Chengyang District is a district of Qingdao, People's Republic of China. It has an area of around 740,000 inhabitants; the district is located at the northern outskirts of Qingdao City proper. Qingdao Liuting Airport is located near the urban area of the district. Chengyang features sizable agriculture. Qingdao Airlines has its headquarters in the district. Malvern College Qingdao is located in this district. Information page
Zhangqiu is a district under the jurisdiction of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China. The district has an area of 1721.29 square kilometers, 20 towns, 908 villages and the permanent resident population was 1,064,210 as of 2010 though its built-up area is much smaller. Called Zhangqiu County with Mingshui as its capital, Zhangqiu City was established in August 1992. Located in central Shandong province, Zhangqiu is 50 kilometers to the east of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, it is 120 kilometers north from Mount Tai and the Yellow River is the north border of Zhangqiu. Jinan Yaoqiang International Airport is situated at Yaoqiang Village of Zhangqiu. Zhangqiu is the hometown of the poet Li Qingzhao in the Song Dynasty, home to Longshan Culture that existed around 2900~2100 BC. Longshan Culture is known for its black ceramics and the earliest features to late characterize the Shang civilization and hangtu construction. Zhangqiu is known for its springs and scenery outside the crowded city of Jinan.
The East Jingshi Road and several Province Highways connect Jinan. Subdistricts: Mingshui Subdistrict, Shuangshan Subdistrict, Zaoyuan Subdistrict, Longshan Subdistrict, Bucun Subdistrict, Shengjing Subdistrict Towns: Puji, Xiangsongzhuang, Shuizhai, Diao, Baiyunhu, Ningjiabu Townships: Guanzhuang Township, Xinzhai Township, Huanghe Township Villages: There are numerous villages in Zhangqiu District including Zhujiayu. Zhangqiu government website
Shizhong District, Jinan
Shizhong District is one of six districts of Jinan, the capital of Shandong province, People's Republic of China, forming part of the city's urban core. It is located to the southwest of the historical city center, it borders the districts of Tianqiao to the north, Lixia to the northeast, Licheng to the east and southeast, Changqing to the southwest, Huaiyin to the northwest. Official home page
Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Laoshan District is an urban district of Qingdao, Shandong. It has an area of 858 square kilometres and had 379,500 inhabitants as of 2010, it is home to Mount Lao. Laoshan District is located in the south of the Shandong Peninsula, facing the Yellow Sea in the east and south, it covers 858 km2 with 103.7 km2 of coastline. The mountain ranges of Laoshan cover most of the eastern part of the district; the district belongs with a monsoon-influenced temperate climate. There is severe cold in winter. Most of the district is highland with the average altitude of 55m and surface water of 3m. There is abundant high quality ground water. In fact, Laoshan mineral water is sold China-wide. Natural resources are abundant, with granite being the prevalent mineral in the area. Laoshan District is home to tourism and a large service-based industry. In terms of Hi-Tech, the focus is laid on IT, Marine Biological Pharmacy and new materials. Emphasis has been put on sustainable development and green technology, taking advantage of the still-intact mountain forests and the seaside.
The Qingdao International Convention And Exhibition Center with an area of 250,000 m2 is remains the largest venue for exhibition and convention purposes in Shandong province. It was put into use in April, 2001 and since has marked a rapid development phase of Qingdao exhibition and convention economy. Tourism is essential to the district, with a wide variety of recreational, seaside sight-seeing tourism facilities including the Polar Ocean World and Shilaoren Sightseeing Garden; the district is home to several well-known festivals, including the Qingdao International Beer Festival, Laoshan Tea Festival and Laoshan Tourism Culture Festival, all of which attract visitor from China as well as abroad. The main tourist attraction within the district is Mount Lao itself, a 5A tourist destination. With about 176,000 tourists visiting during the 2012 Golden Week. Other tourist destinations include the Qingdao Museum （青岛市博物馆）, Haier Museum, Qingdao Grand Theatre and the Beach at Old Stone Man. Laoshan is well known for its famous green tea.
