The River Boyne is a river in Leinster, the course of, about 112 kilometres long. It rises at Trinity Well, Newberry Hall, near Carbury, County Kildare, flows towards the Northeast through County Meath to reach the Irish Sea between Mornington, County Meath, Baltray, County Louth. Salmon and trout can be caught in the river, surrounded by the Boyne Valley, it is crossed just west of Drogheda by the Boyne River Bridge, which carries the M1 motorway, by the Boyne Viaduct, which carries the Dublin-Belfast railway line to the east. The catchment area of the River Boyne is 2,695 km2; the long term average flow rate of the River Boyne is 38.8 cubic metres per second. Despite its short course, the Boyne has historical and mythical connotations; the Battle of the Boyne, a major battle in Irish history, took place along the Boyne near Drogheda in 1690 during the Williamite war in Ireland. It passes through the ancient town of Trim, Trim Castle, the Hill of Tara, the Hill of Slane, Brú na Bóinne, Mellifont Abbey, the medieval town of Drogheda.
In the Boyne Valley can be found other historical and archaeological monuments, including Loughcrew, Celtic crosses, castles. This river has been known since ancient times; the Greek geographer Ptolemy drew a map of Ireland in the 2nd century which included the Boyne, which he called Βουουινδα or Βουβινδα. During the High Middle Ages, Giraldus Cambrensis called it the Boandus. In Irish mythology it is said that the river was created by the goddess Boann, according to F. Dinneen, lexicographer of the Irish Gaelic language, Boyne is an anglicised form of the name. In other legends, it was in this river where Fionn mac Cumhail captured Fiontán, the Salmon of Knowledge; the Meath section of the Boyne was known as Smior Fionn Feidhlimthe. The Boyne Navigation is a series of canals running parallel to the main river from Oldbridge near Drogheda to Navan. Owned by An Taisce and derelict, the Inland Waterways Association of Ireland are restoring the navigation to navigable status; the canal at )Oldbridge which runs through the battle of the Boyne Site was the first to be restored.
A rock with indications of being Prehistoric art was found in August 2013. Cliadh O’Gibne reported through the Archaeological Survey of Ireland that a boulder with geometric carvings had been found in Donore, County Meath; the Boyne Fishermen's Rescue and Recovery Service, near Drogheda, County Louth, were doing one of their regular operations to remove shopping trolleys from the Boyne, in May 2013, when they discovered an ancient log boat, which experts believe may be 5000 years old. Initial examination by an underwater archaeologist, suggests it could be rare because, unlike other log-boats found here, it has oval shapes on the upper edge which could have held oars. Investigations were on-going as of 2013. In 2006, the remains of a Viking ship were found in the river bed in Drogheda during dredging operations; the vessel is to be excavated. See Annals of Inisfallen AI770.2 The battle of Bolg Bóinne against the Uí Néill, by the Laigin. HMS Boyne Salmon fishing on the River Boyne, from Salmon Ireland A canoeing and kayaking guide to the River Boyne, from Irish Whitewater
MacGorman known as McGorman, Gorman, or O'Gorman, is an Irish Gaelic clan based most prominently in what is today County Clare. The paternal ancestors of the clan are of the Laigin and emerged in; as leaders of the Uí Bairrche, they competed with the Uí Cheinnselaig in the 5th century for the Kingship of Leinster losing out in that specific arena, but holding on to significant lands in the Leinster area. Through influence over the Sletty monastery founded by Fiacha mac Breccáin, the family played a role in early Christianity in Ireland; the Life of St. Patrick from the Book of Armagh was authored on the request of Áed of Sletty; as well as this, the mother of Columba of Iona came from this dynasty. After working to fight off the Vikings in Dublin and Waterford, the MacGormans lost out to the Normans in the 12th century; the family relocated to Thomond upon being invited by the Ó Briain. From this point on they were Lords of Uí Bhreacáin until losing influence when Thomond's sovereignty came to an end.
