In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the Moirai or Moerae known in English as the Fates, were the white-robed incarnations of destiny. Their number became fixed at three: Clotho and Atropos, they controlled the mother thread of life of every mortal from birth to death. They were independent, at the helm of necessity, directed fate, watched that the fate assigned to every being by eternal laws might take its course without obstruction. Both gods and men had to submit to them, although Zeus's relationship with them is a matter of debate: some sources say he can command them, while others suggest he was bound to the Moirai's dictates. In the Homeric poems Moira or Aisa are related to the limit and end of life, Zeus appears as the guider of destiny. In the Theogony of Hesiod, the three Moirai are personified, daughters of Nyx and are acting over the gods, they are daughters of Zeus and Themis, the embodiment of divine order and law. In Plato's Republic the Three Fates are daughters of Ananke, it seems that Moira is related with Tekmor and with Ananke, who were primeval goddesses in mythical cosmogonies.
The ancient Greek writers might call this power Moira or Ananke, the gods could not alter what was ordained: "To the Moirai the might of Zeus must bow. In earliest Greek philosophy, the cosmogony of Anaximander is based on these mythical beliefs; the goddess keeps the order and sets a limit to any actions. The ancient Greek word moira means a portion or lot of the whole, is related to meros, "part, lot" and moros, "fate, doom", Latin meritum, "reward", English merit, derived from the PIE root *mer, "to allot, assign". Moira may mean portion or share in the distribution of booty, portion in life, destiny, portion of the distributed land; the word is used for something, meet and right. It seems that the word moira did not indicate destiny but included ascertainment or proof, a non-abstract certainty; the word daemon, an agent related to unexpected events, came to be similar to the word moira. This agent or cause against human control might be called tyche: "You mistress moira, tyche, my daemon."The word nomos, "law", may have meant a portion or lot, as in the verb nemein, "to distribute", thus "natural lot" came to mean "natural law".
The word dike, "justice", conveyed the notion that someone should stay within his own specified boundaries, respecting the ones of his neighbour. If someone broke his boundaries, thus getting more than his ordained part he would be punished by law. By extension, moira was one's portion or part in destiny which consisted of good and bad moments as was predetermined by the Moirai, it was impossible for anyone to get more than his ordained part. In modern Greek the word came to mean "destiny". Kismet, the predetermined course of events in the Muslim traditions, seems to have a similar etymology and function: Arabic qismat "lot" qasama, "to divide, allot" developed to mean Fate or destiny; as a loanword, qesmat'fate' appears in Persian, whence in Urdu language, in English Kismet. When they were three, the Moirai were: Clotho spun the thread of life from her Distaff onto her Spindle, her Roman equivalent was Nona, a goddess called upon in the ninth month of pregnancy. Lachesis measured the thread of life allotted to each person with her measuring rod.
Her Roman equivalent was Decima. Atropos was the cutter of the thread of life, she chose the manner of each person's death. Her Roman equivalent was Morta. In the Republic of Plato, the three Moirai sing in unison with the music of the Seirenes. Lachesis sings the things that were, Clotho the things that are, Atropos the things that are to be. Pindar in his Hymn to the Fates, holds them in high honour, he calls them to send their sisters Hours, Eunomia and Eirene, to stop the internal civil strife: Listen Fates, who sit nearest of gods to the throne of Zeus, weave with shuttles of adamant, inescapable devices for councels of every kind beyond counting, Aisa and Lachesis, fine-armed daughters of Night, hearken to our prayers, all-terrible goddesses, of sky and earth. Send us rose-bosomed Lawfulness, her sisters on glittering thrones and crowned Peace, make this city forget the misfortunes which lie on her heart. In ancient times caves were used for burial purposes in east
A sauna, or sudatory, is a small room or building designed as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions, or an establishment with one or more of these facilities. The steam and high heat make the bathers perspire. Infrared therapy is referred to as a type of sauna, but according to the Finnish sauna organizations, infrared is not a sauna. Borrowed from the early Proto-Germanic *stakna- whose descendants include English stack, the word sauna is an ancient Finnish word referring to the traditional Finnish bath and to the bathhouse itself. In Finnic languages other than Finnish and Estonian and cognates do not mean a building or space built for bathing, it can mean a small cabin or cottage, such as a cabin for a fisherman. The sauna known in the western world today originates from Northern Europe. In Finland, there are built-in saunas in every house; the oldest known saunas in Finland were made from pits dug in a slope in the ground and used as dwellings in winter. The sauna featured a fireplace.
