Strait of Juan de Fuca
The Strait of Juan de Fuca is a large body of water about 154 kilometres long, the Salish Sea's outlet to the Pacific Ocean. The international boundary between Canada and the United States runs down the center of the Strait, it was named in 1787 by the maritime fur trader Charles William Barkley, captain of the Imperial Eagle, for Juan de Fuca, the Greek navigator who sailed in a Spanish expedition in 1592 to seek the fabled Strait of Anián. Barkley was the first non-indigenous person to find the strait, unless Juan de Fuca's story was true; the strait was explored in detail between 1789 and 1791 by Manuel Quimper, José María Narváez, Juan Carrasco, Gonzalo López de Haro, Francisco de Eliza. The USGS defines the Strait of Juan de Fuca as a channel, it extends east from the Pacific Ocean between Vancouver Island, British Columbia, the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, to Haro Strait, San Juan Channel, Rosario Strait, Puget Sound. The Pacific Ocean boundary is formed by a line between Cape Flattery and Tatoosh Island and Carmanah Point, British Columbia.
Its northern boundary follows the shoreline of Vancouver Island from Carmanah Point to Gonzales Point follows a continuous line east to Seabird Point, British Columbia, Cattle Point, Iceberg Point, Point Colville, to Rosario Head. The eastern boundary runs south from Rosario Head across Deception Pass to Whidbey Island along the western coast of Whidbey Island to Point Partridge across Admiralty Inlet to Point Wilson; the northern coast of the Olympic Peninsula forms the southern boundary of the strait. In the eastern entrance to the Strait, the Race Rocks Archipelago is located in the high current zone halfway between Port Angeles and Victoria, BC. Like the rest of the Salish Sea and surrounding regions, the climate of the Strait is disputed, with the Köppen system classifying it as Mediterranean, but most regional climatologists preferring oceanic. While the climate is oceanic in nature, the dry summers result in the Mediterranean classification in the Köppen system. Rainfall ranges from over 2,500 millimetres conditions at the west end to as little as 410 millimetres at the east end, near Sequim.
Because it is exposed to the westerly winds and waves of the Pacific and weather in Juan de Fuca Strait are, on average, rougher than in the more protected waters inland, thereby resulting in a number of small-craft advisories. An international vehicle ferry crosses the Strait from Port Angeles, Washington to Victoria, British Columbia several times each day, as do passenger ferries of the Washington State Ferry system, a seasonal private ferry connecting Port Angeles with Victoria, a private high-speed ferry between Victoria and Seattle; this strait remains the subject of a maritime boundary dispute between the United States. The dispute is only over the seaward boundary extending 320 kilometres west from the mouth of the strait; the maritime boundary within the strait is not in dispute. Both governments have proposed a boundary based on the principle of equidistance, but with different basepoint selections, resulting in small differences in the line. Resolution of the issue should be simple, but has been hindered because it might influence other unresolved maritime boundary issues between Canada and the United States.
In addition, the government of British Columbia has rejected both equidistant proposals, instead arguing that the Juan de Fuca submarine canyon is the appropriate "geomorphic and physiogeographic boundary". The proposed equidistant boundary marks the northern boundary of the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary. British Columbia's position is based on the principle of natural prolongation which developed in international law, it poses a dilemma for the federal government of Canada. If Canada holds that the principle of natural prolongation applies to the Juan de Fuca Canyon on its Pacific Ocean coast, the assertion could undermine Canada's argument in the Gulf of Maine boundary dispute. In this Atlantic Ocean context, Canada favours an outcome based on the principle of equidistance. In March 2008, the Chemainus First Nation proposed renaming the strait the "Salish Sea", an idea that met with approval by British Columbia's Aboriginal Relations Minister Mike de Jong, who pledged to put it before the B.
