name changes to San Felipe Road. The highway ends at a junction with State Route 79 near the community of Warner Springs.
Images from County Route S2 The route was defined in 1970. County Route S3 begins at a junction with State Route 78 and runs north over Yaqui Pass to Borrego Springs, bearing the name Yaqui Pass Road, it left again onto Borrego Springs Road. It ends at a junction with County Route S22 called Christmas Circle, its total length is 12.1 miles. There is one call box on this highway, it is at Yaqui Pass summit. The highway is part of the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail Auto Tour Route. County Route S4 is a road in the northern city limits of San Diego; the route traverses across Interstate 15 as Poway Road east to State Route 67. The route's western terminus is at I-15, where the road continues west as Rancho Penasquitos Boulevard, traverses across SR 56, ends as Carmel Mountain Road. Eastward, the road traverses through the city of Poway with the name Poway Road and has its east end at SR 67. Within Poway, it is one of the busiest streets in the city; the route was established in 1959. County Route S5 is a road in both Poway and San Diego, California.
Its south end is County Route S4, or Poway Road, its north end is Interstate 15. The road's south end is at County Route S4 in Poway, it winds north through Poway as Espola Road and turns west, ending at Interstate 15 as Rancho Bernardo Road. The route was established in 1959. County Route S6 is a county route in California, it connects Del Mar with Palomar Mountain across San Diego County. It is one of few San Diego County Routes with a discontinuity in its routing. S6 starts at San Diego County Route S21 in Del Mar as Via de la Valle, it crosses Interstate 5 and meets with S8 in Rancho Santa Fe at the intersection of Via de la Valle and Paseo Delicias. At El Camino Del Norte the name changes to Del Dios Highway, past the community of Del Dios and into Escondido, California. In Escondido, S6 runs along West and East Valley Parkways, to Valley Center Road through Valley Center, California. S6 ends at State Route 76. About four miles east on SR 76, S6 begins again as South Grade Road, which winds northward on Palomar Mountain.
It intersects with S7 continues north until it ends at the Palomar Observatory. The route was defined in 1959. County Route S7 is a county route in San Diego County, California that provides access to Palomar Mountain. S7's western terminus is at State Route 76 east of California, it begins as a dirt road known as the Nate H
Tilapia is the common name for nearly a hundred species of cichlid fish from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. Tilapia are freshwater fish inhabiting shallow streams, ponds and lakes, less found living in brackish water, they have been of major importance in artisanal fishing in Africa, they are of increasing importance in aquaculture and aquaponics. Tilapia can become a problematic invasive species in new warm-water habitats such as Australia, whether deliberately or accidentally introduced, but not in temperate climates due to their inability to survive in cold water. Tilapia is the fourth-most consumed fish in the United States dating back to 2002; the popularity of tilapia came about due to its low price, easy preparation, mild taste. Tilapia was a symbol of rebirth in Egyptian art, was in addition associated with Hathor, it was said to accompany and protect the sun god on his daily journey across the sky. Tilapia painted on tomb walls, reminds us of spell 15 of the Book of the Dead by which the deceased hopes to take his place in the sun boat: "You see the tilapia in its form at the turquoise pool", "I behold the tilapia in its nature guiding the speedy boat in its waters."
Tilapia were one of the three main types of fish caught in Talmudic times from the Sea of Galilee the "Galilean Comb". Today, in Modern Hebrew, the fish species is called amnoon. In English, it is sometimes known by the name "St. Peter's fish", which comes from the story in the Gospel of Matthew about the apostle Peter catching a fish that carried a coin in its mouth, though the passage does not name the fish. While the name applies to Zeus faber, a marine fish not found in the area, a few tilapia species are found in the Sea of Galilee, where the author of the Gospel of Matthew recounts the event took place; these species have been the target of small-scale artisanal fisheries in the area for thousands of years. The common name tilapia is based on the name of the cichlid genus Tilapia, itself a latinization of thlapi, the Tswana word for "fish". Scottish zoologist Andrew Smith named the genus in 1840. Tilapia is the official fish of the state of India. Tilapia have laterally compressed, deep bodies.