Today the family of O'Gormans settle and live in parts between Tipperary and Trowbridge/ London England There are multiple origins for the surname Gorman. The Irish name is an Anglicised form of the Gaelic Mac Gormáin and Ó Gormáin, meaning "son of Gormán" and "descendant of Gormán"; the personal name Gormán is derived from the diminutive of gorm, meaning "dark blue", "noble". One English origin of the name is from the Middle English personal name Gormund; this name is made up of the elements gar "spear" + mund "protection". The English surname Gorman can be a topographic name for someone who lived near a triangular piece of land; the German surname is sometimes a variant of Gehrmann. German Gorman can be of Slavic origin, from an occupational name, derived from the Slavic góra meaning "mountain". One of the earliest mentions of the name "Gorman" can be found in a reference by Geoffrey of Monmouth to a Danish king named "Gormandus" who raided parts of Britain around 593 AD and settled near South Wexford.
Early bearers of the surname are William Gorman in 1296 and Adam Garman in 1327. The John atte Gore recorded in 1296 within the Sussex Subsidy Rolls is identical with the John Gorman recorded in 1332. Most of the following is taken from a family history composed by Allan O'Gorman of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in 1966, based on notes obtained from Father John Robert O'Gorman of Renfrew, Canada, who conducted family research at Dublin Castle in 1903. A copy of Allan O'Gorman's document was presented to Naoise Cleary and Ger Kennedy of the Clare Cultural Centre in Corofin, Co. Clare, in July, 1989, by Brendan Vincent Justin O'Gorman of Toronto, Canada, a great-nephew of Father John Robert O'Gorman. According to Keating, the Mac Gormáin family descended from the chieftains of the Uí Bairrche; the family lived in Leinster and held the lands of Slievemargy in present-day Co Laois and lands near Carlow. The family was moved into Monaghan. According to James Frost, the family was driven from the lands by the Norman lord Walter de Riddlesford, who became the master of Carlow at around this time.
A poem, written by Maoelin Oge MacBrody, states that after the Mac Gormáin family was driven from its lands a group of them made for Ulster and another made westwards towards Daire Seanleath in Uaithne Cliach. The family settled in lands controlled by the O'Briens, settling in the area of Ibrackan; the Mac Gormáin family of Ibrickan were known in the 15th century for their wealth and their patronage of the Gaelic poets. The first of the family to settle in Munster was son of Donogh; the chiefs of the family held parts of the lands of Ibrackan in Co Clare. A branch of the family held lands in Clare; the family is listed as one of the septs of Thomond in 1317. Today the members of the family bear Anglicised names such as Gorman, MacGorman, McGorman, O'Gorman. Most members of the family bear the names Gorman or O'Gorman despite the original Gaelic names was Mac Gormáin. According to MacLysaght, this is because at the time of the Gaelic revival in Ireland, the majority of bearers of the name had dropped all prefixes from their name.
Though with the revival many Gormans mistaking added the incorrect prefix because they did not know any better. MacLysaght thought that the man, chiefly responsible for the choice in the prefix was the Frenchman Chevalier Thomas O'Gorman who constructed Irish pedigrees after being ruined in the French Revolution. Within the 1669 Census of Ireland, the surnames Gormon and Gorman are listed as principal names for two baronies within Co Clare: 9 Gormons are recorded in the Islands barony which consisted of 1651 people. In the 17th century O'Gorman was a principal name of Armagh. In 1890 most O'Gormans are found in Clare; the Uí Bairrche kindred of the Laigin took their name from Dairé Barrach, a son of Cathair Mór, who lived during the 2nd century AD. It is possible. Ptolemy may have used the term because of its phonetic similarity. In any case, Dairé lived at Dún Ailinne, one of the ancient Gaelic royal sites of Ireland and capital of the Laigin, located in what is now County Kildare. From here he
High King of Ireland
The High Kings of Ireland were sometimes historical and sometimes legendary figures who had, or who are claimed to have had, lordship over the whole of Ireland for centuries. Medieval and early modern Irish literature portrays an unbroken sequence of High Kings, ruling from the Hill of Tara over a hierarchy of lesser kings, stretching back thousands of years. Modern historians believe this scheme is artificial, constructed in the 8th century from the various genealogical traditions of politically powerful groups, intended to justify the current status of those groups by projecting it back into the remote past; the concept of national kingship is first articulated in the 7th century, but only became a political reality in the Viking Age, then not a consistent one. While the High Kings' degree of control varied, Ireland was never ruled by them as a politically unified state, as the High King was conceived of as an overlord exercising suzerainty over, receiving tribute from, the independent kingdoms beneath him.