Water was thrown on the hot stones to give a sensation of increased heat. This would raise the apparent temperature so high; the first Finnish saunas are what nowadays are called savusaunas. These differed from present-day saunas in that they were heated by heating a pile of rocks called kiuas by burning large amounts of wood about 6 to 8 hours, letting the smoke out before enjoying the löyly, or sauna heat. A properly heated "savusauna" gives heat up to 12 hours. Saunas were common all over Europe during the Middle Ages. Due to the spread of syphilis and subsequent scare of the disease in the 1500s, the sauna culture died out on most of the continent. Finland was a notable exception to this due to the epidemic not taking a strong hold in the area, a key reason why the sauna culture is nowadays perceived as Finnish; as a result of the Industrial Revolution, the sauna evolved to use a metal woodstove, or kiuas, with a chimney. Air temperatures averaged around 75–100 °C but sometimes exceeded 110 °C in a traditional Finnish sauna.
When the Finns migrated to other areas of the globe they brought their sauna designs and traditions with them. This led to further evolution of the sauna, including the electric sauna stove, introduced in 1938 by Metos Ltd in Vaasa. Although the culture of sauna nowadays is more or less related to Finnish culture, the evolution of sauna happened around the same time both in Finland and the Baltic countries sharing the same meaning and importance of sauna in daily life, shared still to this day; the Sauna became popular in Scandinavia and the German speaking regions of Europe after the Second World War. German soldiers had got to know the Finnish saunas during their fight against the Soviet Union on the Soviet-Finnish front of WWII, where they fought on the same side. Finnish hygiene depended so on saunas, that they had built saunas not only in mobile tents but in bunkers. After the war, the German soldiers brought the habit back to Germany and Austria, where it became popular in the second half of the 20th century.
The German sauna culture became popular in neighbouring countries such as Switzerland, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. Archaeological sites in Greenland and Newfoundland have uncovered structures similar to traditional Scandinavian farm saunas, some with bathing platforms and "enormous quantities of badly scorched stones"; the traditional Korean sauna, called the hanjeungmak, is a domed structure constructed of stone, first mentioned in the Sejong Sillok of the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty in the 15th century. Supported by Sejong the Great, the hanjeungmak was touted for its health benefits and used to treat illnesses. In the early 15th century, Buddhist monks maintained hanjeungmak clinics, called hanjeungso, to treat sick poor people. Korean sauna culture and kiln saunas are still popular today, Korean saunas are ubiquitous. Under many circumstances, temperatures approaching and exceeding 100 °C would be intolerable and fatal if exposed to long periods of time. Saunas overcome this problem by controlling the humidity.
The hottest Finnish saunas have low humidity levels in which steam is generated by pouring water on the hot stones. This allows air temperatures that could boil water to be tolerated and enjoyed for longer periods of time. Steam baths, such as the Turkish bath, where the humidity approaches 100%, will be set to a much lower temperature of around 40 °C to compensate; the "wet heat" would cause scalding. In a typical Finnish sauna, the temperature of the air, the room and the benches is above the dew point when water is thrown on the hot stones and vaporized. Thus, they remain dry. In contrast, the sauna bathers are at about 38 °C, below the dew point, so that water is condensed on the bathers' skin; this process makes the steam feel hot. Finer control over the temperature experienced can be achieved by choosing a higher level bench for those wishing a hotter experience or a lower level bench for a more moderate temperature. A good sauna has a small temperature gradient between the various seating levels.
Doors need to be kept closed and used to maintain the temperature inside. Some North American, Western European, Japanese and South African public sport centres and gyms include sauna facilities, they may be present at public and private swimming pool
Lakshmi or Laxmi, is the Hindu goddess of wealth and prosperity. She is the wife and shakti of Vishnu, one of the principal deities of Hinduism and the Supreme Being in the Vaishnavism Tradition. With Parvati and Saraswati, she forms the holy trinity. Lakshmi is an important deity in Jainism and found in Jain temples. Lakshmi has been a goddess of abundance and fortune for Buddhists, was represented on the oldest surviving stupas and cave temples of Buddhism. In Buddhist sects of Tibet and southeast Asia, goddess Vasudhara mirrors the characteristics and attributes of the Hindu goddess Lakshmi with minor iconographic differences. Lakshmi is called Sri or Thirumagal because she is endowed with six auspicious and divine qualities, or gunas, is the divine strength of Vishnu. In Hindu religion, she was born from the churning of the primordial ocean and she chose Vishnu as her eternal consort; when Vishnu descended on the Earth as the avatars Rama and Krishna, Lakshmi descended as his respective consort as Sita and Rukmini.