It has a unique character gained as a result of being grown at a higher latitude than any other tea within China. The high latitude makes it all the more difficult for the tea plants to grow which gives the tea a full and complex taste. Laoshan District is home to over 65 institutions of higher education, it is host to three major universities, most notably the main campus of both the Ocean University of China and the Qingdao University of Science and Technology, as well as a branch campus of Qingdao University. Notable secondary and international schools include Qingdao No.2 Middle School, Qingdao Amerasia International School, Overseas Chinese School, International School of Qingdao, Qingdao Senior Vocational School. People's Government of Laoshan District, Qingdao City website
Gangcheng is one of ten districts of the city of Jinan, in central Shandong province, China. It has an area of around 240,000 inhabitants, it is named for its production of steel. Laiwu Steel Corporation, the largest subsidiary of Shandong Iron and Steel Group, is headquartered in Gangcheng District. In January 2019, the Shandong provincial government announced in a decision that Laiwu Prefecture Municipality was absorbed by Jinan and Gangcheng District will be under Jinan's administration. Information page
Shandong is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history since the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River, it has served as a pivotal cultural and religious center for Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, Confucianism. Shandong's Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship; the Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of Qufu is the birthplace of Confucius, was established as the center of Confucianism. Shandong's location at the intersection of ancient as well as modern north–south and east–west trading routes have helped to establish it as an economic center. After a period of political instability and economic hardship that began in the late 19th century, Shandong has emerged as one of the most populous and most affluent provinces in the People's Republic of China with a GDP of CNY¥5.942 trillion in 2014, or USD$967 billion, making it China's third wealthiest province.
Individually, the two Chinese characters in the name "Shandong" mean "mountain" and "east". Shandong could hence be translated as "east of the mountains" and refers to the province's location to the east of the Taihang Mountains. A common nickname for Shandong is Qílǔ, after the States of Qi and Lu that existed in the area during the Spring and Autumn period. Whereas the State of Qi was a major power of its era, the State of Lu played only a minor role in the politics of its time. Lu, became renowned for being the home of Confucius and hence its cultural influence came to eclipse that of the State of Qi; the cultural dominance of the State of Lu heritage is reflected in the official abbreviation for Shandong, "鲁". English speakers in the 19th century called the province Shan-tung; the province is on the eastern edge of the North China Plain and in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, extends out to sea as the Shandong Peninsula. Shandong borders the Bohai Sea to the north, Hebei to the northwest, Henan to the west, Jiangsu to the south, the Yellow Sea to the southeast.
With its location on the eastern edge of the North China Plain, Shandong was home to a succession of Neolithic cultures for millennia, including the Houli culture, the Beixin culture, the Dawenkou culture, the Longshan culture, the Yueshi culture. The earliest dynasties exerted varying degrees of control over western Shandong, while eastern Shandong was inhabited by the Dongyi peoples who were considered "barbarians". Over subsequent centuries, the Dongyi were sinicized. During the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, regional states became powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two major states: the state of Qi at Linzi and the state of Lu at Qufu. Lu is noted for being the home of Confucius; the state was, comparatively small, succumbed to the larger state of Chu from the south. The state of Qi, on the other hand, was a major power throughout the period. Cities it ruled included Jimo and Ju; the Qin dynasty conquered Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BCE.
The Han dynasty that followed created a number of commanderies supervised by two regions in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou in the north and Yanzhou in the south. During the division of the Three Kingdoms, Shandong belonged to the Cao Wei, which ruled over northern China. After the Three Kingdoms period, a brief period of unity under the Western Jin dynasty gave way to invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China, including Shandong, was overrun. Over the next century or so Shandong changed hands several times, falling to the Later Zhao Former Yan Former Qin Later Yan Southern Yan the Liu Song dynasty, the Northern Wei dynasty, the first of the Northern dynasties during the Northern and Southern dynasties Period. Shandong stayed with the Northern dynasties for the rest of this period. In 412 CE, the Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian landed at Laoshan, on the southern edge of the Shandong peninsula, proceeded to Qingzhou to edit and translate the scriptures he had brought back from India.
The Sui dynasty reestablished unity in 589, the Tang dynasty presided over the next golden age of China. For the earlier part of this period Shandong was ruled as part of Henan Circuit, one of the circuits. On China splintered into warlord factions, resulting in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Shandong was part of all based in the north; the Song dynasty reunified China in the late tenth century. The classic novel Water Margin was based on folk tales of outlaw bands active in Shandong during the Song dynasty. In 1996, the discovery of over two hundred buried Buddhist statues at Qingzhou was hailed as a major archaeological find; the statues included early examples of painted figures, are thought to have been buried due to Emperor Huizong's repression of Buddhism. The Song dynasty was forced to cede northern China to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1142. Shandong was administered by the Jin as Shandong East Circuit and Shandong West Circuit – the first use of its current name; the modern provinc