Like other cichlids, their lower pharyngeal bones are fused into a single tooth-bearing structure. A complex set of muscles allows the upper and lower pharyngeal bones to be used as a second set of jaws for processing food, allowing a division of labor between the "true jaws" and the "pharyngeal jaws"; this means they are efficient feeders that can process a wide variety of food items. Their mouths are protrusible bordered with wide and swollen lips; the jaws have conical teeth. Tilapia have a long dorsal fin, a lateral line which breaks towards the end of the dorsal fin, starts again two or three rows of scales below; some Nile tilapia can grow as long as 2.0 ft. Other than their temperature sensitivity, tilapia exist in or can adapt to a wide range of conditions. An extreme example is the Salton Sea, where tilapia introduced when the water was brackish now live in salt concentrations so high that other marine fish cannot survive. Tilapia are known to be a mouth-breeding species, which means they carry the fertilized eggs and young fish in their mouths for several days after the yolk sac is absorbed.
Tilapia as a common name has been applied to various cichlids from three distinct genera: Oreochromis and Tilapia. The members of the other two genera used to belong to the genus Tilapia, but have since been split off into their own genera. However, particular species within are still called "tilapia" regardless of the change in their actual taxonomic nomenclature; the delimitation of these genera among each other and to other tilapiines requires more research. The species remaining in Tilapia in particular still seem to be a paraphyletic assemblage. Tilapia have been used as biological controls for certain aquatic plant problems, they have a preference for a floating aquatic plant, duckweed but consume some filamentous algae. In Kenya, tilapia were introduced to control mosquitoes, which were causing malaria, because they consume mosquito larvae reducing the numbers of adult female mosquitoes, the vector of the disease; these benefits are, however outweighed by the negative aspects of tilapia as an invasive species.
Tilapia are unable to survive in temperate climates. The pure strain of the blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, has the greatest cold tolerance and dies at 45 °F, while all other species of tilapia die at a range of 52 to 62 °F; as a result, they can not disrupt native ecologies in temperate zones. Because of this, tilapia are on the IUCN's 100 of the World's Worst Alien Invasive Species list. In the United States, tilapia are found in much of the south Florida and Texas, as far north as Idaho, where they survive in power-plant discharge zones. Tilapia are currently stocked in the Phoenix, Arizona canal system as an algal growth-control measure. Many state fish and wildlife agencies in the United States, South Africa, elsewhere consider them to be invasive species. Larger t
Heritage Documentation Programs
Heritage Documentation Programs is a division of the U. S. National Park Service responsible for administering the Historic American Buildings Survey, Historic American Engineering Record, Historic American Landscapes Survey; these programs were established to document historic places in the United States. Records consist of measured drawings, archival photographs, written reports, are archived in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress. In 1933, NPS established the Historic American Buildings Survey following a proposal by Charles E. Peterson, a young landscape architect in the agency, it was founded as a constructive make-work program for architects and photographers left jobless by the Great Depression. Guided by field instructions from Washington, D. C. the first HABS recorders were tasked with documenting a representative sampling of America's architectural heritage. By creating an archive of historic architecture, HABS provided a database of primary source material and documentation for the then-fledgling historic preservation movement.
Earlier private projects included the White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs, many contributors to which joined the HABS program. Notable HABS photographers include Jack Boucher; the Historic American Engineering Record program was founded on January 10, 1969, by NPS and the American Society of Civil Engineers. HAER documents historic mechanical and engineering artifacts. Since the advent of HAER, the combined program is called "HABS/HAER". Today much of the work of HABS/HAER is done by student teams during the summer, or as part of college-credit classwork. Eric DeLony headed HAER from 1971 to 2003. In October 2000, NPS and the American Society of Landscape Architects established a sister program, the Historic American Landscapes Survey, to systematically document historic American landscapes. A predecessor, the Historic American Landscape and Garden Project, recorded historic Massachusetts gardens between 1935 and 1940; that project was funded by the Works Progress Administration, but was administered by HABS, which supervised the collection of records.