In the ancient scriptures of India, all women are declared to be embodiments of Lakshmi. The marriage and relationship between Lakshmi and Vishnu as wife and husband is the paradigm for rituals and ceremonies for the bride and groom in Hindu weddings. Lakshmi is considered another aspect of the same supreme goddess principle in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism. Lakshmi is depicted in Indian art as an elegantly dressed, prosperity-showering golden-coloured woman with an owl as her vehicle, signifying the importance of economic activity in maintenance of life, her ability to move and prevail in confusing darkness, she stands or sits like a yogin on a lotus pedestal and holds lotus in her hand, a symbolism for fortune, self-knowledge and spiritual liberation. Her iconography shows her with four hands, which represent the four goals of human life considered important to the Hindu way of life: dharma, kāma, artha and moksha, she is depicted as part of the trinity consisting of Saraswati and Parvati.
Archaeological discoveries and ancient coins suggest the recognition and reverence for Lakshmi by the 1st millennium BCE. Lakshmi's iconography and statues have been found in Hindu temples throughout southeast Asia, estimated to be from the second half of the 1st millennium CE; the festivals of Diwali and Sharad Purnima are celebrated in her honor. Lakshmi is one of many Hindu deities whose meaning and significance evolved in ancient Sanskrit texts. Lakshmi is mentioned once in Rigveda, where it means kindred sign of auspicious fortune. भद्रैषां लक्ष्मीर्निहिताधि वाचिbhadraiṣāṁ lakṣmīrnihitādhi vāci"an auspicious fortune is attached to their words" In Atharvaveda, transcribed about 1000 BCE, Lakshmi evolves into a complex concept with plural manifestations. Book 7, Chapter 115 of Atharva Veda describes the plurality, asserting that a hundred Lakshmis are born with the body of a mortal at birth, some good and auspicious, while others bad and unfortunate; the good are welcomed. The concept and spirit of Lakshmi and her association with fortune and the good is significant enough that Atharva Veda mentions it in multiple books: for example, in Book 12, Chapter 5 as punya Lakshmi.
In some chapters of Atharva Veda, Lakshmi connotes the good, an auspicious sign, good luck, good fortune, prosperity and happiness. Lakshmi is referred to as the goddess of fortune, identified with Sri and regarded as wife of Viṣṇu. For example, in Shatapatha Brahmana, variously estimated to be composed between 800 BCE and 300 BCE, Sri is part of one of many theories, in ancient India, about the creation of universe. In Book 9 of Shatapatha Brahmana, Sri emerges from Prajapati, after his intense meditation on creation of life and nature of universe. Sri is described as a trembling woman at her birth with immense energy and powers; the gods were bewitched, desire her and become covetous of her. The gods approach Prajapati and request permission to kill her and take her powers and gifts. Prajapati refuses, tells the gods that males should not kill females and that they can seek her gifts without violence; the gods approach Lakshmi, deity Agni gets food, Soma gets kingly authority, Varuna gets imperial authority, Mitra acquires martial energy, Indra gets force, Brihaspati gets priestly authority, Savitri acquires dominion, Pushan gets splendour, Saraswati takes nourishment and Tvashtri gets forms.
The hymns of Shatapatha Brahmana thus describe Sri as a goddess born with and personifying a diverse range of talents and powers. According to another legend, she emerges during the creation of universe, floating over the water on the expanded petals of a lotus flower. In the Epics of Hinduism, such as in Mahabharata, Lakshmi personifies wealth, happiness, grace and splendour. In another Hindu legend, about the creation of universe as described in Ramayana, Lakshmi springs with other precious things from the foam of the ocean of milk when it is churned by the gods and demons for the recovery of Amṛta, she appeared with a lotus in her hand and so she is called Padmā. Root of the wordLakshmi in Sanskrit is derived from the root word lakṣ and lakṣa, meaning to perceive, know and goal, objective respectively; these roots give Lakshmi the symbolism: know and understand
Vytautas Magnus University
Vytautas Magnus University is a public university in Kaunas, Lithuania. The university was founded in 1922 during the interwar period as an alternate national university, it was known as the University of Lithuania, but in 1930 the university was renamed to Vytautas Magnus University, commemorating 500 years of death of Vytautas the Great, the Lithuanian ruler, well known for the nation's greatest historical expansion in the 15th century. It is one of the leading universities of Lithuania, has now about 8,800 students, including Master and Ph. D. candidates. There are a little more than 1000 employees, including 90 professors; the beginnings of higher education in Lithuania go back to the 16th century when, in 1579, the college founded by Jesuits in Vilnius became a higher school of education – Academia et Universitas Vilnensis. In 1832 in the aftermath of the November Uprising Czar Nicholas I closed the university. However, in 1918, with the establishment of the independent Republic of Lithuania, the State Council decided to reestablish the Vilnius University.