Early Irish kingship was sacred in character. In the early narrative literature a king is a king because he marries the sovereignty goddess, is free from blemish, enforces symbolic buada and avoids symbolic geasa. According to 7th and 8th century law tracts, a hierarchy of kingship and clientship progressed from the rí tuaithe through the ruiri to a rí ruirech; each king ruled directly only within the bounds of his own petty kingdom and was responsible for ensuring good government by exercising fír flaithemon. His responsibilities included convening its óenach, collecting taxes, building public works, external relations, emergency legislation, law enforcement, promulgating legal judgment; the lands in a petty kingdom were held allodially by various fine of freemen. The king occupied the apex of a pyramid of clientship within the petty kingdom; this pyramid progressed from the unfree population at its base up to the heads of noble fine held in immediate clientship by the king. Thus the king was drawn from the dominant fine within the cenél.
The kings of the Ulster Cycle are kings in this sacred sense, but it is clear that the old concept of kingship coexisted alongside Christianity for several generations. Diarmait mac Cerbaill, king of Tara in the middle of the 6th century, may have been the last king to have "married" the land. Diarmait died at the hands of Áed Dub mac Suibni. Adomnán's Life tells; the same Threefold Death is said in a late poem to have befallen Diarmait's predecessor, Muirchertach macc Ercae, the reliable Annals of Ulster record Muirchertach's death by drowning in a vat of wine. A second sign that sacred kingship did not disappear with the arrival of Christianity is the supposed lawsuit between Congal Cáech, king of the Ulaid, Domnall mac Áedo. Congal was blinded in one eye by Domnall's bees, from whence his byname Cáech, this injury rendering him imperfect and unable to remain High King; the enmity between Domnall and Congal can more prosaically be laid at the door of the rivalry between the Uí Néill and the kings of Ulaid, but that a king had to be whole in body appears to have been accepted at this time.
The business of Irish succession is rather complicated because of the nature of kingship in Ireland before the Norman take-over of 1171. Ireland was divided into a multiplicity of kingdoms, with some kings owing allegiance to others from time to time, succession rules varied. Kings were succeeded by their sons, but other branches of the dynasty took a turn—whether by agreement or by force of arms is clear; the king-lists and other early sources reveal little about how and why a particular person became king. To add to the uncertainty, genealogies were edited many generations to improve an ancestor's standing within a kingdom, or to insert him into a more powerful kindred; the uncertain practices in local kingship cause similar problems when interpreting the succession to the high kingship. The High King of Ireland was a ceremonial, pseudo-federal overlord, who exercised actual power only within the realm of which he was king. In the case of the southern branch of the Uí Neill, this would have been the Kingdom of Meath.