The permanent collection of HABS/HAER/HALS are housed at the Library of Congress, established in 1790 as the replacement reference library of the United States Congress. It has since been expanded to serve as the National Library of the United States. S. publishers are required to deposit a copy of every copyrighted and published work, book monograph and magazine. As a branch of the United States Government, its created works are in the public domain in the US. Many images and documents are available through the Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, including proposed and existing structures. Jack Boucher, former HABS/HAER photographer Jet Lowe, former HAER photographer National Register of Historic Places Notes Further reading "HAER: 30 Years of Recording Our Technological Heritage". IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 25. 1999. JSTOR i40043493. "Documenting Complexity: The Historic American Engineering Record and America's Technological History". IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology.
23. 1997. JSTOR i4004348. Lindley, John; the Georgia Collection: Historic American Buildings Survey. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-0613-4. Witcher, T. R.. "Fifty Years of Preservation: The Historic American Engineering Record". Civil Engineering. National Park Service−NPS: official Heritage Documentation Programs website
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
Yuma County, Arizona
Yuma County is a county in the southwestern corner of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 195,751; the county seat is Yuma. Yuma County includes Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county borders three states: Sonora, Mexico, to the south, two other states to the west, across the Colorado River: California of the United States and the Mexican state of Baja California. Long settled by Native Americans of indigenous cultures for thousands of years, this area was controlled by the Spanish Empire in the colonial era. In the 19th century, it was part of independent Mexico before the Mexican–American War and Gadsden Purchase. Yuma County was one of four original Arizona counties created by the 1st Arizona Territorial Legislature; the county territory was defined as being west of longitude 113° 20' and south of the Bill Williams River. Its original boundaries remained the same until 1982, when La Paz County was created from its northern half; the original county seat was the city of La Paz.
Because of Yuma County's location along the U. S.-Mexico border, large numbers of immigrants entering the United States illegally pass through Yuma County. From October 2004 to July 2005, some 124,400 illegal foreign nationals were apprehended in the area, a 46% increase over the previous year. In 2015, only 6,000 people were apprehended, as the border was fortified and augmented; the number of illegal immigrants declined with slumps in the US economy. Agriculture is a $3 billion business annually, employing tens of thousands of workers but at minimum wages. During the agricultural season from November to March, some 40,000 Mexican workers cross the border daily to work in United States fields. Leaders in the county are aware their economy is tied to that of Mexican states on the other side of the border. "There are automotive plants in Ciudad Juárez, across from El Paso. On the American side, there is a mix of retail stores and trucking companies..." The Board of Supervisors is the governing body of a number of special districts.
The board has members from five districts. The Board adopts ordinances, establishes programs, levies taxes, appropriates funds, appoints certain officials, zones property and regulates development in the unincorporated area. In addition, members of the Board represent the County on numerous intergovernmental agencies. In 2016 county voters elected more Democrats to the Board than Republicans, for the first time since 2004. In Arizona's first 52 years as a state, Yuma County was a Democratic county, only voting for Republicans three times in presidential elections prior to 1968. From 1968 on, it has voted for Republican presidential candidates. However, their margins of victory have been reduced in recent years as the county has grown in population & become majority-Hispanic. Donald Trump only won the county by 560 votes over Hillary Clinton in the most recent presidential election of 2016. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 5,519 square miles, of which 5,514 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water.