C. cabinet for discussion. Making Salish Sea official required a formal application to the Geographical Names Board of Canada. A parallel American movement promoting the name had a different definition, combining of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound as well as the Strait of Georgia and related waters under the more general name Salish Sea; this latter definition was made official in 2009 by geographic boards of Canada and the United States. In October 2009, the Washington State Board of Geographic Names approved the Salish Sea toponym, not to replace the names of the Strait of Georgia, Puget Sound, Strait of Juan de Fuca, but instead as a collective term for all three; the British Columbia Geographical Names Office passed a resolution only recommending that the name be adopted by the Geographical Names Board of Canada, should its US counterpart approve the name-change. The United States Board on Geographic Names approved the name on November 12, 2009. Counties along the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Clallam County, Washington Jefferson County, Washington Island County, Washington Skagit County, Washington San Juan County, WashingtonRegional districts along the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Capital Regional District, British Columbia Cowichan Valley Regional District
The'Nak'waxda'xw known as the Nakoaktok, are an Indigenous nation, a part of the Kwakwaka'wakw, in the Central Coast region of British Columbia, on northern Vancouver Island. In 1964, they were relocated by government officials from their ancient village Ba'as at Blunden Harbour to their current main village at Port Hardy; the Indian Act First Nations government of this nation is called Gwa'sala-'Nakwaxda'xw Nations, includes the Gwa'sala people, who were traditionally a separate group, from the area of Smith Sound. Kwakwaka'wakw U'mista Cultural Society - Alert Bay
The'Namgis are an Indigenous nation, a part of the Kwakwaka'wakw, in central British Columbia, on northern Vancouver Island. Their main village is now Yalis, on Cormorant Island adjacent to Alert Bay; the Indian Act First Nations government of this nation is the Namgis First Nation. They were known as the Nimpkish. Kwakwaka'wakw U'mista Cultural Society - Alert Bay
Campbell River, British Columbia
Campbell River or Wiwek̓a̱m is a coastal city in British Columbia on the east coast of Vancouver Island at the south end of Discovery Passage, which lies along the important Inside Passage shipping route. Campbell River has a population of 35,138 and has long been touted as "the Salmon Capital of the World". Campbell River and Region is in close proximity to the neighboring communities of Quadra and the Discovery Islands, Oyster River, Gold River and Zeballos; the first settlers known in the area were members of the Island Comox and related Coast Salish peoples. During the 18th century a migration of Kwakwaka'wakw people of the Wakashan cultural and linguistic group migrated south from the area of Fort Rupert and established themselves in the Campbell River area, at first enslaving and absorbing the Comox, became infamous as raiders of the Coast Salish peoples farther south, known to history as the Euclataws, spelled Yucultas and is a variant on their name for themselves, the Laich-kwil-tach, Lekwiltok or Legwildok.
Of this group known as the Southern Kwakiutl, there are two subdivisions, the Wekayi or Weiwaikai of the Cape Mudge Indian Band on Quadra Island and the Weiwaikum of the Campbell River Band located in and around the city of Campbell River. Captain George Vancouver reached Campbell River in 1792 aboard the ships HMS Discovery and HMS Chatham; the channel between Quadra Island and Campbell River is named Discovery Passage after HMS Discovery. The captain and his botanist, Mr Archibald Menzies, discovered a small tribe of 350 natives who spoke the Salish language. A Lekwiltok war party armed with European rifles, paddled south from Johnstone Strait in the middle of the 19th century and were in control of the area when HMS Plumper came through on a cartography mission under Captain George Henry Richards around 1859. Dr Samuel Campbell was the ship surgeon, historians believe his name was given to the river by Richards; the community took the name of "Campbell River" when its post office was constructed in 1907.
The name of HMS Discovery's First Lieutenant Zachary Mudge is preserved in the nearby Cape Mudge. Sports fishermen travelled to the area as early as the 1880s after the tales from anglers such as Sir Richard Musgrave and Sir John Rogers; the formation of the Campbell River Tyee Club in 1924, over concern regarding over-fishing of the salmon stocks, served to popularize the area among fishermen. E. P. Painter, for instance, moved to Campbell River the following year and opened his Painter's Lodge in 1929. Painter's Lodge attracted clientele from Hollywood and regular patrons included Bob Hope and Bing Crosby. Commercial fishing was a large industry for many years; the town's magistrate Roderick Haig-Brown purchased a fishing cabin on Campbell River and wrote a number of books on fly fishing for both sport fishermen and conservationists. Industrial logging took off in the 1920s with Merrill Ring and Company, Bloedel and Welch and Comox Logging. A large forest fire started near Buttle Lake and burned much of the valley in 1938.