High Kings from the northern branch ruled various kingdoms in what became the province of Ulster. In 1002, the high kingship of Ireland was wrested from Mael Sechnaill II of the southern Uí Neill by Brian "Boruma" mac Cennédig of the Kingdom of Munster; some historians have called this a "usurpation" of the throne. Others have pointed out that no one had a strict legal right to the kingship and that Brian "had as much right to the high throne as any Uí Neill and... displayed an ability sadly lacking amongst most of the Uí Neill who had preceded him."Brian was killed in the Battle of Clontarf in 1014. Mael Sechnaill II was restored to the High Kingship but he died in 1022. From 1022 through the Norman take-over of 1171, the High Kingship was held alongside "Kings with Opposition". At the time the law tracts were being written these petty kingdoms were being swept away by newly emerging dynasties of dynamic overkings
The O'Toole family of Leinster one of the leading families of that province, are descended from Tuathal Mac Augaire, King of Leinster, who belonged to the Uí Dúnlainge dynasty. The first to use the surname in true hereditary fashion appears to have the grandson of Tuathal Mac Augaire, slain at Leighlin in 1014, their original territory comprised the southern part of the present County Kildare but they were driven from it during the Anglo Norman invasion and settled in the mountains of what is now County Wicklow around Glendalough through the 12th century. The area they controlled was identical to the old diocese of Glendalough, with the centre of their power in the region around the Glen of Imaal. Despite the proximity of Dublin, the centre of English rule in Ireland, the Ó Tuathail's maintained a fierce independence, were a source of great fear to the inhabitants of Dublin and the Pale for four centuries. With their kinsmen the O'Byrne family, they were noted for their tough resistance to English domination, including exercising great influence over the foundation of the Confederation of Kilkenny in 1642 in what had become Confederate Ireland.
At the start of the 16th century, there were five great houses, owing allegiance to "The O'Toole of Powerscourt" as the recognized chief: O'Toole of Castleruddery, residing in Glen Imaile. O'Toole of O'Toole's Castle, Glen Imaile. O'Toole of Carnew Castle. Art Oge O'Toole of Castle Kevin, Fertie. Tirlogh O'Toole of Powerscourt, Feracualan. O'Toole of Omey, Iar Connaught, with other minor houses of the family such as OToole of Ballineddan and Brittas, in the Glen Imaile. At the start of the 16th century, the leading branches of the clan were to a certain extent independent of each other. Throughout their history the family were famous as soldiers, from fighting the English in the glens of Wicklow to serving in the armies of other Catholic European countries in the 18th century, such as France and Spain. A branch of the O'Tooles are settled in counties Galway and Cavan The descendants of the sept took the name O'Toole, although the name is now rare without the prefix'O'; the tradition of surnames in Ireland developed spontaneously, as the population increased and the former practice, first of single names and of ephemeral patronymics or agnomina of the nickname type proved insufficiently definitive.
At first the surname was formed by prefixing'Mac' to the father's Christian name or'Ó'to that of a grandfather or earlier ancestor. The following is a list of names; this is not a complete list. O'Toole O'Tool Toole Tooles Tool Toil Tooley Toal Toale Tohill Towle Towell Tollan Tolan Toland Tooill Toolan Saint Laurence O'Toole was an archbishop of Glendalough and in 1171, while he was Archbishop of Dublin he took up arms against the Anglo Norman invaders.' He was canonized in 1225 by Pope Honorius III. Mór Ní Tuathail was a Queen-consort of Leinster as the first wife of King Diarmait Mac Murchada. Mór was the mother of Aoife of Leinster, the wife of Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, known to history as Strongbow. Colonel John O'Toole of the Irish Brigade in France was created a count and is the ancestor of the present Count O'Toole of Limoges. Sergeant O'Toole of the 9th Queen's Royal Lancers of the British Army was awarded a Victoria Cross for conspicuous bravery in the Zulu War on 3 July 1879.
John Lawrence Toole the comedian, born in London. He went to the City of London School, in 1853 gave up his desk in a wine merchants to become an actor, he first played at Ipswich and in London at the St. James's Theatre in 1854. In 1874-75 he played in the United States, in 1890 in Australia. In 1879 he became lessee of the Folly Theatre, which he enlarged, changing the name to'Toole's Theatre'. Peter O'Toole is a noted Irish screen actor, he has received an Emmy Award and eight Oscar nominations. He was awarded an honorary Oscar for his body of work in 2003, he starred in such films as Lawrence of Arabia, The Lion in Winter, Goodbye, Mr. Chips. Gerard Toal is a Professor of Government and International Affairs in Washington DC Fintan O'Toole is an award-winning Irish journalist and critic, best known for his work with The Irish Times. Gary O'Toole is a former World champion and represented Ireland twice in the Olympics, 1988 and 1992. Now a leading Orthopaedic Consultant in Ireland. Mark O'Toole is the former bassist and a founding member of 1980s pop band, Frankie Goes to Hollywood.