Since Vilnius was under Polish administration and the Lithuanian government had to be transferred to Kaunas, this decision was not put into effect. At the beginning of 1920, Higher Courses of Study were established in Kaunas, laying the foundation for the establishment of a university; the Lithuanian Cabinet of Ministers decided to establish the University of Lithuania in Kaunas, February 13, 1922. The ceremonial opening of the university took place February 16, 1922, while on the 12th of April the President of Lithuania confirmed the university's Statute along with six faculties: Theology-Philosophy, Law and Sciences, Medicine and Technical Studies; the affiliate Agricultural Academy was founded in 1924 on the basis of the Agronomy and Forestry sections of the Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences. On June 7, 1930 commemorating 500 years of the death of Vytautas the Great, the University was renamed in his honor. In 1940, Vytautas the Great University helped to reestablish the University of Vilnius: in the winter the Faculties of Humanities and Law were transferred to Vilnius, in the summer, the Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences.
The occupation of Lithuania by the Soviet Union forced the university to be named the University of Kaunas in summer 1940. At the beginning of 1941, university professors took an active role in establishing the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences; the controversial Lithuanian Provisional Government restored the name of Vytautas the Great to the university after the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union in summer 1941. The German occupation government closed the university in March 1943, after some Lithuanians refused to form an SS battalion; the University was reopened by the new Lithuanian soviet authorities in fall 1944 with four faculties: History-Philology, Medicine and Technology. The transfer of the Faculty of Philosophy to Vilnius was the reason why the University of Kaunas was closed in fall 1949; the university was reorganized into Kaunas Polytechnic Institute and the Kaunas Medical Institute on October 31, 1950. The act of re-establishing Vytautas Magnus University was proclaimed April 28, 1989.
The Supreme Soviet of Lithuania passed the law re-establishing the university on July 4, 1989, while the Council of Ministers registered the temporary Statute for the university's period of re-establishment on July 22. The first academic year began in the university's re-established Faculties of Economics and Sciences September 1, 1989; the re-established university was the second in Soviet-occupied Lithuania, the first school of higher education, independent of governmental institutions. The most important principle in the university's activity became academic freedom, while its main purpose was to prepare graduates with a broad humanistic orientation for Lithuania's needs in research, culture and economy. A common program of study in humanities and general education for the first two years of study for all students appeared in 1990, its aim was to develop well-rounded individuals who were creative. In 1991 the university was the first in Lithuania to establish in a system of study based on several levels, the completion of which resulted in the granting of Bachelor's or Master's degrees, as well as the Doctoral degrees.
The feature of this university still remains exceptional in Lithuania today: this is a liberal policy for studies, according to which students are admitted not into specific specializations but into fields of study. The students themselves put together their plan of study and make a final choice of their program after the first two years of study. Particular attention is given to foreign languages and computer skills thus making this university different from other schools of higher education in the country. During the university's first decade the number of students and teachers grew more than twenty times, it has become the center for academic work in the Humanities and Social Sciences and Fine Arts, Political Sciences and Law in Kaunas. Modern programs have been expanding in: Informatics, Environmental Sciences, Biology and Physics. Master's and Doctoral studies became a priority at the university and demanded a pedagogical staff with high qualifications. Therefore, the university invited to its classrooms and laboratories the most celebrated of scholars from Lithuania's research institutes, creating in 1993 the first Research and Study Association in Lithuania.
Ten Lithuanian rese
Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul. Explanations of predestination seek to address the "paradox of free will", whereby God's omniscience seems incompatible with human free will. In this usage, predestination can be regarded as a form of religious determinism. There is some disagreement among scholars regarding the views on predestination of first-century AD Judaism, out of which Christianity came. Josephus wrote during the first century, he argued that the Essenes and Pharisees argued that God's providence orders all human events, but the Pharisees still maintained that people are able to choose between right and wrong. He wrote; the biblical scholar N. T. Wright argues that Josephus's portrayal of these groups is incorrect, that the Jewish debates referenced by Josephus should be seen as having to do with God's work to liberate Israel rather than philosophical questions about predestination.