Rock Bay, Menzies Bay, Englewood all were big logging camps. After 1912, Campbell River became a supply point for northern Vancouver Island, Quadra Island and Cortes Island; the E and N Railway was surveyed to Campbell River, yet it only reached Courtenay, forty miles south. After the Second World War, Campbell River became a boom town and industrial centre with the building of the John Hart Dam, Elk Falls pulp mill, nearby mills in Tahsis and Gold River. Logging and mining in the area prospered. There is a lead zinc mine nearby, coal mines, while a large copper mine operated to the north. In recent years Campbell River, about half-way up Vancouver Island, has continued to mark the boundary between the more developed south and the wild and natural areas in the northern part of the island. Local fish hatcheries help to maintain salmon stocks for the fishing industry. Campbell River has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate Csb; the most precipitation is measured at 231 millimeters on average. January tends to see 152 millimeters on average.
In the winter months occasional Arctic bursts from the interior of British Columbia can make their way onto the coast bringing temperatures below freezing. If a Pacific low reaches the coast a large snowfall can occur. Snowfalls in excess of 45 centimetres have been recorded in a 24-hour period and the greatest snowfall was 53.3 centimetres in 1978. Campbell River has a variety of growing industries and small businesses suitable to an oceanside community; as of 2012 the focus of business is directed towards aquaculture, clean energy development, creative industries, fishing, health care, international education, mining and tourism. While logging continues to be a source of employment in the area, since Elk Falls Mill, one of the largest employers in the area, shut down in 2009. There have been many cases of former mill employees moving away to other places with higher demands for a similar labour force Fort McMurray, Alberta. Public schools are administered by School District 72 Campbell River.
North Island College has a campus in Campbell River. Campbell River has developed a new international program accepting students from Germany and various other countries across Europe, South America and Asia. Along with School District 72, there is a private K
Comox, British Columbia
Comox is a town of about 15,000 people on the southern coast of the Comox Peninsula in the Georgia Strait on the eastern coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The warm dry summers, mild winters, fertile soil and abundant sea life attracted First Nations thousands of years ago, who called the area kw'umuxws; when the area was opened for settlement in the mid-19th century, it attracted farmers, a lumber industry and a fishing industry. For over fifty years, the village remained isolated from the outside world other than by ship until roads and a railway were built into the area during the First World War; the installation of an air force base near the village during the Second World War brought new prosperity to the area, in recent years, Comox has become a popular tourist attraction due to its good fishing, local wildlife, year-round golf and proximity to the Mount Washington ski area, the Forbidden Plateau, Strathcona Provincial Park. The town is home to a Royal Canadian Air Force base CFB Comox, an airport for military and commercial airline use and the Sea Cadet training facility HMCS Quadra.
The mild climate has attracted many retirees to the area in the 21st century, resulting in a high rate of growth and a sharp increase in the median age of residents. Comox town is in the Comox Valley, along with several other communities, including Courtenay and the unincorporated hamlets of Royston, Union Bay, Fanny Bay, Black Creek and Merville; the nearby Comox Glacier is visible from many parts of the town and is the area's signature landmark. Archaeological evidence suggests there was an active Coast Salish fishing settlement at Comox for at least 4,000 years. Due to its gentle climate, fertile soil and abundant sea life, the Lekwiltok conquerors of the area, of the K'omox people, called the area kw'umuxws, anglicized to Komoux and to Comox. At the time of first contact with Europeans, the Pentlatch Nation, who spoke the Island Comox dialect of the Comox Coast Salish language, occupied the shores of present-day Comox Bay. Another Island Comox speaking Nation, the K'ómoks, occupied settlements further north along the east coast of Vancouver Island, in the area of present-day Campbell River, including Quadra Island and several other Gulf islands.