Kevin F. O’Toole is the Executive Director of the Pennsylvania Gaming Commission. O'Toole Irish nobility Irish royal families Patrick Laurance. History of the Clan O'Tool and other Leinster Septs. Dublin: M. H. Gill and son. H
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Kavanagh or Kavanaugh is a surname of Irish origin, Caomhánach in Irish Gaelic. It is properly Mac Murchadha Caomhánach, but is now rendered'Caomhánach' or rarely'Ó Caomhánaigh'. "Kavanagh" and "Kavanaugh" are anglicised variations of the Irish Gaelic surname Caomhánach. The surname was first assumed by Domhnall Caomhánach in Ireland. A considerable number of anglicised variations of Caomhánach exist, with some of the most common being: "Kavanagh", "Cavanagh", "Kavanaugh" and "Cavanaugh"; the surname was adopted by Síl Fáelchán clansmen in preference to the earlier name MacMurrough, given the prestige associated with the dynamic junior line that seized the chiefship of the Uí Cheinnselaig tribal group in the High Middle Ages. Anthony Kavanagh, Canadian Québécois comedian Art mac Art MacMurrough-Kavanagh, Irish King of Leinster Arthur MacMorrough Kavanagh, Irish politician from County Carlow Brad Kavanagh, British actor and singer-songwriter Brett Kavanaugh, American jurist. Kavanagh, Irish priest John Kavanagh, multiple people Joseph Malachy Kavanagh, Irish painter Julia Kavanagh, Irish novelist Karen Kavanagh, Canadian physicist Ken Kavanagh, Australian motorcycle road racer Ken Kavanaugh, American football player and coach Laurence Kavanagh, Canadian merchant and politician from Nova Scotia Leo Kavanagh, American baseball player Liam Kavanagh, Irish politician.
Kinsella is a surname of Irish origin. Pronounced "KIN səl la", it is often found pronounced "kən SEL lə" Alice Kinsella, British gymnast Arthur Kinsella, QSO, New Zealand politician Ben Kinsella, English murder victim Bob Kinsella, American baseball outfielder Brian Kinsella, Canadian ice hockey player Brooke Kinsella, English actress Douglas Kinsella, Canadian medical ethics expert Eamonn Kinsella, Irish Olympic athlete Edward Kinsella, several people Elaine Kinsella, Irish radio presenter and writer James Kinsella, American politician and lawyer Jimmy Kinsella, Irish professional golfer John Kinsella, several people Kevin Kinsella, American reggae and roots rock musician Len Kinsella, Scottish professional footballer Lewis Kinsella, English footballer Liam Kinsella, English-born Irish footballer Mark Kinsella, Irish footballer Mike Kinsella, American musician Nate Kinsella, American musician Noël Kinsella, Canadian senator Owen Kinsella, Irish football player Pat Kinsella, English footballer Ray Kinsella, Canadian professional ice hockey player Sophie Kinsella, English author Stephan Kinsella, American lawyer and author Ted Kinsella, CBE, Australian politician and judge Thomas Kinsella, Irish poet Thomas Kinsella, American politician Tim Kinsella, American musician Tommy Kinsella, Irish soccer player Tony Kinsella, English footballer Warren Kinsella, Canadian lawyer and author Walter Kinsella, several people W. P. Kinsella, Canadian author O'Kinsella Kynsellagh Kynsellaghe Kinshlagh Kingslagh Kingslaghe Kinshellagh Kinslayer Kinchella Kinsella, Canada, a hamlet Uí Ceinnselaig, an Irish dynasty of Leinster Kinsella Peak, a mountain peak in Antarctica Kinsellas Road railway station, a future railway station in Queensland, Australia Ancient Kinsella Lineage at Kinsella.orgHow to pronounce Kinsella in Irish, forvo.com