The lowest point in the state of Arizona is on the Colorado River in San Luis in Yuma County, where it flows out of Arizona and into Sonora in Mexico. Yuma County is in the west, northwestern regions of the north-south Sonoran Desert that extends through Sonora state Mexico to the border of northern Sinaloa state. West of the county across the Colorado River in southeast California is the Colorado Desert. North of the county, with La Paz County the regions merge into the southeastern Mojave Desert. Southwest of Yuma County, is the entirety of Northwest Mexico, at the north shoreline of the Gulf of California, the outlet of the Colorado River into the Colorado River Delta region, now altered with lack of freshwater inputs. Notable mountains in Yuma County include the Tule Mountains. Interstate 8 U. S. Route 95 Arizona State Route 195 State Route 280 Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge Imperial National Wildlife Refuge Kofa National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2000 census, there were 160,026 people, 53,848 households, 41,678 families residing in the county.
The population density was 29 people per square mile. There were 74,140 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the county's racial makeup was 68.3% White, 2.2% Black or African American, 1.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 23.6% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. 50.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 43.7% reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 53,848 households, out of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.3% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.6% were non-families. 18.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.27. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.9% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 102.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,182, the median income for a family was $34,659. Males had a median income of $27,390 ve
The redear sunfish is a freshwater fish in the Centrarchidae family and is native to the southeastern United States. Since it is a popular sport fish, it has been introduced to bodies of water all over North America, it is known for its diet of snails. The redear sunfish resembles the bluegill except for coloration and somewhat larger size; the redear sunfish has faint vertical bars traveling downwards from its dorsal. It is dark-colored yellow-green ventrally; the male has a cherry-red edge on its operculum. The adult fish are between 24 cm in length. Max length is 43.2 cm, compared to a maximum of about 40 cm for the bluegill. Lepomis microlophus averages at a size of about 0.45 kg larger than the average bluegill. Redear sunfish are native to North Carolina and Florida, west to south Illinois and south Missouri, south to the Rio Grande drainage in Texas. However, this fish has been introduced to other locations in the United States outside of its native range. In the wild, the redear sunfish inhabits warm, quiet waters of lakes, ponds and reservoirs.
They prefer to be near logs and vegetation, tend to congregate in groups around these features. This sunfish is located in many marsh wetlands of freshwater; the favorite food of this species is snails. These fish meander along lakebeds and cracking open snails and other shelled creatures. Redears have thick pharyngeal teeth, it is capable of opening small clams. The specialization of this species for the deep-water, mollusk-feeding niche allows it to be introduced to lakes without the risk of competition with fish that prefer shallower water or surface-feeding. In recent years, the stocking of redear has found new allies due to the fish's ability to eat quagga mussels, a prominent invasive species in many freshwater drainages. During spawning, males congregate and create nests close together in colonies, females visit to lay eggs; the redear sometimes hybridizes with other sunfish species. The redear sunfish is the first-known species of Centrarchidae based on fossil records, as old as 16.3 million years, dating back to the Middle Miocene.
Froese and Pauly, eds.. "Lepomis microlophus" in FishBase. November 2005 version. Ellis, Jack; the Sunfishes-A Fly Fishing Journey of Discovery. Bennington, VT: Abenaki Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-936644-17-6. Rice, F. Philip. America's Favorite Fishing-A Complete Guide to Angling for Panfish. New York: Harper Row. Rice, F. Philip. Panfishing. New York: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-943822-25-4. GLANSIS Species FactSheet
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not fall under a single definition; the ideology underlying racism includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities, as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa and segregation in the United States, slavery in Latin America. Racism was an aspect of the social organization of many colonial states and empires. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group.
Therefore and racial discrimination are used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination; the UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable unjust and dangerous. It declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Racist ideology can manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws. Associated social actions may include nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking and related social phenomena. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e. subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists held the view that some races were inferior to others and they believed that the differential treatment of races was justified; these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions. Today, most biologists and sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.
To date, there is little evidence in human genome research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in determining a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism as "n earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it", cites it in a 1902 quote; the revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race". By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism, a harmful intent; as its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism, which saw "race" as a given political unit.
It is agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms, in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not fall under a single definition, they argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas. Garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups. Though many countries around the globe have passed laws related to race and discrimination, the first significant international human rights instrument developed by the United Nations