At the fishing village located at present-day Comox, the Pentlatch set out elaborate fishing weirs—nets on tidal flats tied to wooden stakes that would be covered at high tide but uncovered at low tide, allowing trapped fish to be removed. These wooden stakes can still be seen at low tide—local archaeologist Nancy Greene has estimated that up to 200,000 wooden stakes remain in the mud flats. Several of these wooden stakes were carbon dated, revealing the oldest to be made from a hemlock tree c.750 CE, while the youngest dated from around 1830. Some scientists estimate that the weirs could have supported a population of several thousand people; the Pentlatch harvested the abundant shellfish in Comox Bay. Centuries of discarded shells resulted in a deep strata of shell fragments along the shoreline of present-day Comox now known as the Great Comox Midden. By the 19th century, the K'ómoks had been driven out of their lands by a fierce group of Kwakwaka'wakw, the Lekwiltok, who raided other villages to capture slaves.
The K'ómoks migrated south to present-day Comox, where they allied with the resident Pentlatch against their common enemy. In 1862, a smallpox epidemic swept across Vancouver Island, killing an estimated 30% of First Nations people. A census of First Nations in the Comox Valley taken in 1876 revealed that the local First Nations population had dwindled to only 88 K'ómoks and 21 Pentlatch. In 1579, Francis Drake, on his circumnavigation of the globe in the Golden Hind, found a good port somewhere along the northwest coast of North America and stayed for several months while restocking supplies and trading with the inhabitants of the area, he named the region Nova Albion—Latin for "New Britain". Drake's detailed logs—and the exact location of Nova Albion— were lost in a 17th-century fire, but some historians believe Drake made a landing at Comox. In 1791, a Spanish expedition led by Dionisio Alcalá Galiano and Cayetano Valdés y Flores produced a crude chart of the Strait of Georgia and visited Comox.
Captain George Vancouver arrived the following year, tasked by the British government with charting the northwest coast of North America. Vancouver, in concert with the Spanish expedition, entered the Courtenay River estuary between the present-day locations of Courtenay and Comox and charted the shoreline of Comox. By the middle of the 19th century and American settlements had sprung up in the Vancouver area and on southern Vancouver Island. In 1837, the Hudson Bay Company steamship Beaver began to search the south and east coasts of Vancouver Island for suitable locations for new trading posts, subsequently set up a post in the area, calling it "Komoux". HMS Constance, commanded by Captain Courtenay, was a frequent visitor to the area, was one of the first ships to use Augusta Bay and a long sandy hook-shaped spit for gunnery practice. In 1848, the river flowing through the Koumax valley was informally named the Courtenay River by British sailors after their captain. In 1857, Captain George Richards of HMS Plumper was tasked with undertaking a complete survey of the coastline of Vancouver Island, was given authority to name local landmarks.
When he arrived in the area, he confirmed the name as the Courtenay River. In 1853 Sir James Douglas, governor of Vancouver Island, took a journey up the coast of Vancouver Island aboard SS Beaver, recognized the a
Strait of Georgia
The Strait of Georgia or the Georgia Strait is an arm of the Pacific Ocean between Vancouver Island and the extreme southwestern mainland coast of British Columbia and the extreme northwestern mainland coast of Washington, United States. It is 240 kilometres long and varies in width from 20 to 58 kilometres. Along with the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound, it is a constituent part of the Salish Sea. Archipelagos and narrow channels mark each end of the Strait of Georgia, the Gulf Islands and San Juan Islands in the south, the Discovery Islands in the north; the main channels to the south are Boundary Pass, Haro Strait and Rosario Strait, which connect the Strait of Georgia to the Strait of Juan de Fuca. In the north, Discovery Passage is the main channel connecting the Strait of Georgia to Johnstone Strait; the strait is a major navigation channel on the west coast of North America, owing to the presence of the port of Vancouver, due to its role as the southern entrance to the intracoastal route known as the Inside Passage.