Wright asserts that Essenes were content to wait for God to liberate Israel while Pharisees believed Jews needed to act in cooperation with God. John Barclay responded that Josephus's description was an over-simplification and there were to be complex differences between these groups which may have been similar to those described by Josephus. Francis Watson has argued on the basis of 4 Ezra, a document dated to the first century AD, that Jewish beliefs in predestination are concerned with God's choice to save some individual Jews. In the New Testament, Romans 8–11 presents a statement on predestination. In Romans 8:28–30, Paul writes, We know that in everything God works for good with those who love him, who are called according to his purpose. For those whom he foreknew he predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the first-born among many brethren, and those whom he predestined he called. Biblical scholars have interpreted this passage in several ways. Many say this only has to do with service, is not about salvation.
The Catholic biblical commentator Brendan Byrne wrote that the predestination mentioned in this passage should be interpreted as applied to the Christian community corporately rather than individuals. Another Catholic commentator, Joseph Fitzmyer, wrote that this passage teaches that God has predestined the salvation of all humans. Douglas Moo, a Protestant biblical interpreter, reads the passage as teaching that God has predestined a certain set of people to salvation. Wright's interpretation is that in this passage Paul teaches that God will save those whom he has chosen, but Wright emphasizes that Paul does not intend to suggest that God has eliminated human free will or responsibility. Instead, Wright asserts, Paul is saying that God's will works through that of humans to accomplish salvation. Origen, writing in the third century, taught, he believed God's predestination was based on God's foreknowledge of every individual's merits, whether in their current life or a previous life. In the fourth and fifth centuries, Augustine of Hippo taught that God orders all things while preserving human freedom.
Prior to 396, Augustine believed that predestination was based on God's foreknowledge of whether individuals would believe, that God's grace was "a reward for human assent". In response to Pelagius, Augustine said that the sin of pride consists in assuming that "we are the ones who choose God or that God chooses us because of something worthy in us", argued that it is God's grace that causes the individual act of faith. Scholars are divided over whether Augustine's teaching implies double predestination, or the belief that God chooses some people for damnation as well as some for salvation. Catholic scholars tend to deny that he held such a view while some Protestants and secular scholars affirm that Augustine did believe in double predestination. Augustine's position raised objections. Julian of Eclanum expressed the view. For Vincent of Lérins, this was a disturbing innovation; this new tension became obvious with the confrontation between Augustine and Pelagius culminating in condemnation of Pelagianism at the Council of Ephesus in 431.
Pelagius denied Augustine's view of predestination in order to affirm that salvation is achieved by an act of free will. The Council of Arles in the late fifth century condemned the position "that some have been condemned to death, others have been predestined to life", though this may seem to follow from Augustine's teaching; the Second Council of Orange in 529 condemned the position that "some have been predestined to evil by divine power". In the eighth century, John of Damascus emphasized the freedom of the human will in his doctrine of predestination, argued that acts arising from peoples' wills are not part of God's providence at all. Damascene teaches that people's good actions are done in cooperation with God, but are not caused by him. Gottschalk of Orbais, a ninth-century Saxon monk, argued that God predestines some people to hell as well as predestining some to heaven, a view known as double predestination, he was condemned by several synods. Irish theologian John Scottus Eriugena wrote a refutation of Gottschalk.
Eriugena abandoned Augustine's teaching on predestination. He wrote that God's predestination should be equated with his foreknowledge
Kūlgrinda is a folk music group from Vilnius, established in 1989 by Inija and Jonas Trinkūnas. The group is connected to the Lithuanian neopagan movement Romuva and performs as a part of the movement's ceremonies; the band was founded in 1989 by Jonas Trinkūnas and his wife Inija Trinkūnienė who were the leaders of the modern Pagan movement Romuva. The band has from the start functioned as the musical expression of this movement; some of the recorded material has functioned as "musical scriptures" for the Romuva members and the band has participated as an integral part of the movement's events. On the website of Romuva, Kūlgrinda is described as a "ritual folklore group"; the band owes its name to kūlgrinda – a secret Samogitian underwater causeway. Kūlgrinda's music consists of straightforward folk music performances with little studio enhancement and a focus on the vocal performances, it has specialised on sutartinės, a traditional form of polyphonic song-chant where several vocalists perform interlocking melodies that through rhythmic repetition create a pattern of musical expression.