The United States Geological Survey defines the southern boundary of the Strait of Georgia as a line running from East Point on Saturna Island to Patos Island, Sucia Island, Matia Island to Point Migley on Lummi Island. This line touches the northern edges of Rosario Strait, which leads south to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Boundary Pass, which leads south to Haro Strait and the Strait of Juan de Fuca; the mean depth of the Strait of Georgia is 157 metres, with a maximum depth of 448 metres. Its surface area is 6,800 square kilometres; the Fraser River accounts for 80 percent of the fresh water entering the strait. Water circulates in the strait in a general counterclockwise direction; the term "Gulf of Georgia" includes waters other than the Georgia Strait proper, such as the inter-insular straits and channels of the Gulf Islands, may refer to communities on the shore of southern Vancouver Island. As defined by George Vancouver in 1792, the Gulf of Georgia included all the inland waters beyond the eastern end of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, including Puget Sound, Bellingham Bay, the waters around the San Juan Islands, as well as the Strait of Georgia.
Several major islands are in the largest being Quadra Island and Texada Island. First Nations communities have surrounded the Strait of Georgia for thousands of years; the first European exploration of the area was undertaken by Captain Jose Maria Narvaez and Pilot Juan Carrasco of Spain in 1791. At this time Francisco de Eliza gave the strait the name "Gran Canal de Nuestra Señora del Rosario la Marinera." In 1792, it was renamed for King George III as the "Gulf of Georgia" by George Vancouver of Great Britain, during his extensive expedition along the west coast of North America. Vancouver designated the mainland in this region as New Georgia, areas farther north as New Hanover and New Bremen; the June 23, 1946 Vancouver Island earthquake shocked the Strait of Georgia region, causing the bottom of Deep Bay to sink between 3 and 26 m. The two busiest routes of the BC Ferries system cross the strait, between Tsawwassen and Swartz Bay and between Horseshoe Bay and Nanaimo; the Strait of Georgia is known as a premier scuba whale watching location.
In 1967, the Georgia Strait inspired the name of Vancouver's alternative newspaper, The Georgia Straight, which has published continuously since. Towns and cities on the strait include Campbell River, Comox, Qualicum Beach, Parksville and Nanaimo on the western shore, as well as Powell River, Sechelt and Greater Vancouver on the east. Across the border in the United States, Bellingham and other communities lie on the eastern shore. Other settlements on Vancouver Island and the mainland are separated from Georgia Strait itself by islands and lesser straits but are spoken of as being in the Strait of Georgia region. A controversial idea has existed since 1872 of a bridge connecting Vancouver Island to the British Columbia mainland; the first idea was to cross Seymour Narrows at Menzies Bay with a rail bridge for the then-proposed Canadian Pacific Railway to link Victoria, via Bute Inlet and the Yellowhead Pass, with the rest of Canada. Proposals have focussed on bridging the Strait of Georgia itself, much wider than Seymour Narrows.
A proposed modern road bridge connecting Greater Vancouver to Vancouver Island in the manner of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge Tunnel, has been discussed for decades since the commencement of service by BC Ferries. Some crossing design suggestions include a floating submerged tunnel to allow ship traffic to move freely; the hurricane-force windstorms of Typhoon Freda in 1962 and of December 2006 call into question the safety of such a project. Proponents of the bridge argue that a reliable link to Vancouver Island from mainland British Columbia will increase tourism and growth on Vancouver Island. Opponents argue that construction of a bridge will result in further urbanization of the island and that the area's environment will be negatively affected by construction and the increase in tourism. Other potential problems are the width and depth of the strait and the soft consistency of the strait floor, as well as high seismic activity in the Vancouver Island region, the fact that the strait is used as a navigation channel.
The strait is far deeper than any bridged body of water in the world. Former B. C. cabinet minister Dr. Patrick McGeer, a research neuroscientist and a science advocate, has advanced the proposal in recent decades