The musicologist Daiva Račiūnaitė-Vyčinienė has compared this technique to the weaving of a multicoloured cloth. The band has collaborated with other artists such as the electronic musician Donis, the singer Rasa Serra and the heavy metal band Ugnėlakis; the latter collaboration resulted in the forming of the folk rock group Žalvarinis. Kulgrinda albums were released by Dangus Records; the band signed with Aurea Studija. 1996: Kūlgrinda – cassette 2002: Ugnėlakis su Kūlgrinda – with Ugnėlakis 2002: Ugnies Apeigos 2003: Sotvaras – with Donis 2003: Perkūno Giesmės 2005: Prūsų Giesmės 2007: Giesmės Saulei 2009: Giesmės Valdovui Gediminui 2013: Giesmės Žemynai – with Donis 2014: Laimos Giesmės 2018: Giesmės Austėjai Official website
Death is the permanent cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. Phenomena which bring about death include aging, malnutrition, suicide, starvation and accidents or major trauma resulting in terminal injury. In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death. Death – the death of humans – has been considered a sad or unpleasant occasion, due to the affection for the being that has died and the termination of social and familial bonds with the deceased. Other concerns include fear of death, anxiety, grief, emotional pain, sympathy, solitude, or saudade. Many cultures and religions have the idea of an afterlife, hold the idea of reward or judgement and punishment for past sin; the word death comes from Old English dēaþ. This comes from the Proto-Indo-European stem *dheu- meaning the "process, condition of dying"; the concept and symptoms of death, varying degrees of delicacy used in discussion in public forums, have generated numerous scientific and acceptable terms or euphemisms for death.
When a person has died, it is said they have passed away, passed on, expired, or are gone, among numerous other accepted, religiously specific and irreverent terms. Bereft of life, the dead person is a corpse, cadaver, a body, a set of remains, when all flesh has rotted away, a skeleton; the terms carrion and carcass can be used, though these more connote the remains of non-human animals. As a polite reference to a dead person, it has become common practice to use the participle form of "decease", as in the deceased; the ashes left after a cremation are sometimes referred to by the neologism cremains, a portmanteau of "cremation" and "remains". Senescence refers to a scenario when a living being is able to survive all calamities, but dies due to causes relating to old age. Animal and plant cells reproduce and function during the whole period of natural existence, but the aging process derives from deterioration of cellular activity and ruination of regular functioning. Aptitude of cells for gradual deterioration and mortality means that cells are sentenced to stable and long-term loss of living capacities despite continuing metabolic reactions and viability.
In the United Kingdom, for example, nine out of ten of all the deaths that occur on a daily basis relates to senescence, while around the world it accounts for two-thirds of 150,000 deaths that take place daily. All animals who survive external hazards to their biological functioning die from biological aging, known in life sciences as "senescence"; some organisms experience negligible senescence exhibiting biological immortality. These include the jellyfish Turritopsis dohrnii, the hydra, the planarian. Unnatural causes of death include homicide. From all causes 150,000 people die around the world each day. Of these, two thirds die directly or indirectly due to senescence, but in industrialized countries – such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany – the rate approaches 90%. Physiological death is now seen as a process, more than an event: conditions once considered indicative of death are now reversible. Where in the process a dividing line is drawn between life and death depends on factors beyond the presence or absence of vital signs.
In general, clinical death is neither sufficient for a determination of legal death. A patient with working heart and lungs determined to be brain dead can be pronounced dead without clinical death occurring; as scientific knowledge and medicine advance, formulating a precise medical definition of death becomes more difficult. Signs of death or strong indications that a warm-blooded animal is no longer alive are: Respiratory arrest Cardiac arrest Brain death Pallor mortis, paleness which happens in the 15–120 minutes after death Algor mortis, the reduction in body temperature following death; this is a steady decline until matching ambient temperature Rigor mortis, the limbs of the corpse become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate Livor mortis, a settling of the blood in the lower portion of the body Decomposition, the reduction into simpler forms of matter, accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor. The concept of death is a key to human understanding of the phenomenon. There are many scientific approaches to the concept.
For example, brain death, as practiced in medical science, defines death as a point in time at which brain activity ceases. One of the challenges in defining death is in distinguishing it from life; as a point in time, death would seem to refer to the moment. Determining when death has occurred is difficult, as cessation of life functions is not simultaneous across organ systems; such determination therefore requires drawing precise conceptual boundaries between death. This is due to there being little consensus on how to define life; this general problem applies to the particular challenge of defining death in the context of medicine. It is possible to define life in terms of consciousness; when consciousness ceases, a living organism can be said to have died. One of the flaws in this approach is that there are many organisms which are alive but not conscious. Another problem is in defining consciousness, which has many different d